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more rapidly than either. The export of both grain and oatmeal has about trebled during five years, while wheat and maize have about doubled. (189, 364) The principal importers of grain are Great Britain and South Africa; and of oatmeal, Great Britain, Germany, Netherlands and South Africa.

427. Commercial Grades.—The Illinois Board of Railroad and Warehouse Commissioners recognizes the following classes and grades of oats:

White oats, Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4.
White clipped oats, Nos. i, 2 and 3.
Oats, Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4.

In the Chicago market much the larger proportion of oats dealt in are white oats, and usually more of No. 3 than No. 4, more of No. 4 than No. 2, while seldom does a car grade No. 1. The following are the rules for grading white oats:

"No. 1 white oats shall be white, sound, clean, and reasonably free from other grain.

"No. 2 white oats shall be seven-eighths white, sweet, reasonably clean and reasonably free from other grain.

"No. 3 white oats shall be seven-eighths white, but not sufficiently sound and clean for No. 2.

"No. 4 white oats shall be seven-eighths white, damp, badly damaged, musty, or for any other cause unfit for No. 3."

The rules for white clipped oats are identical for similar grades, except No. i white clipped oats must weigh thirty-six pounds; No. 2, thirty-four pounds, and No. 3, twenty-eight pounds to the measured bushel, while white oats are not graded by weight. The rules for grading oats are identical with those for white oats, except where color is indicated it reads " mixed oats."


428. History.—While the origin of the cultivation of wheat can be traced with some probability to a warm climate, and that of rye to a cold climate, oats we find occupying an intermediate position. They were not cultivated by the ancient Egyptians or the Hebrews, as was wheat. Neither the ancient Greeks nor the ancient Romans cultivated them. They were likewise unknown to the ancient Chinese or the people of India.

All evidence points to eastern temperate Europe, and possibly Tartary, in western Asia, as the probable place of their first cultivation. They were cultivated by the prehistoric inhabitants of central Europe, but did not appear, it is believed, until long after wheat and barley. Hence they were less important in the early history of our race than either of the last named crops or rye. When central and northern Europe became civilized the cultivation of oats became vastly more important, becoming in some of the cool, moist climates north the most important cereal used for man's food. In Scotland it occupies one-third the land in cultivated crops, excluding land in pastures and meadows. In Ireland it constitutes one-half of all the grain and green crops.

Practicums. 429. Method Of Cross-fertilization.—Cross-fertilization in oats may be effected in a manner similar to that of wheat. (196) Remove all spikelets of the panicle which are not to be crossed and remove the upper flower of the remaining spikelet and cross the lower one.

430. Plant In The Field.—Each student should be given a printed or typewritten sheet, as indicated below, and requested to describe two or more varieties of oats growing in the field by underscoring the adjective which most nearly applies to the condition found.

1. Height of culm: average of ten culms to tip of outer glume on upper

spikelet . . .

2. Vigor of plant: strong; medium; weak.

3 Diameter below panicle: average of ten culms . . .

4 Depth of furrow below panicle: furrowed; medium; smooth, q Upper part of culm: solid; semi-solid; hollow. 6. Wall of culm: thick; medium; thin.

/. Color of culm: light yellow; yellow; bronze.

8. Foliage: scanty: medium; abundant.

9. Rust: leaves, per cent . . .; culms, per cent ... 10. Smut: per cent . . .

11. Panicle: open; partly closed; closed,

12. Flowering glumes: beardless; partly bearded.

13. Beards: long; medium short; straight; twisted.

14. Color of leaves: light green; medium green; dark green.

15. Leaf blade: average length of ten blades . . .

16. Leaf blade: average width of maximum dimensions of ten blades . , ,

17. Leaf blade: erect; ascending; drooping. iS. Leaf blade: smooth; rough; downy.

19. Ligule: large; medium; small.

431. Mature Dried- Plant In Laboratory.—Proceed as in paragraph above. If opportunity to study varieties in the field is lacking, some of the items above may be included here. If only a field practicum is desired, some of the items below may be included above.

