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In December of 1944 I requested the Budget Commission of West Virginia to insert in the budget for each year of the next biennium, $3,374,021 to permit increases of salaries for teachers. Funds available permitted the board to insert only $685,000 for each year. And, moreover, I was advised that the chances for additional revenues from increased taxes are virtually nil. I requested the additional funds for the purpose of securing teachers for the emergency, for rewarding professional and academic preparation, and for retaining in the profession men and women of long service. With funds not available from the State and with but little hope of securing the allocation of present funds for increases in teachers' salaries, I turn to Congress with an appeal for aid.

I feel justified in making these requests for additional money because of the very important work of the schools in keeping morale in war activities and in preparing the boys and girls of today to become constructive members of the society of tomorrow. In the many schoolrooms throughout the Nation, teachers have helped to make America what it is today. They can and will contribute much toward making a better America for tomorrow.

In behalf of the children whom our teachers are serving and in behalf of the general welfare of our communities and our Nation, I beseech you to lend your influence and vote toward enacting into law (S. 181, H. R. 1296) and securing appropriations to carry out the purposes of the bill. Very sincerely yours,

W. W. TRENT, State Superintendent of Free Schools.

AMERICAN VOCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, INC.,

February 14, 19:45. STATEMENT ON S. 181

At the meeting of the house of delegates of the American Vocational Association, Inc., held December 7, 1944, at Philadelphia, Pa., the following resolution was unanimously passed :

"13. In order to equalize educational opportunities for all it is our belief that Federal aid for general education, with a minimum of Federal control, should be made available to the States for general education purposes in conformity with the general principles outlined herein.”

The principles outlined provided "that all Federal funds made available for any type of education program or service, should be channeled through the already established legally constituted educational authorities on the Federal, State, and local levels."

The American Vocational Association urges Congress to give serious and favorable consideration to the proposals embodied in S. 181 which aim to assist the States in providing a basic system of general education. Respectfully submitted,

M. D. MOBLEY, President.

IOWA STATE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION,

Des Moines, Iowa, February 14, 1945. Hon. JAMES E. MURRAY, Chairman, Senate Committee on Education and Labor,

Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR MURRAY: We, the members of the Iowa State Teachers Association, heartily endorse the provisions for Federal aid to schools as contained in the Federal Educational Finance Act of 1945. We believe in the principle of Federal aid to schools without Federal control in their operation. We believe that appropriation of $100,000,000 for equalizing educational opportunities among and within the States is most sound educationally and will be most beneficial to the Nation as a whole. We also believe that the $200,000,000 appropriation can come none too soon to avert a complete collapse in the teacher supply for the schools of our Nation. We ask that the Senators composing the Committee on Education and Labor and that the Senate as a whole give careful consideration to the aspects of this bill and the educational problems at hand. We feel that the welfare of children and the schools for generations hinges on your action and the success of this measure. Sincerely yours,

Chas. F. MARTIN, President.

KENTUCKY EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, INC.,

Louisville, Ky., January 26, 1945. Hon. JAMES E. MURRAY,

Chairman, Senate Education Committee, Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR MURRAY: The 11 regional districts of the KEA have passed resolutions urging Federal aid to education for several consecutive years. The resolutions committee of the KEA has passed similar resolutions for a number of years. Our present Governor, Simeon Willis, in his preelection campaign speeches strongly advocated Federal aid for education. The state PTA, Federation of Womens Clubs, the League of Women Voters, the Junior Chamber of Commerce, the American Federation of Labor, and many other powerful organizations in this State have consistently and repeatedly adopted resolu. tions on the matter of Federal aid to education and specifically endorsed the bills which have been before Congress for that purpose. Of course, the KEA has worked continuously with the support of its membership of 18,000 teachers.

This office holds itself in readiness to render any further service in behalf of this important legislation. Cordially,

W. P. KING, Erecutive Secretary, Kentucky Education Association.

MARYLAND STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION (The following excerpts are from a report of the State policies comunittee which was presented to and accepted by the Maryland State Teachers' Association in 1944:)

SPECIAL POLICIES COMMITTEE REPORT

The question of Federal aid for education has aroused the interest and action of schoolmen throughout the Nation. Some look upon the receiving of Federal aid as a great boon to the educational systems of the land; others feel it to be a dangerous entering wedge whereby the various States will eventually forfeit to the Federal Government control of education within their own domains. Both viewpoints have worthy proponents. In order to come to some decision regarding the stand our association should take, the special policies committee studied the problem from the angles discussed below and came to the conclusions which follow.

