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made. There is also some sale for buckwheat groats, which is made by breaking the hull and separating the same from the kernels of the grain. The constant use of buckwheat is supposed to produce a feverish condition of the system which manifests itself in eruptions of the skin. Brewer suggests that inasmuch as plants of the buckwheat family are used for their medicinal properties, perhaps the cultivated species has some such property which affects its physiological value as a food. Buckwheat is highly prized as a poultry food, it being popularly supposed to stimulate the egg laying capacity of hens. There is no experimental evidence to support this belief. When ground, it makes a good food for swine. Under favorable conditions, 100 pounds of grain will produce sixty pounds of flour, twenty-four pounds of middlings or bran, and sixteen pounds of hulls. Buckwheat middlings is highly prized as a food for milch cows on account of its high percentage of protein and fat. Buckwheat hulls are of little value. They are sometimes mixed with the middlings, the mixture being known as buckwheat feed. As a food for domestic animals, the former is greatly to be preferred.

Buckwheat straw if protected from the weather is relished by stock. Where hay is so abundant that there is no occasion to feed straw, buckwheat straw has little feeding value; but if roughage is short it may be made to help out to good advantage. Used as bedding it does not last well, but it makes good bedding for cows, and because it is rich in minerals and rots so quickly it is desirable for manure. An old buckwheat straw stack or chaff pile is counted almost as good as manure. Some farmers report good results from using buckwheat as a green forage crop. It is highly prized for bees, buckwheat honey having a recognized place in the market.

586. Production.-Buckwheat is grown throughout the cooler portions of Asia, being extensively grown in Japan, and is rather sparingly grown in Europe, being less important there than formerly. It is grown somewhat extensively in portions of Canada. In the United States the area devoted to this crop is one-sixth that of barley, about one-third that of rye and equal to the combined acreage of rice and sorghum grown for its seed. While a secondary crop, its place in the agriculture in the sections where it is grown is more important than the statistics would indicate. New York and Pennsylvania produced two thirds, and, with Michigan, Wisconsin and Maine, produced more than four-fifths of the crop in 1899. The production has not changed materially in the past twenty-five years, although in 1860 the production was somewhat greater. In 1899 about 200,000 farms reported an average of about four acres each. There is a small importation of buckwheat from Canada; there is no export of either grain or flour.

587. Yield per Acre.—The harvested crop may vary in yield from five to fifty bushels, thirty bushels per acre being considered a rather large yield, and twenty to twenty-five bushels being considered satisfactory. The average yield in the United States in 1899 was, according to the census, fourteen bushels. The average yield for the ten years ending 1903, according to the estimates of the United States Department of Agriculture, was eighteen bushels per acre; the average December farm price per bushel for the same period was fifty-two cents.

588. History.--Although buckwheat is known to have been cultivated in China for 1,000 years, its cultivation is not believed to be very ancient. It was introduced into Europe in the Middle Ages, being unknown to the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. It was introduced early into the American Colonies, having been relatively much more important than at the present time. Formerly it was chiefly used as a substitute for wheat; now it is used as a luxury, although in many farm homes in Pennsylvania and New York buckwheat cakes constitute the principal bread food during the winter months. (170)

Practicums. 589. DESCRIPTION OF BUCKWHEAT.-Give each student typical plants of two or more varieties:

1. Height of stem .. . 2. Diameter of stem: at base .. 3. Seed clusters : number per plant ... 4. Number of grains: number per seed cluster ...; number per piani. . . 5. Color of grain: light gray; medium gray; dark gray ; brown ; black. 6. Plumpness of grain: plump; medium; shrunken. 7. Width: average of twenty-five grains ... 8. Length: average of twenty-five grains ... 9. Weight: average of twenty-five grains...; average of twenty-five hulis

...; per cent of hulls ... 10. Volume weight: weight per bushel by weighing one pint. II. Specific gravity: use picnometer. (203)

590. RELATION OF BUCKWHEAT TO SOIL MOISTURE.-Having selected a soil, determine the amount of water it will hold when completely saturated. Fill sixteen three-gallon jars with this soil and determine the percentage of moisture in the soil. Sow buckwheat in four jars with sufficient water to fully saturate the soil; to four jars add three-fourths this amount of water; to four jars add one-half this amount, and to four jars one-fourth this amount. By weighing the jars, maintain the amount of water in them as indicated. At the end of three, six and nine weeks remove the plants from one jar in each of the series; determine their fresh weight and the weight of water-free substance and add sufficient water to the remaining Jars to make up for the water of the plants. When the plants have ripened, determine the weight of grain and straw in each of the remaining jars.

INDEX.

47

318

93

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349

. 161

PAGE
Abnormal growths, maize...... 157
Acre, derivation ...
Advantage, plant breeder's..... 23
Aegilops .......
Aeschynomene virginica ...... 369
African millet ..

382
Agelaius phoeniceus ..... . 251
Agriculture, definition
Agronomy, distinct from botany

signification .....
Agrostemma githago .......
Aleurone layer, maize.... · 155
layer, wheat, the.

35
Alligator head .....

369
Alluim vineale .............
Andropogon halepensis

sorghum vulgaris ... 382
Antiquity, wheat .....

130
Aphis maidi-radicis ........ • 247
maidis ........::::::::::

250
Application of principle of

plant breeding delayed..
Army worm ...............
Arrhenatherum avenaceum .... · 280
Ash, in wheat............

