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which is almost implied by reproduction ; Variability, from the indirect and direct action of the external conditions of life, and from use and disuse ; a Ratio of Increase so high as to lead to a Struggle for Life, and as a consequence to Natural Selection, entailing Divergence of Character and the Extinction of less-improved forms. Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death,? the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one, and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.

INDEX

ABERRANT groups, 886.

Animals, oxtinct, of Australia, 304.
Abyssinia, plants of, 336.

Anomma, 216.
Acclimatisation, 126.

Antarctic islands, ancient flora of,
Affinities of extinct species, 295. 359.

of organic boings, 870. Antirrhinum, 146.
Agassis on Amblyopsis, 126. Ants attending aphides, 189.

on groups of species suddenly glave-making instinct, 196.
appearing, 271, 273.

neuter, structure of, 212.
on ombryological succession, Aphides, attended by ants, 189.
303.

Aphis, development of, 397.
on the glacial period, 328. Apteryx, 164.

on embryological characters, Arab horses, 33.
877.

Aralo-Caspian Sea, 804.
on the ombryos of vertebrata, Archiac, M. de, on the succession
394.

of species, 291.
on parallelism of embryo. Artichoko, Jerusalem, 129.
logical development and geo- Ascension, plants of, 350.
logical succession, 404.

Asclepias, pollen of, 174.
Algæ of New Zealand, 837. Asparagus, 323.
Alligators, males, fighting, 80. Aspicarpa, 376.
Amblyopsis, blind fish, 126. Asses, striped, 147.
America, North, productions allied | Atouchas, 123.
to those of Europe, 834.

Audubon on babits of frigato-bird,
boulders and glaciers of, 166.
835.

on variation in birds'-nests,
South, no modern formations 190.
on west coast, 260.

on heron eating seeds, 848.
Ammonites, sudden extinction of, Australia, animals of, 105.
288.

dogs of, 193.
Anagallis, storility of, 222.

extinct animals of, 304.
Analogy of variations, 14.

European plants in, 331.
Ancylus, 346.

Azara on flies destroying cattle, 87.
Animals, not domesticated from Azores, flora of, 326.
being variable, 16.

domestic, descended from Babington, Mr., on British plants,
soveral stocks, 17.

45.
ecclimatisation of, 128. Balancement of growth, 183.
of Australia, 105.

Bamboo with hooks, 177.
with thicker fur in cold Barberry, flowers of, 89.
climates, 121.

Barrando, M., on Silurian colonies.
blind, in caves, 124.

981.

45.

Barrande, M., on the succession | Boequet, M., on fossil Chthamalus,
of species, 291.

273.
on parallelism of paleozoic Boulders, erratic, on the Azores,
formations, 294.

326.
on affinities of ancient species, Branchiæ, 171.
295.

Brent, Mr., on house-tumblors,
Barriers, importance of, 312.

193.
Batrachians on islands, 353.

on hawks killing pigeons, 825.
Bats, how structure acquired, 162. Brewer, Dr., on American cuckoo,
distribution of, 854.

195.
Boar catching water-insects, 165. Britain, mammals of, 355.
Boo, sting of, 182.

Bronn on duration of specifio
queen, killing rivals, 182.

forms, 263.
Beos fortilising flowers, 68. Brown, Robert, on classification,

hivo, not sucking the red 374.
clover, 86.

Buckman on variation in plants, 10.
hive, cell-making instinct, Buzareingues on sterility of varie-
201.

ties, 242.
humble, cells of, 202.
parasitic, 196.

Cabbage, varieties of, crossed, 90.
Beetles, wingless, in Madeira, 123. Calcoolaria, 226.

with deficient tarsi, 122. Canary-birds, sterility of hybrids,
Bentham, Mr., on British plants, 226.

Cape de Verde Islands, 358.
on classification, 377. Cape of Good Hope, plants of, 100,
Berkeley, Mr., on seeds in salt 336.
water, 322.

Carrier-pigoons killed by hawks,
Bermuda, birds of, 851.

825.
Birds acquiring fear, 190.

Cassini on flowers of compositæ,
annually cross the Atlantic, 131.
327.