1. What are the main reasons for proposing that the States receive from the Federal Government financial aid for their educational programs

(a) A large number of the 48 States are financially unable to provide an adequate educational program for their youth.

(6) Some States are lax in accepting the responsibility for establishing an efficient educational program for their children.

(c) As the population of the United States is highly mobile, the adjustment of pupils from backward areas presents a difficult problem to school systems in the more favored sections of the Nation.

2. How would Maryland profit by a program of Federal aid?

(a) Because of her economic wealth, Maryland would receive less by Federal aid than she would pay toward the equalization of opportunity in other States.

(b) Maryland is an integral part of our Nation and thus is affected by the condition of the country as a whole.

(c) Maryland would gain in self-respect by fulfilling her moral obligations to the children of the Nation.

3. What safeguards should be incorporated into a program of Federal aid for education?

(a) Federal aid should be anportioned on a definite objective basis which is not subject to political manipulation.

(b) The Federal funds should be allotted only to those States which can show that they are making every effort to provide an adequate education for their youth.

(c) Federal funds should be provided only if the educational situation in the State is according to accepted standards of good school administration.

(d) Federal funds should be used to strengthen the State's existing educational program, but their use should not be dictated or controlled by the Central Government.

(e) Each State receiving Federal aid should make a full report upon the expenditure of these sums.

In conclusion, the committee recommends that the Maryland State Teacher's Association support the principle of Federal aid and that it assist in securing for the schools of the Nation a program which will incorporate the safeguards enumerated in this report. It concurs with the statements given below, quoted from a recent article on the subject. (Exact source unknown.)

1. The Federal Government can never be expected in the future to ignore completely the educational needs of the Nation or to refrain entirely from any effort to supply funds to meet those needs.

2. As long as funds for schools, or for any phase of the school program, are made available indirectly through noneducational agencies, we must continue to expect to face the problem of increasing Federal control of the school program.

3. Recent tendencies to try to meet educational needs indirectly through noneducational agencies, if continued, are certain to result in increasing confusion and further misunderstanding of the real issues involved.

4. The-logical way to avoid further Federal control of schools, and to eliminate some of the present control by noneducational agencies, is to establish a definite plan of direct Federal aid.

EARE T. HAWKINS, Chairman.

MICHIGAN EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE REPRESENTATIVE ASSEMBLY, APRIL 15, 1944

Federal aid.-In order to provide more equal educational opportunities for all throughout the several States, we endorse in principle the assistance of Federal funds for education. We urge the appropriation of Federal aid for public education, with the provision that the expenditures of such funds and the planning of the educational program remain a function of the local school authorities.

MINNESOTA EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

The following statements are taken from the report of the resolutions committee of the Minnesota Education Association, January 1944 :

"We strongly support the stand of the National Education Association in behalf of the principle of Federal aid to education, under State control, to the end that educational opportunity throughout the Nation may be more nearly equalized."

"We believe in the principle of Federal aid for education distributed on the basis of need. We further believe that the administration of Federal aid should be by Iocal authorities. We also believe there should be an emergency aid at this time to help distressed areas, both geographically and educationally, until a long-time educationally sound plan can be evolved. However, it is our opinion that Federal assistance should not be used as a means of replacing or reducing present State or local support of education."

NEBRASKA STATE EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

The position of the Nebraska State Education Association on the subject of Federal aid to public education is best represented, according to Archer L. Burnham, executive secretary, by the following statement reported in the Nebraska Educational Journal, January 1945, pages 21–22:

"The delegate assembly of the NSEA has accepted certain principles for the guidance of the association respecting 'Federal aid without Federal control.' A statement of these principles is made a part of this report for the further consideration and suitable action of the delegate assembly. The principles as adopted are as follows:

"(1) An effort should be made by the State and all local communities to sup port a sound educational program by State and local taxation.

“(2) Community-centered and locally administered and controlled schools are desirable: federally controlled and administered schools are not desirable.

(3) Federal aid for the general support of education is favored, limited to the amount necessary to supplement the State and local support to secure a

desirable educational program, preferably on an equalization basis, and distributed through the State department of public instruction. It is important not to confuse the organization and Federal control of education with the Federal aid and support of education.

“(4) Opposition is expressed to all forms of expansion in Federal aid to education that do not provide for such support through the regularly established administrative channels of education of the State and local community.

“(5) All forms of Federal support that lead to the establishing of dual or parallel systems of education which duplicate or are inconsistent with local autonomy and controlled are not approved.

“(6) Support is given to all efforts to direct Federal aid and support of education through the State department of public instruction and the regularly established local educational agencies.