38
maize ...
Artificial hybrids, wheat....
Avena sativa L...............
Bacillus cloacae ........ .... 244
Bacterial disease of dent maize

244, 245
disease of sweet maize. 244, 246
Barley, Bay Brewing.......... 327

breeding ............
by-products ....
center of production.... 340
Chevalier ............ 327
climate and soil...... 328
collateral reading ...
commercial grades

. 340
composition .....

321
crop of Canada...

339
crop of the U. S..

339
crop of the world .. 338
cultural methods

332
cabryo .............. 321
endosperm, character ... 320
exports and imports.
fungous diseases ... 336
germination

323
grain .........

· 319
grain, practicum .....
harvesting

334
history ......

• 340
hull ................

320
hull-less ...

325

PAGE
Barley, inflorescence .........

318
insect enemies ...........

336
manuring .......

330
plant ..........
plant, practicum ....
preparation of seed bed... 332
production and marketing. 338
qualities for malting...... 322
rate of seeding........... 333
relationships' .... ... 318
rotation ......

.... 329
Scotch ..

... 326
seed selection ... ..... 334
soil ..................... 329
species .................
structure and composition. 318
threshing ...

... 333
time of sowing...........
two and six-rowed varieties
use ....................
use for malting ..........
varieties ................ 323
weight per bushel........ 321
winter and spring varieties 326
yield per acre............ 340
yield per acre in bushels,

average sixteen years... 331
Barren stalks, maize.......... 151
Bay Brewing barley..........
Bere ...............

324
Bidens connata ...

243
frondosa

243
bipinnata ..

243
Bigg ..............

324
Bindweed ...

243
Bird's eye ...

369
Blackbird, American

.. 251
Blissus leucopterus ........98,
Blooming, time and manner of,

practicum
Bran, wheat ......
Brassica oleracea ..
Bread, amount from flour.....
Breeding, barley ..

fundamental principles
in animals ........

15
in plants ........:::..

15
maize, for composition ... 191
maize, for fat .........
maize, for protein ....... 192
maize, for starch ........ 192
maize with varying percents
of fat or protein.......

15
maize, methods ..

194
study of principles of **
plants

.... 15

327

328
337

344

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340

342

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PAGE
Brewers' grains :.:

........ 337
Broadcasting or drilling wheat 84
Bromus secalinus ............ 93
Broom corn, harvesting, method 393

corn, preparing for market 393
Buckwheat, climate .... ... 404

composition ....... ... 402
enemies ......

.. 407
fertilizers

.. 405
flowers ........

400
grain ...........

401
green manuring.

405
harvesting ....

407
history ........

.. 409
name .....
physical properties. .. 402
plant .........
practicums ..

410
preparation of seed bed... 406
production
relation to soil moisture,

practicum ............. 410
relationships ....

... 400
rotation of

405
seeding ........
soil .....

... 404
species ...

.. 403
varieties ...

.. 403
yield per acre . ....... 409
Bulb worm, wheat.........98,
Bull grass ....
By-products, barley ...
maize ...........

265
oats

310
rice ...
rye ...........

.. 352
wheat ......

... 119
wheat, composition ....... 119

wheat, food value.
Calandra granaria

.... 102
oryza ................

.. 102
Carbohydrates .......
Cecidomyia destructor .....98,
Center of production, barley.. 340

of production, rye........

wheat production ........
Cereals, age as cultivated plants 10

application of term...
Chalepus trochypygus ...... .. 370
Chamoeraphis ..........

243
Changes in farm crops. .. 14

of seed ............ • 20
Chess ........

349
or cheat ..

... 93
Chevalier barley

... 327
Chilo plejadellus .... ..... 371
Chinch bug, 247, 307 336, 349, 371

bug, wheat ... .......9
Choetochloa italica ....
Classification, oats ....

of field crops ....
Claviceps purpurea .......:
Climate, effects upon wheat,

growth

PAGE
Climate, effects upon wheat,

geographical distribution. 68
effects upon wheat, quality 68
influence on composition of

wheat grain ........... 44
Cockle ...................93,

.......... 243
Coffee, growth in Un

weed ........
Collateral reading, oats........
Color, maize .............
Commelina virginica .....
Commercial grades, wheat.
Composition, barley ......

buckwheat ..........
maize ...............

sorghum
Consumption of wheat per

capita ...... ...... 125
Control, difficulty of in plant
breeding

....... 16
Convolvulus .....

... 243
arvensis ....

................. 244
sepium .................. 244
Corn bill bugs..... ...247, 250

ear-worm ..... .....247, 250
root louse .... ...247, 249
root web-worm .. .....247, 249

root worm ...... .....247, 249
Cotton, place among fiber plants 9
Crambus ...........

247
Crop production, condition

production, possibility of.. 10
sorghum, of the U. S.... 397
sorghum, of the world...
wheat, of the U, S.. .... 122

wheat, of the world.... 121
Crops, choice of ........

field ...........
forage ...

of the world
miscellaneous ..
profitableness of
root ...........
specialty .............

staple in U. S...
Cross-fertilization, oats,

method, practicum .....
wheat .....

............. 64
wheat, law of.......... 65

wheat, method, practicum.
Crossing a method of inducing

variation ..............
maize .........

....... 190
oats .........
wheat, important as method

of improvement ........
wheat, varieties produced

by ...............
Crow ...

... 251
Culms of maize....

... 141
of wheat ........

.. 27
Cultivated plants, classification

of species ...
plants, number of species,

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