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which is almost implied by reproduction; Variability, from the intKfect and direct action of the external conditions of life, and from use and disuse; a Ratio of Increase so high as to lead to a Struggle for Life, and as a consequence to Natural Selection, entailing Divergence of Character and the Extinction of less-improved forms. Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death,"! the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.

INDEX

Aberrant groups, 886.
Abyssinia, plants of, 886.
Acclimatisation, 186.
Affinities of extinct species, 295.

of organic beings, 870.

Agassis on Amblyopsis, 126.

—^ on groups of species suddenly

appearing, 271, 27S. on embryological succession,

803.

on the glacial period, 828.

—> on embryological characters,

877. on the embryos of vertebrata,

894.

on parallelism of embryo-
logical development and geo-
logical succession, 404.

Algae of New Zealand, 887.
Alligators, males, fighting, 80.
Amblyopsis, blind fish, 126.
America, North, productions allied

to those of Europe, 884. boulders and glaciers of,

885. South, no modern formations

on west coast, 260.
Ammonites, sudden extinction of,

Anagallis, sterility of, 222.
Analogy of variations, 144.
Ancylus, 846.

Animals, not domesticated from
being variable, 16.

domestic, descended from

several stocks, 17.

— acclimatisation of, 128.

of Australia, 105.

—— with thicker fur in cold

climates, 121. blind, in caves, 124.

Animals, extinct, of Australia, 304.

Anomma, 216.

Antarctic islands, ancient flora of,

859.
Antirrhinum, 146.
Ants attending aphides, 169.

slave-making instinct, 196.

neuter, structure of, 212.

Aphides, attended by ants, 189.
Aphis, development of, 897.
Apteryx, 164.
Arab horses, 83.
Aralo-Caspian Sea, 304.
Archiac, M. de, on the successioc

of species, 291.
Artichoke, Jerusalem, 129.
Ascension, plants of, 850.
Ascleplas, pollen of, 174.
Asparagus, 828.
Aspicarpa, 876.
Asses, striped, 147.
Ateuchus, 128.
Audubon on habits of frigate-bird,

168. on variation in birds'-nests,

190.

on heron eating seeds, 848.

Australia, animals of, 105.

dogs of, 198.

—— extinct animals of, 804.

European plants in, 881.

Azara on flies destroying cattle, 67.
Azores, flora of, 826.

Babington, Mr., on British plants,

45.
Balancement of growth, 18S.
Bamboo with hooks, 177.
Barberry, flowers of, 89.
Barrande, M., on Silurian colonlaa.

181.

Bosquet, M., on fossil Chthamalns.

278.
Boulders, erratic, on the Azores,

826.
Branchiae, 171.
Brent, Mr., on house-tumblers,

198.

on hawks killing pigeons, 825.

Brewer, Dr., on American cuckoo,

195.
Britain, mammals of, 855.
Bronn on duration of specific

forms, 268.
Brown, Robert, on classification,

S74.
Buckman on variation in plants,10.
Bu2areingues on sterility of varie-
ties, 242.

Cabbage, varieties of, crossed, 90,

Calceolaria, 226.

Canary-birds, sterility of hybrids,

226.
Cape de Verde Islands, 858.
Cape of Good Hope, plants of, 100,

886.
Carrier-pigeons killed by hawks,

825.
Cassini on flowers of compositas,

181.
Catasetum, 882.
Cats, with blue eyes, deaf, 11.

variation in habits of, 82.

curling tail when going to

spring, 181.
Cattle destroying fir-trees, 66. destroyed by flies in La Plata,

67.

Barrande, M., on the succession
of species, 291.

- on parallelism of palaeozoic
formations, 294.

on affinities of ancient species,

295.
Barriers, importance of, 812.
Batrachians on islands, 858.
Bats, how structure acquired, 102.

distribution of, 854.

Bear catching water-insects, 166.
Bee, sting of, 182.

queen, killing rivals, 182.

Bees fertilising flowers, 68.

hive, not sucking the red

clover, 86.

- hive, cell-making instinct,
201.

—— humble, cells of, 202.

—— parasitic, 196.

Beetles, wingless, in Madeira, 128.

with deficient tarsi, 122.

Bentham, Mr., on British plants,
46.

on classification, 877.

Berkeley, Mr., on seeds in salt-
water, 822.

Bermuda, birds of, 851.

