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be chosen as delegates to the national convention, are printed on the ballot of any party, if signatures to nomination papers are obtained equal in number to at least one per cent of the voters of the party in the state.

These papers are left with the clerks of the counties in which they are signed, and are sent to the secretary of state, who later reports the names of all candidates to every county clerk in the state. Every ballot is prepared so that the name of each candidate for the presidency stands at the head of a separate column, and the column in which the name of any candidate for election as delegate appears indicates his choice for President. There is, however, a blank column in which any voter may write the names of those whom he prefers as delegates, if he is not satisfied with the names printed on the ballot. The ballot may also contain a “no preference column,” in which may be printed the names of candidates for the position of delegate, if any, who favor none of the presidential candidates whose names appear on the ballot.

3. The election is conducted and the result canvassed in the same manner as the August primary. Each party expresses its choice for President, and elects its delegates throughout the state at large, and the names are so arranged on the ballot that a voter may vote for the requisite number of delegates in a group or as individuals.

4. Miscellaneous Points. Voters do not express their choice for Vice President. The law provides for verification deputies for the May primary, the same as for the August primary. A candidate for the presidency may be represented by any organized body of supporters in the state who may take the necessary steps to have his name printed on the party ballot. After the election, the delegates chosen by each party meet and select an alternate for each one of their number, so that in case any delegate cannot attend the convention, his alternate will go in his place. Any candidate for the position of delegate may file a statement with the secretary of state, that if elected, irrespective of his personal preference, he will support at the convention the candidate for the presidency who receives the highest vote of his party throughout the state.

A national convention consists of about one thousand delegates. It is called to order by the chairman of the national committee, who presides until an organization is effected. The work of the convention consists of adopting a party platform, which contains a statement of the principles for which the party expects to stand in the November election; nominating candidates for the office of President and Vice President; and choosing a national committee, consisting of one member from each state. After the adjournment of the convention, the committee has charge of the campaign, collecting money from those who are willing to contribute to the campaign fund, and using the money to publish campaign literature and send out speakers. After the election, the committee has nothing to do until the time for calling the next convention arrives.

15. Conclusion. - If a republic is to endure, its government must represent the opinions and desires of a majority of its voters. A government which does not do this may be a monarchy or an oligarchy, but it is not a republic. There can be no doubt that many of our states, counties, and cities have been, and are now, governed by officers representing, not the people, but a small fraction of the people, those who own and control the great corporate interests of the country. There ought to be no conflict between our corporate interests and the masses of the people. There would be none, if the corporate interests had used legitimate methods in conducting their business enterprises. But many of them have not used legitimate methods. They have seized property which belonged to the whole people; they have secured franchises at a small fraction of their value; they have formed monopolies by driving competitors out of business, and have charged exorbitant prices for the necessities of life. To do these things, it was necessary for them to control our governments; and this they have done through the aid of political bosses. The

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problem of the present is that of making our national, state, and local governments truly representative of the people. This is the same thing as saying that the political power now exercised by great corporate interests must be transferred to the people. The direct primary, the initiative, referendum, and recall — to be considered in succeeding chapters 1 — are intended to aid in bringing about this reform. These regulations and devices are helpful, and will doubtless prove to be more and more valuable as time goes by; but it should never be forgotten that it is beyond the power of men to devise measures of any kind that will serve as a substitute for honesty and patriotism on the part of the voters of a republic.

QUESTIONS

1. What is the essential difference between a direct primary election and the primary elections held in the larger cities of California previous to 1910?

2. What is a nonpartisan direct primary?

3. How would a group of men proceed to organize a new political party?

4. Why did the Lincoln-Roosevelt League cease to be active ?

5. If pre-primary conventions may now be held, and if delegates to such conventions are chosen as party committees or other leaders direct, what has been gained by the passage of the direct primary law ?

6. To what extent may a pre-primary convention be influential ?

7. What steps would one have to take to become the candidate of the Democratic for any of the following offices: governor, state senator, United States senator, state assemblyman ?

8. What steps would one have to take to become the candidate for sheriff in your county?

1 See $8 69, 72, 86. (References to sections of this book are in heavy type.)

9. Why would a political boss be opposed to the principle of the “short ballot”?

10. Why does a direct primary law require candidates to report the amount of money spent for campaign purposes ?

11. Why is it not desirable for corporation directors to contribute corporation money to campaign funds ?

12. Is it a voter's duty to vote? Why?

CHAPTER III

THE POLITICAL SUBDIVISIONS OF CALIFORNIA

16. Importance of State and Local Government. - The Constitution of the United States recognizes only two political units in our scheme of government: the nation and the state. The affairs of the nation are placed in the charge of the national government. These are important matters, although, for the most part, they influence the life of individual men and women only indirectly. The affairs of each state are of greater importance to the individual, because they directly influence his life at all times, whether he is conscious of the fact or not. They are in the charge of the state government, which is the constant guardian of our most vital public and private interests.

The state government has its headquarters at the state capital, but it must have agents in all parts of the state in order that the state law may be enforced in every locality. Because we believe in the principle of local selfgovernment these agents are not appointed at the state capital, but are elected, or appointed, in the various localities. In order that they may be chosen without confusion, and that their powers and duties may be definitely established, the territory of the state is divided into numerous subdivisions, such as counties, townships, school districts, and cities. No one of these subdivisions should be regarded as a complete political unit. They are all parts of the state, as branches, twigs, and leaves are parts of a tree. They are created by the state and have only such powers,

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