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a new trial or may settle the controversy forthwith by issuing an appropriate order or decree.

200. Kinds of Criminal Cases. — “A crime or public offense is an act committed or omitted in violation of a law forbidding or commanding it, and to which is annexed, upon conviction, one of the following punishments: death, imprisonment, fine, removal from office, or disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit in this state."1 The law contains many prohibitions and commands, violations of which do not constitute crimes, because none of these punishments are attached to them; but persons who are injured by such violations may obtain satisfaction through civil suits.

Crimes are divided into two classes: misdemeanors and felonies. “A felony is a crime which is punishable with death or by imprisonment in the state prison. Every other crime is a misdemeanor." 2 From this definition it is seen that the class to which a crime belongs depends upon the punishment attached to it. This is a matter that rests with the legislature. In the Penal Code many crimes and their punishments are catalogued, but this is by no means a complete list, as many others are named and their punishments defined in other codes and in numerous statutes. The difference between the two classes is simply one of degree. To steal property worth fifty dollars, or less, is petty larceny, a misdemeanor ; 3 but to steal property worth more than fifty dollars is grand larceny, a felony. All crimes resulting from the breaking of city and county ordinances are misdemeanors.

1 Penal Code, $ 15. 2 Ibid., § 17.

3 Provided that in taking the property neither “robbery” nor "burglary” is committed.

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201. Steps in a Criminal Case. — The steps in a criminal case are as follows:

1. The Arrest.' — Any person may arrest a criminal whom he catches in the act." An officer may arrest a person who is suspected of crime, on suspicion, or on a warrant issued by a judge of any court. A judge will issue a warrant for the arrest of any person on complaint of a private individual, or an officer, to the effect that the person complained of has committed a crime. The complaint must be given under oath and must be supported by evidence. If the case is triable in an inferior court ($ 204, 3), the defendant is taken before any such court having jurisdiction, and the matter is disposed of as indicated in subdivisions 3, 4, and 5 of this section. If the case is triable

5 in the superior court, it reaches that court through one of two preliminary steps which will be described in subdivisions 2a and 2b.

20. The Examination. — If the defendant is charged with felony or a misdemeanor that is triable in the superior court, he may be taken before the nearest justice of the peace in the county, or before any police judge having jurisdiction in the matter, for a preliminary examination. If the examination convinces the magistrate 4 that sufficient evidence cannot be obtained to convict the accused,

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1 Penal Code, 811 seq.

2 The superior court has jurisdiction over all felonies, and over "high" misdemeanors; that is, misdemeanors subject to a punishment of imprisonment exceeding six months, or the payment of a fine exceeding $500. In some instances, however, police courts are given jurisdiction over all misdemeanors, as, for example, those of Los Angeles and Oakland. Such courts try “high” misdemeanors instead of sending them to the superior court.

3 Penal Code, $ 858 seq.

4 The word magistrate signifies a judge or justice of the peace, who has power to examine persons accused of crimes and, when the evidence is found to be sufficient, to hold such persons to answer to the superior court, when that court has jurisdiction.

a new trial or may settle the controversy furthwith ly is suring an appropriate order or deeree

200. Kinds of Criminal Cases. "A crime or public offense is an act committee or omitted in violation of a law forbidding or commanding it, and to which is annexeel, upon conviction, one of the following punishments: death, imprisonment, line, removal from ollices, or disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit in this state"! "The law contains many prohibitions and com mands, violations of which do not constitute crimes, because none of these punishments are attached to them; but persons who are injured by such violations may obtain satis. faction through civil suits.

Crimes are divided into two classe misdemeanors and felonies. "A felony is a crime which is prunishable with death or buy imprisonment in the state prison. Every other crime is a misdemeanor." 4 from this definition it is geen that the 1944 to which a crime belongs depends upon the punishment attached to it. This is a matter that rests with the legislature. In the Penal Code many crimes and their punishments are catalogueul, but this is by no means a complete list, as many others are named and their punishments defined in other codes and in numerous statutes. The difference between the two classes is simply one of degrees

. To steal properly worth ally dollara, or less, is pretty larceny, a misdemeanor ; but to steal property worth more than milty collara in grand lareny, a felony. All aimed resulting from the breaking of sily and county

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hy With this Ami day itt van 14Y WHr this for a par pay photo booth and try to try and thy not to ar hy Yine pa yanHy sith ñ iny ۲۱۰۸ ۱۲۹ ۱۱۰ ۱۱ ۱۰*۸۰۲۱۰ ۲۷ ۱۹۰۱۱۲۱ ۲۲۸۱ ۲۲ ۲۱ * ۱۹٫۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۲ ۱۱ ۱۲۲ ۲۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۲ ۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۹ ۱۱۰ ۱۱۱ See section 6, article I of the constitution. 2 Penal Code, 888 seq.

he orders his release; if it convinces him that sufficient evidence can be obtained, he holds the accused to answer before the superior court. The accused is admitted to bail, except when the crime is treason or murder, provided he is able to furnish the amount named by the magistrate. If he cannot furnish the bail required, or if the crime is treason or murder, he is committed to the custody of the sheriff until his case can be tried. After he is held to answer ” by the magistrate, he is tried in the superior court on a charge called an “information,” filed against him by the district attorney. The information sets forth the nature of the alleged crime and formally charges the accused with it.

2b. The Indictment.? - Another method of bringing a person accused of a felony or a “high " misdemeanor before the superior court for trial is by indictment. An indictment is a formal accusation by a grand jury ($ 207) to the effect that a certain crime has been committed by a certain person. Instead of taking the accused before a justice of the peace or a police judge for a preliminary examination, the district attorney may take him before the grand jury. If the evidence convinces the grand jury of his guilt, it " finds ” an indictment against him, and he is then prosecuted in the superior court the same as if he had been “held to answer by an inferior court. When an indictment is found, it is filed with the clerk of the superior court by the foreman of the grand jury. If the accused is not in custody, the clerk issues a bench warrant for his arrest, and if the offense is bailable, the superior court fixes the amount of bail.

3 See section 8, article I of the constitution.

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