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APGRAVE (Vit. S. Alban, had better beer or ale, and some worse, as
ff. 8. 6.) and Hospinian (de their duty was, and some was worth a penny
Origine Monochatus, l. 4, c. a gallon, and some worse.
3.) attribute the introduc- With each barrel a dozen of loaves of

tion of Monachism into Bri- bread was delivered, every dozen worth at tain to Pelagius the heresiarch, circiter that time six pence. 1000.—DR. SAYERS, p. 217.

They w re supplied with manure also,

worth two pence the load, or fudder. mu

The iron was for the maintenance of their Monasteries.

ploughs and husbandry. The abbey dis

tributed yearly among its tenants eleven The tenants paid to the Abbot of Fur- or twelve bands of the said livery-iron, ness certain wheat, barley, oats, lambs and every band weighing fourteen stone, every sterke, for the rent of their tenements. stone fourteen pound, and at that time

Certain bread, ale, and beer was de worth eight pence a stone. livered and allowed weekly out of the said The tenants which paid provisions, paid monastery, unto certain of the tenants that only when they were admitted tenants, one paid provisions : and certain iron was de- penny, called a God's penny, and no other livered and allowed yearly by the said fine. And thereupon they were sworn to late abbot unto the same tenants,—and the be true to the king and to the monastery. same bread, beer, ale and iron was in part The children of the said tenants and their of recompence of the said provisions, so by servants have come from the plough or other the said tenants paid, — by force of some work to the abbey, where they had dinner composition and agreement, and not of be- or supper, and so went to their work again. nevolence nor devotion.

They were suffered to come to school and The beer or ale was in barrels or firkins learning within the monastery. containing ten or twelve gallons apiece, or

1 In the North this means “ the load of a two thereabouts, and worth about ten pence or

horse cart.” It is a pure Anglo-Saxon word, twelve pence a barrel or firkin at that time, and is used by Chaucer. Commonly it is only -i.e. just before the dissolution. Some applied to lead. - J W. W.

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ovens,

The tenants had wood and timber in the | into Parliament for that purpose, it would woods thereabouts, for the sufficient repa- have been more regularly and justly conration of their houses, and other necessa- ducted than in an after reign ; that by this ries, which was allowed and livered to them, would all have reverted to the parish at the sight of the officers or sworn men churches, and the clergy would have gained appointed for that purpose.

as much by it as the government. This One witness deposed that the tenants, appears from the sequel, that when the their families, and children, did weekly king, instead of the English monasteries, have and receive at and out of the said had only the alien priories given him, he monastery, of charity and devotion, over seized on no part of the tythes, but on the and besides the relief and commodity afore | lands and tenements that were before of rehearsed, to the value of forty shillings lay fee, and might justly return into lay weekly.

hands. These too he intended to have emThey had also hedge boote, hay boote, ployed for breeding up a more learned clerplowe boote, and other necessaries, and li- gy, declaring it was his design to found a berty to get whins and brakes (fern) to college of divines and artists, and to settle their own use. (Ferns are much used in upon the said college the lands of the alien baking oatmeal cakes, and heating the priories dissolved, if he had not been pre

The smoke of dry fern is no way vented by death.”—KENNET's Case of Imoffensive, and does not stain the bread, propriations, p. 109. " therefore it continues to be in great request in Furness.")

" In the first act of dissolution there was The children had meat and drink for a saving to the interest of strangers, traone meal a day, at the monastery, whenever vellers, and poor, by binding the new posthey came to school.

sessors of any site or precinct of the reliThe sustentation, relief, and commodity gious houses, to keep or cause to be kept, which the tenants received for their chil- an honest continual house and household dren weekly “ of charity and devotion" in the same site or precinct.”—Ibid. p. 123. from the monastery, was estimated as worth thirty or forty shillings a week at least. “In a preamble written by the king's

At the dissolution the domestical provi- own hands to another act, it was declared sions were rated and set down to a certain to be an intent that the endowments of yearly rent, and the king, and his heirs and monasteries might be turned to better use, successors, were discharged of all sustenta- God's word better set forth, children brought tion, reliefs, and commodities that the te- up in learning, clerks nourished in the nants before that time received and en- Universities, and exhibition for ministers joyed.

of the Church. Divers of the visitors They paid also after the dissolution, for themselves did petition the king to leave every fine on admission, double their rent. some of the religious houses for the benefit

This appears from the Interrogatories on of the country, and Latimer moved that the cause between John Boograve, Esq. two or three might be left in every shire Attorney Gen. for the Duchy of Lancaster, for pious uses. I have seen an original and the tenants of Low Furness, 25 Eliz. letter from Latimer to the Lord Cromwell 1582.-West's Antiq. of Furness. Appen- (Cleopatra, E. IV. fol. 264), to intercede dix, No. vii.

