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can be extracted with water. These young plants, like all young plants, are rich in protein and as usually sold form a cheap and satisfactory source of protein for milch cows. The brewers' grains consist of that portion of the barley which is left after the removal of the sprouts and extraction of the carbohydrates made soluble through sprouting. They also form an acceptable food for milch cows, although they are less nitrogenous than malt sprouts. They may also be fed to fattening cattle and to horses. Neither is desirable for swine on account of the crude fiber contained. The composition of the dried forms is as follows:1

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From one-fourth to two-thirds of the protein of the malt sprouts may be in the form of amides. The nitrogen-free extract of the brewers' grains consists largely of pentosans and not true starch. Barley feed, a by-product in the manufacture of pearl barley, is produced in small quantities. It makes a rather low grade feed. Barley screenings, when ground, form an acceptable carbonaceous food.

IV. PRODUCTION AND MARKETING.

467. Barley Crop of the World.—The world's production of barley varied during the five years 1898 to 1902 from 921 million (1900) to 1,177 million (1902), with an average annual production of 1,013 million bushels. The following table shows the average annual production of barley for five years by continents in million bushels:

1 Mass. (Hatch) Bui 94.

1898-1902

'Europe ....... 788

North America 124 Asia 50

Africa ........ 48

Australasia 3

Grand total I1O13

Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary, in order named, are the principal barley producing countries, contributing twothirds the combined production of Europe and Asia.

468. Barley Crop of the United States.—In extent of production, barley ranks fourth among the cereals in the United States. The crop is, however, of much less importance than wheat, maize or oats. The acreage of wheat is more than onehalf, that of oats less than one-third, and that of barley about one-twenty-fifth the acreage of maize. Relatively, the acreage of barley is increasing. In common with the other cereals, barley has decreased in value per bushel; the average price during the ninety decade was forty-three cents, a decrease of sixteen cents from the previous decade. The value per acre in 1899 of the four crops named above was: wheat, $6.90; oats, $7.24; maize, $8.71; barley, $9.34.

469. Barley Crop of Canada.—The following table shows the average annual production of five cereals in the United States and Canada for five years, 1898-1902 inclusive, in million bushels :1

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470. Center of Barley Production.—In 1850 the North Atlantic division produced eighty-one per cent of the barley crop of the country; in 1900 the North Central division produced sixty-eight per cent, and the Western division twenty-eight per cent. The center of production has moved westward from about the center of New York in 1850 to near the junction of Iowa and South Dakota in 1900. In 1850 New York reported 69.4 per cent of the entire barley crop; in 1900, while reporting nearly the same number of bushels as in 1850, her contribution was only 2.5 per cent of the entire crop. The growth of barley is so concentrated in this country that nine States furnish ninety-one per cent of the total production. To produce an equal percentage of the maize crop, nineteen States would be required. The nine States referred to are California, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, South Dakota, North Dakota, Washington, New York and Nebraska; the first four of which produce three-fourths of the total crop.

471. Yield per Acre.—The average annual yield per acre of barley during the decade 1893-1902 was nearly twenty-four (23.7) bushels, an increase of more than one bushel over the previous decade. The yield per acre is quite uniform in all except the Southern States, which yielded about four bushels below the average. Thirty-five to forty bushels is considered a good yield per acre, and where the soil and weather conditions are very favorable, a higher yield may be obtained.

472. Exports and Imports. — During the past decade the annual export of barley has been about eleven per cent of the production, San Francisco being the chief exporting center. The United Kingdom, Australasia and Portuguese Africa receive the largest quantities of the exported grain. The import has been comparatively small, coming chiefly from Canada.

473. Commercial Grades. — The Illinois Board of Railroad and Warehouse Commissioners recognizes the following classes and grades:

Barley Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.
Scotch barley Nos. 1, 2 and 3.
Bay Brewing barley Nos. I, 2 and 3.
Chevalier barley Nos. 1, 2 and 3.

The rules for grading barley are as follows:

"No. 1 Barley.—Shall be sound, plump, bright, clean and free from other grain.

"No. 2 Barley.—Shall be of healthy color, not sound enough and plump enough for No. 1, reasonably clean and reasonably free from other grain.

"No. 3 Barley.—Shall include all barley slightly shrunken and otherwise slightly damaged barley, not good enough for No. 2.

"No. 4 Barley.—Shall include all barley fit for malting purposes, not good enough for No. 3.

"No. 5 Barley.—Shall include all barley which is badly damaged, or from any cause unfit for malting purposes, except that barley which has been chemically treated shall not be graded at all."

Grades for Scotch, Bay Brewing and Chevalier barley are the same as for barley, except they must be of the variety named, and in the case of the last two shall be grown in the Western States. More No. 3 barley is dealt in on the Chicago market than any other class or grade. The most important item in fixing the grade is the color, which should be as light as possible. Rains or dews readily discolor the hull after the grain is ripe and greatly lower the grade. No. 2 barley must weigh fortyeight pounds to the bushel, while No. 3 barley may weigh a "few" pounds less.

v. HISTORY.

474. History.—The culture of barley is very ancient . Both it and wheat were cultivated before we have any history of man. In ancient Egypt it was used as food for man and beast, and also made into beer. It was the chief bread plant of all those nations from which we derive our civilization. Barley continued to be the chief bread plant of continental Europe down to the sixteenth century. The introduction and wide cultivation of potatoes and the rapid development of the growth of wheat have brought about a decline in the use of barley. Barley was used to some extent by both man and beast in the early colonies of this country.

Practicums.

475. The Plant.—Each student should be given a printed or typewritten sheet, as indicated below, and requested to describe two or more types or varieties, as indicated. The study may be made in the field, or from fresh or dried specimens in the laboratory.

Height of culm: average of ten culms to tip of upper beard ...
Vigor of plant: strong; medium; weak.
Diameter below spike: average of ten culms . . .
Wall of culm: thick; medium; thin.
Color of culm: light yellow; yellow; bronze.
Foliage: scanty; medium; abundant.
Rust: leaves, per cent . . .; culms, per cent . . .
per cent . . .
erect; leaning; nodding.

Spike: two-rowed; four-rowed; six-rowed.
Length: average of ten spikes from lower joint
of rachis to tip of flowering glume (not count-
ing beard) of upper spikelet . . .
Number of joints of the rachis: average
ten . . .

Number of spikelets at joint of rachis . . .
Number of grains per spike: average ten spikes . . .
Weight of middle and lateral grains (if six-
rowed): average ten grains: middle . . .;
lateral . . .

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Grobecker's grain tester. Move 15
handle of knife, b, to the right,
thus opening the receiver, c-a;
put the barley to be tested
into cup, a, when, by slightly

476. The Grain.—Furnish each student with shaking the instrument, the one quart of the grain of two or more varieties of grains will fill the fifty holes, barley, preferably a two-rowed, six-rowed and hull

Now press the knife, b, back to its original position, thereby cutting each grain cresswise through the middle. Then move handles, a and b, aside, thereby laying open part c, when the number of mealy, half mealy and glassy grains may be counted.

less variety.

Color of grains: light yellow; yellow; dark yellow. Impurities: remove perfect and broken grains from ten grams; weight of perfect grains . . .; weight of broken grains . . . Volume weight: weight per bushel obtained by weighing one pint . . .

4. Specific gravity: use picnometer (203) . . .

5. Weight: one hundred grains . . .

6. Hull: thick; medium; thin; percent in twenty-five grains . . .

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