“(7) Special emergency Federal aid to schools through regularly established educational channels and in accordance with the principles of justice is approved. This principle is illustrated by the removal on the part of the Federal Government of property from the normally assessable local tax rolls; when the Federal Government establishes an enterprise in a local community which creates a need for educational services of any kind normally provided by the local governmental unit; and in all cases where the local economy is materially disturbed by a necessary activity of the Federal Government."

NEW YORK STATE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION

The following resolution, adopted by the house of delegates of the New York State Teachers Association in a meeting at Buffalo, November 20–21, 1944, states the viewpoint of the association on the subject of Federal aid to education. The resolution is reported in New York Education, the official publication of the New York State Teachers Association, January 1945, page 253.

*5. Federal aid:

"Resolved, That this association record its belief in the necessity for a program of Federal aid sufficient in amount to guarantee an adequate minimum program of education, and emphasizes its belief that it is imperative that control of education shall continue to be vested in the States and local school districts, and that the executive committee of the New York State Teachers Association should continue to support this policy."

NORTH DAKOTA EDUCATION ASSOCIATION,

Bismarck, N. Dak., February 6, 1945. Hon. JAMES E. MURRAY, Chairman, Senate Education and Labor Committee,

Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR MURRAY: The North Dakota State department of public instruction made a survey including every school district in the State of North Dakota, which showed that the current expenditures for the year 1944-45 will exceed the maximum possible current revenue by more than $3,000,000. Last year the current expenditures exceeded the current revenue by about $1,500,000. This deficit of current expenditures over current revenue has been paid out of the reserve built up from the payment of back taxes. From 1932 to 1938, because of the depression and the drought, taxes were levied, but a large percentage of them were not paid. From 1910 on, these back taxes have been paid, and that is the reserve that the schools in North Dakota have used for the last 3 or 4 years to keep their schools open.

This reserve is now depleted with the result that from now on we will have to operate on current revenue. The North Dakota Legislature recognizes this problem, and they are doing everything they can to meet the situation. The figures will show that North Dakota has always exerted more than average effort to keep its schools open. The legislature is now taking the necessary steps so that North Dakota will exert even more effort. However, the North Dakota Education Association, the North Dakota Congress of Parents and Teachers and the school offcers' association, together with thousands of other interested laymen, believe that the Congress of United States should pass Senate bill 181 to equalize educational opportunities in the United States. Sincerely yours,

A. C. VAN WYK, President.

JANUARY 20, 1945. RESOLUTION FROM OKLAHOMA EDUCATION ASSOCIATION ENDORSING SENATE BILL

181 AND HOUSE RESOLUTION 1296

Data from A. L. Crable, State superintendent of public instruction, showing distribution of teachers in Oklahoma public schools by salary intervals, school year 1943–44, with number of pupils in every type of school, and average salaries of each group.

Submitted by O. W. Davison, superintendent of schools, Chandler, Okla., chairman, Oklahoma National Educational Association, legislative committee.

RESOLUTION FROM OKLAHOMA EDUCATION ASSOCIATION COMPOSED OF 17,236 PUBLIC

SCHOOL TEACHERS AND APPROXIMATELY 300 COLLEGE INSTRUCTORS

Because of the alarming conditions now prevailing in the Oklahoma schools, with thousands of pupils denied even a minimum educational opportunity, and with many schools closing due to lack of teachers who are resigning in constantly increasing numbers due to inadequate salaries, we endorse and urge the passage of Senate bill 181 and House Resolution 1296.

First adopted in a State meeting of the Oklahoma Education Association, March 13, 1943.

Readopted and revised by the executive committee of the Oklahoma Education Association, January 22, 1945.

G. T. STUBBS,
President Oklahoma Education Association.

CLYDE HOWELL,
Secretary, Oklahoma Education Association.

0. W. DAVISON,
State Chairman Natioal Education Association,

Legislative Committee. Distribution of teachers in Oklahoma public schools, by salary intervals, school

year 1943-44

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STATEMENT OF THE SOUTH CAROLINA EDUCATION ASSOCIATION ON SOUTH CAROLINA'S

NEED FOR FEDERAL AID AS PROVIDED IN S. 181

(Submitted by J. P. Coates, secretary, February 4, 1945)

The following facts are based on statistics for the year 1942-43, the latest available:

(1) Of the Selective Service registrants of the Nation, between May 15 and September 15, 1941, 2 percent signed their registration cards with a mark; in South Carolina 13.8 percent signed with a mark. (Only one other State had as high percentage.) This large percentage is due largely to our high ratio of Negroes to white people.

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