Catasetum, 382.
colour of, on continents, 120. Cats, with blue eyes, deaf, 11.

footstops and remains of, in variation in habits of, 82.
socondary rocks, 272.

curling tail when going to
fossil, in caves of Brazil, 304. spring, 181.

of adeira, Bermuda, and Cattle destroying fir-trees, 66.
Galapagos, 351.

destroyed by flies in La Plata,
song of males, 81.

67.
transporting seeds, 824.

breeds of, locally extinct, 100.
Waders, 847.

fertility of Indian and Euro-
wingless, 122, 163.

pean breeds, 228.
with traces of embryonic Cave, inhabitants of, blind, 124.
teeth, 405.

Centres of creation, 316.
Bizcacha, 314.

Cepbalopodæ, development of, 397.
affinities of, 886.

Cervulus, 227.
Bladder for swimming in fish, 171. | Cetacea, teeth and hair, 131.
Blindness of cave animals, 124. Ceylon, plants of, 336.
Blyth, Mr., on distinctness of Chalk formation, 289.
Indian cattle, 17.

Characters, divergence of, 101.
on striped Hemionus, 148

sexual, variable, 152.
on crossed geese, 227.

adaptive or analogical, 884.
Boar, shoulder-pad of, 80.

Charlock, 70.
Borrow, Mr., on the Spanish Checks to increase, 62.
pointer, 32.

t-mutual, 67.
Bory St. Vincent on Batrachians, Chickens, instinctive tameness ok,
253.

194.

273.

Chthamalina, 259.

Otonomys, blind, 124.
Chthamalus, cretacean species of, Cuckoo, instinct of, 195.

Currants, grafts of, 235.
Oircumstances favourable to selec. Currents of sea, rate of, 323.
tion of domestic products, 37. Cuvier on conditions of existence,

to natural selection, 92. 185.
Cirripodes capable of crossing, 91. on fossil monkeys, 272.
cara pace aborted, 134.

Fred., on instinct, 187.
their ovigerous frena, 172.
fossil, 272.

Dana, Prof., on blind cave-animals,
larvæ of, 396.

126.
Classification, 370.

on relations of crustaceans of
Clift, Mr., on the succession of Japan, 834.
types, 304.

on crustaceans of New Zea-
Climate, effects of, in checking land, 337.
incroase of beings, 63.

De Candolle on struggle for exist-
adaptation of, to organisms,

ence, 58.
126.

on umbellifera, 132.
Cobites, intestine of, 171.

on general afinities, 387.
Cockroach, 70.

Alph., on low plants, widely
Collections, palæontological, poor, dispersed, 865.
258.

on widely ranging plants
Colour, influenced by climate, being variable, 29.
120.

on naturalisation, 104.
in relation to attacks by flies,

on winged seeds, 133.
178.

on Alpine species sud.
Columba livia, parent of domestic denly becoming rare, 157.
pigeons, 21.

on distribution of planta
Colymbetes, 346.

with large seeds, 324.
Compensation of growth, 133.

on vegetation of Aug.
Compositæ, outer and inner florets tralia, 840.
of, 131.

on fresh-water plants,
male flowers of, 406.

847.
Conclusion, general, 432.

on insular plants, 349.
Conditions, slight changes in, Degradation of coast-rocks, 253.

favourable to fertility, 239. Denudation, rate of, 256.
Coot, 167.

of oldest rocks, 276.
Coral-islands, seeds drifted to, Development of ancient forms, 301.
324.

Devonian system, 299.
roefs, indicating movements Dianthus, fertility of crosses, 230.
of earth, 277.

Dirt on feet of birds, 826.
Corn-crake, 167.

Dispersal, means of, 320.
Correlation of growth in domestic during glacial periods, 328.
productions, 11.

Distribution, geographical, 305.
of growth, 129, 178.

means of, 320.
Cowslip, 46.

Disuse, effects of, under nature,
Creation, single centres of, 816. 122.
Crinum, 224.

Divergence of character, 101.
Crosses, reciprocal, 231.

Division, physiological, of labour,
Crossing of domestic animals, im. 105.
portanco in altering breeds, 18. Dogs, hairless, with imperfect
advantages of, 88.

teeth, 11.
unfavourable to selection, 92. descended from several wild
Crustacea of New Zealand, 337. stocks, 17.
Crustacean, blind, 125.

domestic instincts of, 192.
Cryptocerus, 214.

inherited civilisation of, 193

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