Birds acquiring fear, 190.

annually cross the Atlantic,

827.

colour of, on continents, 120.

footsteps and remains of, in

secondary rocks, 272.

fossil, In caves of Brazil, 804.

of Madeira, Bermuda, and

Galapagos, 851.

song of males, 81.

transporting seeds, 824.

waders, 847.

wingless, 122, 168.

with traces of embryonic

teeth, 405.

Bizcacha, 814.

affinities of, 886.

Bladder for swimming in fish, 171.
Blindness of cave animals, 124.
Birth, Mr., on distinctness of

Indian cattle, 17.
—— on striped Hemionns, 148

- on crossed geese, 227.
Boar, shoulder-pad of, 60.
Borrow, Mr., on the Spanish

pointer, 82.
Bory St. Vincent on Batrachians,
858.

breeds of, locally extinct, 100.

fertility of Indian and Euro-
pean breeds, 228.
Cave, inhabitants of, blind, 124.
Centres of creation, 816.
Cephalopoda, development of, 897.
Cervulus, 227.

Cetacea, teeth and hair, 181.
Ceylon, plants of, 886.
Chalk formation, 289.
Characters, divergence of, 101.

sexual, variable, 152.

adaptive or analogical, 884.

Charlock, 70.

Checks to increase, 62.

t mutual, 67.

Chickens, instinctive tameneas ot,

194.

Chthunalinae, 259.

Chthamalus, cretacean species of,

273.
Circumstances favourable to selec-
tion of domestic products, 87.

—— to natural selection, 92.

Cirripedes capable of crossing, 91.

carapace aborted, 134.

their ovigerous frena, 172.

fossil, 272.

larvae of, 896.

Classification, 870.

CM ft, Mr., on the succession of

types, S04.
Climate, effects of, in checking

increase of beings, 68.
— adaptation of, to organisms,

126.
Cobites, intestine of, 171.
Cockroach, 70.
Collections, palaeontological, poor,

258.
Colour, influenced by climate,

120. in relation to attacks by flies,

178.
Columba li via, parent of domestic

pigeons, 21.
Colymbetes, 846.
Compensation of growth, 188.
Compositaj, outer and inner florets

of, 181.

male flowers of, 406.

Conclusion, general, 482.
Conditions, slight changes in,

favourable to fertility, 289.
Coot, 167.
Coral-islands, seeds drifted to,

824. reefs, indicating movements

of earth, 277.
Corn-crake, 167.
Correlation of growth in domestic

productions, 11.

of growth, 129, 178.

Cowslip, 46.

Creation, single centres of, 816.
Crinum, 224.
Crosses, reciprocal, 281.
Crossing of domestic animals, im-
portance in altering breeds, 18.

advantages of, 8S.

unfavourable to selection, 92.

Crustacea of New Zealand, 887.
Crustacean, blind, 125.
Cryptocerus, 214.

Ctenomys, blind, 124.
Cuckoo, instinct of, 195.
Currants, grafts of, 285.
Currents of sea, rate of, 828.
Cuvier on conditions of existence,
185.

on fossil monkeys, 272.

Fred., on instinct, 187.

Dana, Prof., on blind cave-animals,

126. on relations of crustaceans of

Japan, 8S4. on crustaceans of New Zea.

land, 887.
De Candolle on struggle for exist-
ence, 58.

on ambelliferae, 182.

on general affinities, 887.

Alph., on low plants, widely

dispersed, 865.
___ _— on widely ranging plants

being variable, 49.

on naturalisation, 104.

— on winged seeds, 188.

—— —— on Alpine species sud-

denly becoming rare, 157. on distribution of plants

with large seeds, 824. on vegetation of Aus-
tralia, 840. on fresh-water plants,

847.

on insular plants, 849.

Degradation of coast-rocks, 258.
Denudation, rate of, 256.
— of oldest rocks, 276.
Development of ancient forms, 801.
Devonian system, 299.
Dianthus, fertility of crosses, 280.
Dirt on feet of birds, 826.
Dispersal, means of, 820.

during glacial periods, 828.

Distribution, geographical, 805.

means of, 820.

Disuse, effects of, under nature,

122.
Divergence of character, 101.
Division, physiological, of labour,

105.
Dogs, hairless, with imperfect

teeth, 11. descended from several wild

stocks, 17.

domestic instincts of, 192.

inherited civilisation of, 19&

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