with the king that Malvern Abbey might be left standing, for the better performance

of the duties of preaching, praying, and “ Had the Monasteries been dissolved in keeping hospitality.”—Ibid. p. 126. Henry V.'s reign, when the Bill was brought

“Los Summos Pontifices en los Motus kingdom, --but their easy leases reduced Proprios que tratan de la clausura de las this to one tenth in value. Monjas, mandan dispensar con ellas en uno de tres casas, que son guerra, fuego y epidemia, entendiendo por epidemia, la perni- “ The monks well knew how impossible ciosa, qui es la peste. Yo ansi lo entendi it was to preserve peace betwixt two bosiempre, y ansi respondi a algunas personas dies of ecclesiastics having property contique preterdian salir de sus monasterios guous to each other, and therefore wisely para se curar de enfermedades que no eran provided in most of their grants that neipeste."—DR. AMBROSIO Nunez, ff. 3. ther their feoffees nor tenants should lease,

or alienate, to Jews, nor to any religious It seems that most monks, for want of house save their own."-SURTEES' Durham, due sleep at night, made it up by day,- vol. 1, p. 42. " Como hazen por la maior parte todos los Religiosos, que tienen su meridiana, que 1429. “ Sir ROBERT UMFREVILL, Knt. llaman de recogimento.”—Ibid. ff. 103. of the Garter, founded the Chantry of Far

nacres, near Ravensworth, where two chap

lains were regularly to officiate 'according “I do not wonder,” says Johnson, “ that to the use of Sarum,' and perform serwhere the monastic life is permitted, every

vice for the souls of the founder and all his order finds votaries, and every monastery

kith, kin, and kindred, and all the knights inhabitants. Men will submit to any rule of the Garter, and all former owners of the by which they will be exempted from the

manor of Farnacres. The chaplains to have tyranny of caprice and of chance. They

bed and board constantly under the roof of are glad to supply by external authority the chantry, and to renew their apparel, their own want of constancy and resolution, consisting of a sad and sober vest, sweepand court the government of others, when ing to their heels (veste talari), once in two long experience has convinced them of years. No female to be admitted, either their own inability to govern themselves.”

as a servant or otherwise, within the chan-BoSWELL, vol. 1, p. 246.

try, and the chaplains not to exercise the office of bailiff, or any other secular employ

ment; quia frequenter dum colitur Martha, Colour of habits, Acta SS. April, t. 3, expellitur Maria. But each chaplain had

two months' leave of absence annually." ---Ibid. vol. 2, p. 243.

P. 871.

Evil of monastic vows.- J. TAYLOR,

The chantry was the favourite offspring vol. 1, p. 218.

of a childless old age,

“ Dierum meorum relliquias recolligere, et deficientes ætatis

fragmenta reponere, ac terrena in cælestia IF Rabelais and his commentator may transitoria in æterna, felici communio desibe trusted (as I suppose they may), the derans commutare-vespertinum offero samonks used to have flagons made in the crificium, non matutinum.”—Ibid. shape of a book, which they called Breviaries.-Vol. 1, p. 51.

“I FORGET where," says SURTEES, “ is to be found a very picturesque account of

a little monastery (Woolsthorpe ?) in LinACCORDING to Harmer (Dodwell ?) the colnshire, of which the Superior and his six monasteries held about one fifth of the monastics maintained themselves in a very primitive way by husbandry, assisted their | royaumes, que le pays, ne le peuple ne s'en poor neighbours, and acted as physicians destruict point, ny ne bruslent, ny ne demoto the whole neighbourhood.” — Ibid. vol. lissent les edifices, et tombe la fortune sur 3, p. 260.

les gens de guerre, et par especial sur les

nobles, contre les quels ils sont trop en“ Lands were given to abbeys for their vieux: ainsi rien n'est parfait en ce monde.” better support and entertainment of strangers.”—FOSBROOKE's Berkeley, p. 88. Louis XI. pensioned all Edward IV.'s

great officers, and was proud of having their

receipts to show that such persons were in Johnson's view of the cause which made

his pay. Hastings, however, would sign men prefer a monastic life, “ tired with the

no receipt, though he took the money. See weight of too much liberty." - CROKER'S Comines, Coll. Mem. vol. 12, pp. 8-11. Boswell, vol. 1, p. 354.

50,000 crowns a year were spent among these persons in bribes.—Ibid. p. 12.

" LORENZO DI MEDICI's factors. The Edwards.

