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made. There is also some sale for buckwheat groats, which is made by breaking the hull and separating the same from the kernels of the grain. The constant use of buckwheat is supposed to produce a feverish condition of the system which manifests itself in eruptions of the skin. Brewer suggests that inasmuch as plants of the buckwheat family are used for their medicinal properties, perhaps the cultivated species has some such property which affects its physiological value as a food. Buckwheat is highly prized as a poultry food, it being popularly supposed to stimulate the egg laying capacity of hens. There is no experimental evidence to support this belief. When ground, it makes a good food for swine. Under favorable conditions, 100 pounds of grain will produce sixty pounds of flour, twenty-four pounds of middlings or bran, and sixteen pounds of hulls. Buckwheat middlings is highly prized as a food for milch cows on account of its high percentage of protein and fat. Buckwheat hulls are of little value. They are sometimes mixed with the middlings, the mixture being known as buckwheat feed. As a food for domestic animals, the former is greatly to be preferred.

Buckwheat straw if protected from the weather is relished by stock. Where hay is so abundant that there is no occasion to feed straw, buckwheat straw has little feeding value; but if roughage is short it may be made to help out to good advantage. Used as bedding it does not last well, but it makes good bedding for cows, and because it is rich in minerals and rots so quickly it is desirable for manure. An old buckwheat straw stack or chaff pile is counted almost as good as manure. Some farmers report good results from using buckwheat as a green forage crop. It is highly prized for bees, buckwheat honey having a recognized place in the market .

586. Production.—Buckwheat is grown throughout the cooler portions of Asia, being extensively grown in Japan, and is rather sparingly grown in Europe, being less important there than formerly. It is grown somewhat extensively in portions of Canada. In the United States the area devoted to this crop is one-sixth that of barley, about one-third that of rye and equal to the combined acreage of rice and sorghum grown for its seed. While a secondary crop, its place in the agriculture in the sections where it is grown is more important than the statistics would indicate. New York and Pennsylvania produced twothirds, and, with Michigan, Wisconsin and Maine, produced more than four-fifths of the crop in 1899. The production has not changed materially in the past twenty-five years, although in 1860 the production was somewhat greater. In 1899 about 200,000 farms reported an average of about four acres each. There is a small importation of buckwheat from Canada; there is no export of either grain or flour.

587. Yield per Acre.—The harvested crop may vary in yield from five to fifty bushels, thirty bushels per acre being considered a rather large yield, and twenty to twenty-five bushels being considered satisfactory. The average yield in the United States in 1899 was, according to the census, fourteen bushels. The average yield for the ten years ending 1903, according to the estimates of the United States Department of Agriculture, was eighteen bushels per acre; the average December farm price per bushel for the same period was fifty-two cents.

588. History.—Although buckwheat is known to have been cultivated in China for 1,000 years, its cultivation is not believed to be very ancient. It was introduced into Europe in the Middle Ages, being unknown to the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. It was introduced early into the American Colonies, having been relatively much more important than at the present time. Formerly it was chiefly used as a substitute for wheat; now it is used as a luxury, although in many farm homes in Pennsylvania and New York buckwheat cakes constitute the principal bread food during the winter months. (170)

I

Practicums.

589. Description Of Buckwheat.—Give each student typical plants of two or more varieties:

1. Height of stem . . .

2. Diameter of stem: at base . .

3. Seed clusters: number per plant . . .

4. Number of grains: number per seed cluster . . .; number per plant .

5. Color of grain: light gray; medium gray; dark gray; brown; black.

6. Plumpness of grain: plump; medium; shrunken.

7. Width: average of twenty-five grains . . .

8. Length: average of twenty-five grains . . .

9. Weight: average of twenty-five grains . . .; average of twenty-five hulls . . .; per cent of hulls . . .

10. Volume weight: weight per bushel by weighing one pint. 11. Specific gravity: use picnometer. (203)

590. Relation Of Buckwheat To Sou, Moisture.—Having selected a soil, determine the amount of water it will hold when completely saturated. Fill sixteen three-gallon jars with this soil and determine the percentage of moisture in the soil. Sow buckwheat in four jars with sufficient water to fully saturate the soil; to four jars add three-fourths this amount of water; to four jars add one-half this amount, and to four jars one-fourth this amount. By weighing the jars, maintain the amount of water in them as indicated. At the end of three, six and nine weeks remove the plants from one jar in each of the series; determine their fresh weight and the weight of water-free substance and add sufficient water to the remaining jars to make up for the water of the plants. When the plants have ripened, determine the weight of grain and straw In each of the remaining jars.

INDEX.

