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COPYRIGHT, 1914 AND 1916, BY

JOHN R. SUTTON.

COPYRIGHT, 1914, IN GREAT BRITAIN.

CIVIL GOV, IN CAL.

W. P. II

PREFACE

It is the purpose of this work to present in brief form something of the theory and practice of civil government in California. The scope of governmental activity widens from year to year, coming nearer and nearer the life of every individual; and, on the other hand, the intelligence of the individual and his general attitude toward public affairs, react more and more upon the government. The influence of the citizen is vital in the selection of public officials, and in the attitude assumed toward them after they are selected. His power has been tremendously augmented in recent years by the widespread adoption of the direct primary, the initiative, the referendum, and the recall; and his intelligence must keep pace with his political power, or the commonwealth will suffer. The following chapters are intended to place in convenient form the most important features of the information which every responsible citizen should possess if his influence is to count for the common good.

The author hopes especially that this book may be of service to students of civil government in colleges and high schools. It is intended to be a book of information, and many details are given which may be omitted in class work. No attempt is made to present a complete exposition of the principles of government, or to discuss problems of good citizenship. These are important matters, and it is assumed that teachers will give them proper attention in connection with the various topics found in the text.

The author desires to express his appreciation of the assistance given him in the preparation of this work by the late Mr. Haven W. Edwards of the Oakland High School, and Mr. F. H. Clark of the Lowell High School, San Francisco, who have read the manuscript and have given invaluable criticisms and suggestions. Thanks are due to Professor Orrin Kip McMurray, of the University of California, who has read and criticised the chapter on the state judicial system ; and to Messrs. H. A. Masoul and William J. Locke, of San Francisco, specialists in municipal corporation law, and Secretary and Assistant Secretary of the League of California Municipalities, who have made valuable suggestions on the chapters on municipal government. Valuable assistance has also been given by many public officials, especially by Mr. William C. Clark, Assemblyman from Oakland; Mr. Walter J. Burpee, Assistant District Attorney of Alameda county; and Mr. Edward Hyatt, Superintendent of Public Instruction.

J. R. S. Since the publication of this text, some changes have been made in the public law of California. The most important of these will be found in the Supplement at page 465.

26. The New England Plan

27. The Southern Plan

28. Rural Local Government in the Middle Atlantic States

29. Rural Local Government in the Middle South and West

30. Rural Local Government in the Middle North

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SECTION 2. RURAL LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN CALIFORNIA

31. The County Type in Use in California

32. Judicial Townships

33. The Formation of Counties

34. The Relation between a County and the State

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CHAPTER V.

COUNTY GOVERNMENT — COUNTY

OFFICERS

SECTION 1.

COUNTY OFFICERS, TERMS OF OFFICE, AND

OTHER DETAILS

35. County Officers

36. Terms of Office

37. Official Bonds

38.. Vacancies and Salaries

39. The Consolidation of County Offices .

40. The Uniformity of County Government

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