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the state at the last election; or if the office is to be filled by the vote of a subdivision of the state, the number of signatures must not be less than one nor more than two per cent of the vote cast by the party in that subdivision at the last election. This does not apply to candidates for judicial, school, county, township, or municipal offices, which are all declared by the law to be nonpartisan offices. Any such candidate must obtain signatures equal in number to not less than one half of one per cent, nor more than two per cent, of the entire vote cast at the last election for the office which he seeks.

City and county clerks must examine all nomination papers and must reject all that are signed by persons who are not registered as voters. At least thirty-seven days before the August primary, each county clerk must send to the secretary of state all papers delivered to him by candidates for state offices, and for the office of representative in Congress, or that of United States senator. The secretary of state must place these papers on file in his office, and at least thirty days before the primary election must send to each county clerk a list of all such candidates as are entitled to be voted for in the county.

City clerks, from the nomination papers filed in their offices, print nonpartisan ballots to be used at city primaries.

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1 No candidate for any of these offices can be the candidate of any political party. He must simply offer himself as a nonpartisan candidate on his own merits. The term “ judicial office” means the office of judge in any court from the township or police courts to the state supreme court; the term school office" includes the offices of state superintendent of public instruction, county superintendent, and school director or trustee; the term "county, township, or municipal office” means any office that is filled by the vote of a county, judicial township, or city. Thus the offices for which persons may offer themselves as the candidates of political parties are those of presidential elector, United States senator, and representative in Congress, and all elective state offices, including membership in the legislature, except the office of judge and that of state superintendent of public instruction.

County clerks, from the papers filed in their offices, and from notices sent out by the secretary of state, print the ballots to be used at the August state and county primary. The name of each candidate is printed on the ballot of his political party, except that the names of all candidates for judicial, school, county, township, and municipal offices are printed on the ballot of every party.

The law of 1909 provided that the names of candidates for each office should be printed in alphabetical order; but the amended law provides for a rotation of names of all candidates (except for county and municipal offices), that are to be voted for in more than five assembly districts.

There are eighty districts in the state, numbered from one to eighty, beginning at the northern end of the state. The names of candidates for offices that are voted for by the state at large, must be arranged according to the respective offices, in alphabetical order, on the ballots that are used in assembly district number one. In each succeeding assembly district, the list for each office is changed in order by placing first the name which appeared last on the ballot for the preceding district, the remaining names always following in the same order .as before.

The names of candidates that are voted for by large subdivisions of the state, or by counties that contain more than five assembly districts, are similarly rotated according to assembly districts. The names of candidates for the offices of state senator and assemblyman, for any municipal office, or for any office in any county which is not divided into assembly districts, or which contains less than five such districts, are printed in alphabetical order.

4. The Voter at the Primary. — The voter on primary election day enters the polling place and gives his name to the election officers. If they find his name on the list of registered voters, he signs the “roster of voters” and writes after his name the name of his political party, if he is registered as a member of any party. He is given a

1 In order to vote at the primary, he must have registered in the office of the county clerk at least thirty days before the primary. He cannot participate in

ballot with the name of his party printed at the top, and retires to a booth to vote in secret. If his registration shows that he is not affiliated with any party, he is given a ballot which contains only the names of candidates for judicial, school, county, township, and municipal offices. This nonpartisan ballot is an exact duplicate of the righthand or nonpartisan section of each regular party ballot. A part of the sample ballot which accompanies the direct primary law is shown on page 30.

If the entire ballot could be given, it would be seen to contain the names of the candidates for all elective state and county offices, and for the offices of United States senator and representative in Congress. It should be ob

. served that a voter may ignore all candidates for any office, whose names are printed on the ballot, and may write the name or names of his choice in the space or spaces provided for the purpose.

5. The Result. Returns from city primaries are sent in each case to the city clerk to be canvassed by the city council or board of trustees. Returns from the August primaries are sent to the various county clerks to be canvassed by the respective boards of supervisors, except in San Francisco, where they are sent to the registrar of voters to be canvassed by the board of election commissioners. County clerks report to the secretary of state as to the number of votes received by each candidate for a

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the nomination of any party candidate, or in the election of the members of any party committee, unless he is found to be registered as a member of the party in question.

1 The adoption of the seventeenth amendment to the national Constitution requires United States senators to be elected by the voters of the respective states. In California they are nominated and elected like any state officer who is elected by the state at large. The legislature has conferred upon the governor the power to fill any vacancy that may occur until the next election.

OFFICIAL PRIMARY ELECTION BALLOT

REPUBLICAN PARTY
Forty-Eighth Assembly District, August 25, 1914

To vote for person whose name appear on the ballot, stamp acron (x) in the square at the RIGHT of the name of the person for whom you destro to vote. To vote for person whose name is not printed on the ballot, write his name to the blank space provided for the purpose

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state office, as well as for the offices of representative and United States senator. The person receiving the highest vote of each party for any office is the candidate of the party for the office. In the case of a judicial, school, county, township, or a municipal office, a number of persons receiving the highest vote, cqual to twice the number to be elected, are the candidates; provided that if only one person is to be elected and if any candidate receives a clear majority of all votes cast for the office, he is elected to the office. In case of partisan offices, candidates may be nominated after the primary by petition.

6. Party Committees and Conventions. — The primary law provides for county and state committees and for state conventions of political parties. The members of county committees are nominated and elected in the same manner as county officers, except that they are chosen by the respective political parties. Each county committee has charge of the political campaign of the party in the county under the general supervision of the state committee. This is its only duty. Each party must hold a state convention on the third Tuesday in September after every August primary election. Every such convention meets to draw up a state platform, to choose a state committee, and to nominate candidates for the office of presidential elector in presidential election years. Each state convention is composed of the

1 Each state committee consists of three members from each congressional district. The duty of any such committee is to manage the campaign for the party, collecting money from those who are willing to contribute and sending out speakers and printed matter; and to have general control of the party's interests.

2 As California is entitled to choose thirteen electors, each party nominates that number of candidates. Their names are reported by the secretary of state to the various county clerks, and are printed on the ballots used at the November election. Each voter votes for the entire thirteen, as electors are chosen by the state at large, and not by districts.

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