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STATEMENT OF ARTHUR COREY, REPRESENTING THE CALIFORNIA
Mr. COREY. I merely would like to file a statement representing the long-time policy of the California Teachers Association in defense not only of the general principle of Federal aid but of this particular bill.
Senator JOHNSTON. Thank you.
CALIFORNIA TEACHERS ASSOCIATION,
San Francisco, January 24, 1945. Hon JAMES E. MURRAY, Chairman, Senate Committee on Education and Labor,
Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR MURRAY: The State council of education, the governing and policy-making body of California Teachers Association, which has a membership of over 37,000 teachers of this State, has repeatedly taken formal action at its reglar semiannual meetings in favor of Federal aid to education.
Because of the great need in many parts of the Nation the State council has been unanimous in its support of Federal legislation to increase Federal aid to elementary and secondary schools throughout the Nation. Such action has been recorded repeatedly in the minutes of the meetings of this body.
It is our hope that something may be done at this session of Congress to relieve the serious and distressing conditions in portions of the United States both in the elementary schools and the secondary schools. We cannot continue to endanger the opportunity for adequate education to children of this country, merely because the accident of birth has placed them in communities hopelessly unable to provide adequate education for them. Yours very truly,
Roy W. CLOUD,
State Executive Secretary. Senator JOHNSTON. Anyone else?
STATEMENT OF J. L. BUFORD, REPRESENTING THE ILLINOIS
Mr. BUFORD. I would like to file this paper in behalf of the general principle of Federal aid to education as recommended by the Illinois Education Association.
Senator JOHNSTON. Thank you.
ILLINOIS EDUCATION ASSOCIATION,
Springfield, II., January 25, 1945. Hon. JAMES E. MURRAY, Chairman, Senate Committee on Education and Labor,
Washington, D. C. DEAR SIR: At its ninety-first annual meeting held at Springfield, nl., December 27-20, 1944, the Illinois Education Association by resolution advocated Federal àssistance to the States and Territories in the support of education, with the understanding that the expenditure of such funds and the shaping of educational policies shall be matters of State and local control. It furthermore resolved as follows: "The Illinois Education Association favors Federal aid to the public schools free from Federal control as provided in S. 637 and H. R. 2849 and requests its executive secretary to continue to solicit Members of Congress to support these bills. The Illinois Education Association recommends that members request their Senators and Congressmen to support Federal aid to the public schools.
These resolutions are predicated upon the association's belief (1) that educational opportunity should be equalized throughout the Nation up to a satisfactory minimum level, and (2) that national welfare being closely related to and dependent upon educational welfare, the National Government should contribute in part to the support of our public schools.
The association believes that although Illinois will be obliged to contribute more than twice as much as it would receive in direct benefits from the proposed Federal aid to public education bills, the indirect advantages to Illinois through the raising of educational and hence living standards in various States and communities throughout the Nation would return benefits to Illinois far greater than the direct financial returns the State would experience under the operation of these bills. The association is concerned with the ability of the Nation as a whole to produce sufficiently, efficiently, and economically not only for the purpose of winning the war but for the purpose of preserving our standards of living in economic competition during the postwar period with nations whose circumstances will allow great production at minimum costs. It is our belief that this national efficiency may best be secured and maintained through Nation-wide educational efficiency. It is furthermore our fear that if the educational needs of the Nation cannot be met through State or local finances and without Federal aid, the Government of necessity would be inclined to make Federal appropriations to specially created educational agencies not under State and local control.
We are joined in our support of these contentions by the Illinois Congress of Parents and Teachers, the Illinois Association of School Boards, the American Association of University Women, and similar State-wide groups. Sincerely yours,
IRVING F. PEARSON,
Executive Secretary. Senator JOHNSTON. Anyone else!
STATEMENT OF MRS. EDITH B. JOYNES, FEDERAL LEGISLATIVE
CHAIRMAN OF THE VIRGINIA EDUCATION ASSOCIATION
Mrs. Joynes. I would like to file this paper setting forth the needs of Federal aid for the State of Virginia. (The statement referred to is as follows:)
VIRGINIA EDUCATION ASSOCIATION,
Richmond, Va., January 26, 1945. Hon. JAMES E. MURRAY, Chairman, Senate Committee on Education and Labor,
Washington, D. O. DEAR SENATOR MURRAY: The need for Federal aid in Virginia is clearly revealed by the recent Inventory of Public School Expenditures in the United States,' which shows that it would require an additional expenditure of approximately $15,700,000, exclusive of transportation, capital outlay, and debt service, to give Virginia classrooms a support equal to the national average. This study shows that the median level of classroom support in Virginia was between $800 and $900 in 1939–40 as compared with a median between $1,600 and $1,700 for the United States as a whole. Thirty-five percent of the classrooms in the State were supported at less than $700 per year.