PAGE Abnormal growths, maize 157

Acre, derivation 1

Advantage, plant breeder's 23

Aegilops 47

Aeschynomene virginica 369

African millet 382

Agelaius phoeniceus 251

Agriculture, definition 1

Agronomy, distinct from botany 2

signification 2

Agrostemma githago 93

Aleurone layer, maize 155

layer, wheat, the 35

Alligator head 369

Alluim vineale 93

Andropogon halepensis 382

sorghum vulgaris 382

Antiquity, wheat 130

Aphis maidi-radicis 247

maidis 250

Application of principle of

plant breeding delayed.. 15

Army worm 349

Arrhenatherum avenaceum .... 280
Ash, in wheat 38

maize 161

Artificial hybrids, wheat 66

Avena sativa L 280

Bacillus cloacae 244

Bacterial disease of dent maize

244, 245 disease of sweet maize.244, 246

Barley, Bay Brewing 327

breeding 328

by-products 337

center of production 340

Chevalier 327

climate and soil 328

collateral reading 344

commercial grades 340

composition 321

crop of Canada 339

crop of the U. S 339

crop of the world 338

cultural methods 332

e abryo 321

endosperm, character 320

exports and imports 340

fungous diseases 336

germination 323

grain 319

grain, practicum 342

harvesting 334

history 340

hull 320

hull-less 325

VAQl

Barley, inflorescence 31**

insect enemies 336

manuring 330

plant 318

plant, practicum 342

preparation of seed bed... 332 production and marketing. 338

qualities for malting 322

rate of seeding 333

relationships 318

rotation 329

Scotch 326

seed selection 334

soil 329

species 323

structure and composition. 318

threshing 333

time of sowing 333

two and six-rowed varieties 325

use 337

use for malting 337

varieties 323

weight per bushel 321

winter and spring varieties 326

yield per acre 340

yield per acre in bushels, average sixteen years... 331

Barren stalks, maize 151

Bay Brewing barley 327

Bere 324

Bidens connata 243

frondosa 243

bipinnata 243

Bigg 324

Bindweed 243

Bird's eye 369

Blackbird, American 251

Blissus leucopterus 98, 247

Blooming, time and manner of,

practicum 24

Bran, wheat 35

Brassica oleracea 18

Bread, amount from flour 117

Breeding, barley 328

fundamental principles — 15

in animals 15

in plants 15

maize, for composition ... 191

maize, for fat 191

maize, for protein 192

maize, for starch 192

maize with varying percents

of fat or protein 15

maize, methods 194

study of principles of

plants 15

PAGE

Brewers' grains 337

Broadcasting or drilling wheat 84

Bromus secalinus 93

Broom corn, harvesting, method 393
corn, preparing for market 393

Buckwheat, climate 404

composition 402

enemies 407

fertilizers 4°5

flowers 4°o

grain 4QI

green manuring 405

harvesting 407

history 4°9

name . 4°o

physical properties 4°2

plant 4°°

practicums 410

preparation of seed bed... 406

production 408

relation to soil moisture,

practicum 410

relationships 400

rotation 405

seeding 406

soil a 404

species 4°3

varieties 403

yield per acre 4°9

Bulb worm, wheat 98, 101

Bull grass 369

By-products, barley 337

maize 265

oats 310

rice 376

rye 35*

wheat 119

wheat, composition 119

wheat, food value 120

Caktndra granaria I 02

oryza 102

Carbohydrates 162

Cecidomyia destructor 98, 100

Center of production, barley.. 340

of production, rye 354

wheat production 124

Cereals, age as cultivated plants 10

application of term 4

Chalepus trochypygus 37°

Chamoeraphis 243

Changes in farm crops 14

of seed 20

Chess 349

or cheat 93

Chevalier barley 327

Chilo plejadellus 371

Chinch bug, 247, 307, 336, 349, 371

bug, wheat 98, 99

Choetochloa italica 383

Classification, oats 285

of field crops 3

Claviceps purpurea 350

Climate, effects upon wheat,

growth .. 69

PAGE

Climate, effects upon wheat,

geographical distribution. 68

effects upon wheat, quality 68
influence on composition of

wheat grain 44

Cockle 93. 95

Cocklebur 243

Coffee, growth in United States 9

weed 369

Collateral reading, oats 317

Color, maize _ 156

Commelina virginica 369

Commercial grades, wheat 128

Composition, barley 321

buckwheat 402

maize 158

sorghum 3^4

Consumption of wheat per

capita 125

Control, difficulty of in plant

breeding 16

Convolvulus 243

arvensis 244

sepium 244

Corn bill bugs 247, 250

ear-worm 247> 250

root louse 247, 249

root web-worm 247, 249

root worm 247, 249

Cotton, place among fiber plants 9

Crambus .. 247

Crop production, condition of.. 10

production, possibility of.. 10

sorghum, of the U. S 397

sorghum, of the world... 397

wheat, of the U. S 122

wheat, of the world 121

Crops, choice of n

field 2

forage 7

maize, of the world 268

miscellaneous 9

profitableness of 11

root 8

specialty 12

staple in U. S 9

Cross-f ertilxzation, oats,

method, practicum 3W

wheat 64

wheat, law of 65

wheat, method, practicum. 131
Crossing a method of inducing

variation 19

maize 190

oats 291

wheat, important as method

of improvement 65

wheat, varieties produced

by 64

Crow 251

Culms of maize 141

of wheat 27

Cultivated plants, classification

of species 3

plants, number of soecies. i

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