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INDEXES OF WAGE RATES, TEACHERS' SALARIES,

AND LIVING COSTS 180

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1913 1915 1920 1925 1930 1935 Source: US Department of Lobor, U. S. Doportment of Agriculture, ond U.S. Office of Education

1940 1943

Res. Div., Nat. Educ. Assn.

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SALARIES PAID TO PUBLIC SCHOOL CLASSROOM TEACHERS, PRINCIPALS. SUPERVISORS, AND SUPERINTENDENTS, 1942-43

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what they will have in nonteaching professions—it will influence their decision very much.

Senator ELLENDER. That will be an incentive, I understand, but the question is whether or not under the bill as drafted some of the money could be used for the purposes you indicated.

Dr. HUBBARD. As I understand it, it could be under the emergency part of the bill particularly.

Senator ELLENDER. Are there any questions?

Senator AIKEN. I would like to ask one question. To what extent are the men who left the teaching profession to enter the armed services returning to the teaching profession?

Dr. HUBBARD. We do not have statistics on that. We get letters constantly from servicemen, asking us to state under what conditions they can return to teaching. As to salaries, we are sending them our salary studies, and the studies of the Office of Education. I am sorry, sir, I cannot answer that for the country as a whole, but there is a small group that are now returning to the teaching profession.

Senator AIKEN. The reason I asked is because the men who left the farms to go into the armed services are not returning to the farms in any great numbers as they are discharged from the armed services.

Dr. HUBBARD. I heard of one study which had been made in a factory. It was a study made of teachers. I do not have the data with me here. The question asked was: "How many of you plan to return to teaching, your former job?” As I remember the statistics—and this is pulled out of the air—50 percent preferred to have factory work rather than teaching positions in the postwar period.

Senator ELLENDER. Are there any further questions? If not, thank you very much, Dr. Hubbard.

The committee will stand at recess until 2:30.

(Whereupon, at 12:10 p. m., the committee recessed until 2:30 p.m. of the same day.)

AFTERNOON SESSION

(The committee resumed at 2:30 p. m., pursuant to the luncheon recess.)

Senator ELLENDER. The meeting will be in order, please.

Will all those who have statements to submit for the record come up and submit them at this time. Give your name and whom you represent.

Mr. ÞRISCOLL. My name is W. Å. Driscoll, county superintendent of schools, Montgomery County, Dayton, Ohio. I am filing a statement from the executive secretary of the Ohio Education Association, representing some 40,000 teachers. Senator ELLENDER. Thank

you. (The statement submitted by W. A. Driscoll is as follows:)

Ohio EDUCATION ASSOCIATION,

Columbus, Ohio, January 22, 1945. Hon. JAMES E. MURRAY, Chairman, Senate Committee on Education and Labor,

Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR MURRAY: In connection with S. 181, I wish to write you concerning Ohio's interest in the progress of this bill.

The platform of the Ohio Education Association, the adoption of which was renewed on December 29, 1944, declares that

"The Ohio Education Association endorses the principle of Federal Aid to public education provided the legislation involved does not interfere with State and local management of the schools but will secure greater equalization of educational opportunity."

Ohio shares with all other States the common problem of inadequate compensation for its teaching staff. Teachers' salaries in Ohio are not adequate to compete with other types of employment into which teachers are qualified to enter. These salaries have not been adjusted to correspond with the rise in living costs and do not attract the entrance of young people into teacher training

As of December 1943, 1,482 Ohio teachers were employed on annual salaries of $1,000 per year or less, 6,100 were receiving salaries of less than $1,200 per year, and 24,483 were employed on salaries of $2,000 or less per year. Certainly, the first two categories are definitely on a substandard wage basis and those in the last-named category earn less than the average wage paid factory employees in the United States. In September 1944 the legislature provided temporary additional money which has made increases of from $100 to $200 per teacher possible.

This year 200,000 Ohio children have new teachers in their classrooms due to withdrawals for war service or employment in other fields plus a very high number of transfers from one teaching position to another for economic betterment. Considerably more than half of these children are being taught by teachers whose qualifications are below State standards and who can serve only because they have been granted temporary certificates by the State department of education. More than 5,000 temporary certificates have been granted.