A few additional facts bearing on the need for Federal aid to enable Virginia to provide reasonable educational opportunity are cited below:
LOW EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
Only 77 percent of Virginians have completed the fifth grade, giving Virginia a rank of 42 among the States in this respect.
About one-fifth of the people of Virginia have completed high school, giving it a rank of 36.
However, only 1 out of each 16 Virginia nonwhites has completed the high school.
Median school year for Virginia is 7.5 years, placing it in forty-third rank among the States of the Nation.
Nearly three-fourths of Virginia rural adults, age 25 or over, are without high school and college training.”
1 American Council on Education, 1944.
2 The Virginia Public School System, report of the Virginia Education Commission, 1944, pt. II, Reports of Researcb Committees.
Of the county high and elementary schools of three or more teachers, 28 percent are deficient in site requirements; 50 percent in classrooms; 73 percent in gymnasiums; and 38 percent in auditoriums.
78 percent of the high schools are without adequate library rooms; 51 percent are lacking in sanitary toilet rooms; and heating is inadequate in 40 percent. County high schools have a deficiency of 34 percent in home economics rooms and 37 percent in shop rooms.
It is safe to say that fully one-half of the 2,312 small one- and two-room schools cannot be thought of as meeting any respectable plant standard.?
LACK OF EQUIPMENT Only 10 percent of the county elementary schools are adequately equipped. Only 37 percent of the elementary schools of six or more teachers approach a satisfactory standard in equipment, while 54 percent have meager equipment and 9 percent are inadequately equipped.
Only 14 percent of the county high schools have adequate equipment for teaching physical education; only 46 percent have sufficient auditorium facilities; only 41 percent, adequate safety and sanitary equipment; 40 percent, homemaking; 23 percent, science; 36 percent, adequate equipment for classrooms; and only 20 percent, adequate lunchroom facilities.
In the high-school-age groups our record of attendance is disturbingly low, notwithstanding the fact that increases have taken place. It is rather high through 14 years of age, but after the compulsory age limit of 15 the drop in percent of attendance is rapid.
In 1940, 89 percent of Virginia's 14-year-olds were in school, while for 16- and 17-year-olds the figure was only 55.5 percent.
DWINDLING TEACHER SUPPLY
Of 18,699 teachers during the school session 1942-43, 779 could not meet the minimum requirements for teacher certificates and were permitted to teach by the issuance of local permits. During the school year of 1943-44 the number of teachers teaching on local permits had risen to 1,766 and the superintendent of public instruction predicts that this number will be increased to more than 2,000 during the school session 1944-45.?
The proportion of male teachers has been declining over a long period of years. The need of more men who are competent teachers, particularly in high schools, is too obvious to need argument.”
An alarming shortage of candidates for teaching in the elementary schools has developed in recent years.
In the following fields in Virginia high schools, even in normal times, the supply of trained teachers has been definitely inadequate; trades and industrial arts, physical and health education, school librarians, and business or commercial education. In a slightly lesser degree the same thing can be said of agriculture, home economics, and distributive education."
In the five teacher training institutions surveyed there is a marked decrease in. the number of individuals preparing for teaching elementary work since 1940-41 (from 260, or 36 percent, in 1940–41 to 80, or 13 percent, in 1944-45).'
The seniors who are prepared to teach in the elementary department are about one-half the number that entered the teaching field in that department last session, and the 1943-44 number is slightly more than one-half the number that entered the teaching field in the elementary department in 1940–41.*
Whereas it is estimated that approximately 900 to 1,000 elementary teachers are needed each year as replacements in Virginia schools, from the enrollment figures at five of the six regular teacher training institutions (Mary Washington not included), it appears that less than 90 graduates will be available each year for the next 3 years and slightly over 100, 4 years hence, if all freshmen complete the elementary curriculum.“
2 The Virginia Public School System, report of the Virginia Education Commission, 1944, pt. JI, Reports of Research Committees
* Summarized Report of Commission on Education of Virginia, State Chamber of Commerce.
The Virginia Education Association has long been on record as favoring Federal aid to the States to equalize educational opportunity. In 1943 it adopted the following statement of principles of Federal aid which were reaffirmed by the delegate assembly at its annual meeting November 29, 1944, in a call for increased Federal aid :
"1. All Federal aid or grants for such programs within the States should be distributed to the States through the United States Office of Education.
"2. The United States Office of Education should deal directly with the regularly constituted State education authorities and not with local governmental agencies within the State.
"3. The Federal Government should provide consultative services and determine whether the Federal funds are being expended according to the declared purposes of the law establishing the appropriation but should not exercise any supervision or control over any school or State educational agency with respect to which any funds are expended pursuant to such law, nor should any term or condition of any agreement under such law relating to any contribution made to or on behalf of any school or State educational agency authorize any agency or officer of the United States to control the administration, personnel, curriculum, instruction, methods of instruction, or materials of instruction.