“Leurs serviteurs et facteurs ont en tant UNDER Edw. II.“ the crown of England de credit sous couleur de ce nom Medicis, was weaker, and suffered more dishonour que ce seroit merveilles a croire a ce que in both kingdoms, than at any time since j'en ay veu en Flandres et en Angleterre. the Norman conquest."—Sir J. Davies's J'en ay veu un appellé Guerard Quanvese Ireland, p. 130.

presque estre occasion de soustenir le Roy Edouard le quart en son estat estant en

grant guerre en son Royaume d'Angleterre, CLOTHIERS invited into England, and

et fournir, parfois audit Roy plus de six how. – FULLER, Church Hist. 14 Cent.

vingts mille escus, ou il fit peu de profit pp.

pour son maistre, toutesfois il recouvra ses 111, 112.

pieces a le longue. Un autre ay veu, nommé et appellé Thomas Portunay, estre pleige

entre ledit Roy Edouard, et le Duc Charles York and Lancaster age. de Bourgoyne, pour cinquants mille escus,

et une autre fois en un lien, pour quatre Our civil wars were carried on with more

vingts mille.”—Ibid. t. 12, p. 171. courage and less cruelty than those of our neighbours.

1« Or selon mon COMINES (Coll. Mem. t. 11, p. 481) “entre toutes les Seigneuries du monde dont j'ay

TURNER, I think, attributes too much to connoissance, ou la chose publique est religious differences in this period. It is mieux traitée, et ou regne moins de vio

very likely that the struggle between the lence sur le peuple, et ou il n'y a nuls edifices

two houses prevented a religious war; but abbatus, ny démolis pour guerre, c'est An

I can perceive no indication that religious gleterre, et tombe le sort et le malheur sur

opinions were in any degree connected with ceux qui font la guerre.”

the struggle, except in the dethronement And again, p. 498, “ Cette grace a ce

of Richard II. royaume d'Angleterre, par dessus les autres | Macaulay uses the same illustration. See

Quand Italie sera sans poison, Hist. of England, vol. i. p 36.-J. W. W.

France sans trahison,

is," says

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Angleterre sans guerre,

In Formâ pauperis—the poor allowed to
Lors sera le monde sans terre." plead.
Leigh's Observations, p. 422. Game laws originate in this reign.-Sta-

tute, 581.

Unlawful hunting.-Ibid. 505.

Unlawful games.—Ibid. 569.
Henry the Seventh.

169. Butchery forbidden within walled

towns.-Ibid. 528. That sedate celerity of judgement which Depopulation. was one of his endowments—a happy ex- Attempt to regulate the prices of labour pression of Turner's.

-it failed. His mother was married when only nine Heads of the law exempt from military years old, and it is said that she was only service. ten when Henry was born. Hence perhaps Qualifications of Jurors diminished to his feebleness of constitution. — TURNER, 10s.-Statute, 590. vol. 4, p. 101.

Jurors to be prosecuted by writs of atThere was policy in naming his son Ar- taint for untrue verdicts, where the value thur, as gratifying the feelings and even exceeded £40. the superstition of the Welsh. The re- Actions on the case.-Statutes, 584,588. mark of the old chroniclers which Turner 171. Navigation laws. - Ibid. 2, 502. ridicules (113), shows this.

For the reasons.-535. His mother a most excellent woman. Statute, 506. A law of Edward IV. this. 113. 4 N.

172. Silk manufacturers and fishermen On Lambert Simnel's appearance Henry encouraged by prohibitions. had the bull in his favour read again in the Standard weights and measures, accordchurches, and all his enemies excommuni- ing to Magna Charta.—Statutes, 551, 570. cated.-116.

Itinerant pewterers and braziers forbidThe Duchess Margaret of Burgundy was den, to prevent thieving.-Ibid. 651. called his Juno.

134. The Pope complains of his applying the strong hand of law to the Hall. clergy.

451. Benevolences - designed to favour 135. Necessity of reforming their man- the people—who in fact were feared.

Evils arising from maintenance, i. e. the 136. Bull in 1489 granted for reform- protection which great men afforded to ing the monasteries.

their dependants-one cause for the Star 159-60. His feelings respecting church Chamber.-Statutes, 2, 509. promotion, which if duly acted upon would Abduction made felony.-Ibid. 512. alone have wrought a real reformation. Maximum of woollen cloth. No one to

165. Blackstone wrongly characterises retail a broad yard of woollen cloth of the his laws.

finest making scarlet, grayned what colour 166. Star Chamber intended for sum- soever it be, above the price of 16 shillings mary justice.

a broad yard ; any other colour out of Murders—the people (as now in Italy, grayne, or any maner of russet of the finest, &c.) would not arrest the murderers.-Sta- not above lls.-Ibid. 533. tute, 511.

Ely named among the principal towns 167. Vagabonds — police. — Ibid. 569. for business.-Ibid. 518. Note the prelude.-656.

Price of hats and caps. " Hatmakers 168. Alienation of estates facilitated. and Kapmakers doth sell their hats and

ners.

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