The decline in the college enrollment of young people preparing to teach is alarming, and Ohio's experience corresponds with the national trend. Teaching does not compete in economic attractiveness with other callings and the source of supply is thus rapidly shrinking. The 5,000 temporary certificates already cited strikingly point up the supply situation in Ohio. This figure means that more than one-eighth of Ohio's teachers have qualifications which are below the State's reasonable standards.

There is urgent need for making additional money available to correct immediately injustices done teachers in the matter of their compensation but, perhaps even more important, is the effect that lifting of the salary level will have upon the flow of future recruits to teaching ranks. If present trends are not arrested, the postwar situation in our public schools will be a sorry one indeed.

It will not do to dismiss the whole matter as merely a self-centered desire of teachers for more money. The whole structure of a high quality of education for Ohio's youth which has been laboriously built up over a period of years can be

courses.

wrecked by a steady dry rot, the onset of which is graphically indicated by the figures already cited. The effects of a short-sighted policy toward schools today will be felt for a generation or longer. Yours very truly,

W. B. BLISS. Senator ELLENDER. Next, please.

Mr. MANNING. C. G. Manning, superintendent of schools, Lewistown, Mont. I am presenting a statement from the Montana Education Association. Mr. Chairman, will I have a chance to supplement that statement later?

Senator ELLENDER. Yes, sir; if you have anything else you would like to add to what you are putting in today simply send it to Chairman James Murray, of the Education and Labor Committee, Washington, D. C.

Thank you.

(The statement submitted by C. G. Manning is as follows:)

MONTANA EDUCATION ASSOCIATION,

Helena, Mont., January 22, 1945. Senator JAMES E. MURRAY, Chairman, senate Committee on Education and Labor,

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR MURRAY: The Montana Education Association, at its annual meeting, adopted the following resolutions :

Be it further resolved, That the Montana Education Association, recognizing that education is a local, State, and National problem, reaffirm its stand in favor of Federal aid to education without Federal control as provided in S. 637 and H. R. 2849.

Be it further resolved, That the Montana Education Association endorses a program for thorough and regular medical and dental inspection of all elementary and secondary school children, both city and rural, and for medical and dental treatment for all children found defective; these services should be organized as a regular part of the school program, the cost of which should be borne jointly by the community, the State, and the Federal Government."

Montana at the present time is probably the best situated financially in its history.

Since the bottom of the depression, we have increased the salaries of our school people from an average of $1,025 to $1,800. In spite of this effort, we find that the number of teachers employed has been reduced from 5,428 in May 1940 to 4,694 in September 1944. Of these 4,694, about 1,100 are teaching on emergency certificates based on qualifications as much as 2 years below the minimum requirements fixed by law. Over 1,500 married women are teaching, of whom at least two-thirds will drop out as soon as the war is over.

The total enrollment in our teacher-training institutions, both public and private, has dropped to about 250 with not more than 100 becoming available for replacements for the school year 1915–46. Our normal turnover is about 10 percent or 470; while for the last 4 years, it has averaged three times that figure. Of the returning veterans, former educators, only 1 out of 10 is coming back into school work. Even to hold our present staff of poorly prepared and temporary teachers, we must increase salaries by at least $200 on the average.

Our State legislature is now in session and proposals have been presented requesting enactment of bills that will adequately finance that minimum program. Already has come the statement from the floor leader in the House, the taxpayers' association, the board of equalization, and others, “Where is the money coming from?” This indicates a feeling that Montana cannot adequately finance its school program from local and State sources. The only alternative is Federal aid as provided in S. 181 and H. R. 1296.

Montana's difficulty arises from two sources:

1. About 50 percent of our produced wealth leaves the States and becomes the property of nonresident owners before it can be taxed.

2. We are subject to droughts, high shipping rates, and the fluctuations of price and demand due to the fact that we are a producer of raw materials, rather than finished products.

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