“4. The management and control of such programs within the State should be definitely assigned to the regularly constituted State educational authorities, since control of education is a State responsibility.
“5. A substantial part of any Federal funds made available to the States for education should be apportioned on an equalization basis in such a way as to effectively equalize educational opportunities among the States." Respectfully yours,
FRANCIS S. CHASE,
Senator JOHNSTON. Anyone else?
STATEMENT OF J. HAROLD SAXON, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY,
GEORGIA EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, ATLANTA, GA. Mr. Saxon. I would like to file a communication from his Excellency, Hon. Ellis Arnall, Governor of the State of Georgia, and a paper by Mr. John Paschall, editor and publisher of the Atlanta Journal.
(The papers referred to are as follows:)
STATE OF GEORGIA EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT,
Atlanta, January 18, 1945. Hon. J. HAROLD SAXON, Executive Secretary, Georgia Education Association,
Atlanta, Ga. DEAR MR. SAXON: I understand that you and a committee of educators will go to Washington, D. C., next week in behalf of legislation for Federal aid to education.
I have read rather carefully S. 181, introduced by Senators Thomas and Hill, and I am in position to endorse without equivocation the contents of this bill.
In my campaign for the governorship of Georgia I sponsored Federal aid for education as a part of my platform. The State Democratic convention in 1942 included this provision as a part of its platform.
The people of Georgia, in my opinion, are enthusiastically in favor of Federal aid for general education administered through the State and local administrative agencies.
The National Democratic Convention in Chicago very wisely, in my opinion, included a provision for Federal aid to education without Federal control.
* Meeting the Teacher Shortage, by G. Tyler Miller, Virginia Journal of Education for January 1945.
It would seem to me that the Nation is committed to a program of Federal support for general education. I hope that the Thomas-Hill bill will receive favorable action by the Congress. With highest regards and best wishes, I am Sincerely yours,
ELLIS ARNALE, Governor.
(From WSB's "Views of the News"]
FEDERAL AID FOR EDUCATION
(By John Paschall, editor, Atlanta Journal) A distinguished English woman, speaking in Atlanta recently, was asked about the effect of the bombings on the people of England. To the amazement of her audience, she replied that the spirit of the people had been lifted by the ordeals through which they had lived and that they had somehow managed to get a new sense of values that they had never had before. “Of course, I pray that America will be spared this devastation,” she said, “yet I am convinced that we in England have received something of great price that we could not otherwise have achieved for ourselves without those long soul-testing days and nights.”
NEW SENSE OF VALUES When this terrible war is over and our soldiers return from half a hundred battle fronts, we may be sure that they, too, will have a new sense of value. They know what they are fighting for, if some of us still almost untouched by the war are living in a fool's paradise. One thing, we may be sure, they will expect adequate educational opportunities for their children and their children's children. This they do not now have in Georgia and some 40 other of the 48 States of the Union, if, indeed, they have these privileges in full measure anywhere.
It is estimated that some 200.000 physically fit boys have been rejected by the armed services because of insufficient education. That surely is a "blot on the 'scutcheon" of American democracy. Ten million one hundred and four thousand six hundred and twelve adult citizens in the United States over 25 years of age have completed not more than 4 years of schooling, and 461,871 of these are in the Empire State of Georgia. We may win the right to the "four freedoms"freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from want, and freedom from fear—but we cannot truly have them or know what to do with them, or hope to preserve them without education.
All of which is by way of calling attention to the Federal aid for education bill now pending in both Houses of Congress. This bill, known as Senate bill 637 and House bill 2849, identical in purpose, except for a word or two in language, authorizes the appropriation of funds to assist the States and Territories in more adequately financing their systems of public education during the emergency, and in reducing the inequalities of educational opportunities through public elementary and secondary schools.
The bill provides for two distinct types of appropriations. The first authorization is for an appropriation of $200,000,000 annually to the States for adjusting teachers' salaries to meet the current deplorable situation. These funds are to be distributed to the States on the basis of average daily school attendance, and on this basis the State of George would receive $5,319,600 annually during any year in which Congress finds the need therefor.
The second authorization is a permanent one, and provides for an annual appropriation of $100,000,000 for the purpose of more nearly equalizing educational opportunities in and among the States. The basis of this authorization is need, as evidenced by the States' economic ability and the number of schoolage children. Georgia's share in this appropriation would be $5,145,880. Georgia's total from the two appropriations would be $10,465,580, so long as Congress continues the emergency appropriation, and approximately half this amount when the emergency ceases. No matching funds are required, as in the usual Federal aid bills. Thus the poorer States will benefit equally with the more economically fortunate.