1. Length of panicle: average of five panicles from base of lower whorl to tip of

flowering glume of upper spikelet . . .

2. Number of whorls: average of five panicles . . .

3. Number of main branches: average of five panicles . . .

4. Number of spikelets: average of five panicles . .

5. Variation in length of pedicel: . . . to . . .

6. Number of grains: average of five panicles . . .

7. Number of grains per spikelet . . .

8. Weight of grains: average of five panicles . . .; weight per 100

grains . . .

9. Relative size of lower and upper grains of spikelet: weight of twenty-five

lower grains . . .; weight of twenty-five upper grains . . . 10. Per cent of kernel: weight of 100 grains . . .; weight of 100 kernels

. . .; per cent . . . 1i. Plumpness: plump; medium; inflated.

12. Flowering glume: thick; medium; thin.

13. Length: twenty-five grains from base to tip of flowering glume . . . j

twenty-five kernels ...

14. Density: weight per bushel obtained by weighing one pint . . .

15. Color of grain: light yellow; yellow; gray; reddish brown; black.

432. Soil Fertility In Relation To Oats.—Provide each student with ten three-gallon earthen jars, which each may fill with earth secured from home farm or elsewhere. Make application of plant food as follows:

1. None.

2. Nitrogen.

3. Phosphorus.

4. Potassium.

5. None.

6. Nitrogen and phosphorus.

7. Nitrogen and potassium.

8. Phosphorus and potassium.

9. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

10. None.


Nitrogen may be obtained by applying sixteen grams of dried blood or twelve grams of nitrate of soda ; phosphorus by applying twenty-four grams of acid rock phosphate or dissolved boneblack; and potassium by applying four grams of potassium chloride. The fertilizers should be thoroughly mixed with the soil to a depth of six inches.

433. Influence Of Size Of Seed On Early Stages Of Plant Growth.— Divide sample of oats into large, medium and small grains. This may be done by hand selection or by means of a nest of sieves. Obtain weight of fifty grains of

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On the right, a nest of sieves for cleaning seeds; on the left, sieves with holes of various sizes, forms and positions. For further information see U. S. Dept. of Agr. Yearbook l 894, p. 406.

each and plant under similar conditions either in the field or in the plant house, taking care to cover the seeds a uniform depth. If in pots or trays in pot house, the soil can be removed more easily from the roots.

Note time required for plants to come up and number of plants produced. Obtain average height at end of each week. At end of three or four weeks, depending upon growth, obtain fresh and water-free weight of each lot of seedlings. Make sketches of the more important differences in roots and leaves of the different lots, if any.

434. Influence Of Treatment Of Seed Upon Germination.—Having carefully graded a sufficient quantity of oats, treat fifty grains each of the following ways:

t. Nothing.

2. Immerse in water at 70° F. for four hours.

3. Immerse in water at 70° F. for ten minutes.

4. Immerse in water at 1330 F. for ten minutes.

5. Immerse in water at 700 F. for forty hours, and then at 70° F. for five minutes

6. Immerse in one-fourth per cent solution of formalin for thirty minutes.

7. Immerse in one-half per cent solution of formalin for thirty minutes.

8. Sprinkle with No. 6 solution without immersing.

9. Immerse in two per cent solution of copper sulphate for ten minutes. 10. Nothing.

After treatment all lots are to be dried as much as they would need to be in order to be sown in a grain drill. Place in germinator at 700 F. and determine the number of seeds which have germinated at the end of twenty-four hours for five days. (475) Lots of seed may also be grown as in (433).

435. Collateral Reading. The Leading Cereal Crops in Canada. By Wm. Saunders. Experimental Fams

Rpt. 1903, pp. 6-33. Farm Manure. By A. Hebart. E. S. R. V, pp. 139-158. Origin of Cultivated Plants. By A. De Candolle. New York: D. Appleton & Co. (1902), pp. 373-376.

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