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(2) According to the 1940 census, 24.19 percent of South Carolina's children between the ages of five and 17 years were not even enrolled in school ; 7.9 percent of the adults over 25 years of age had never attended school, and 34.7 percent had completed less than five grades.

(3) The total school enrollment in South Carolina is 465,452. Our school session is 163.4 days (the average for the Nation is 175.5 days). Only four other States have a shorter term. We spend annually $19.37 per pupil on his education (the national average is $104.85 per pupil). Only three States spend less per pupil than we do. Our average annual salary is $902 per instructional person including superintendents, principals, supervisors and teachers (the national average is $1,599). In only three States is the salary lower.

If all the schools of the Nation were rated on what is known as “equal classroom units," it would be found that the national average median expenditure per classroom unit would be between $1,600 and $1,699; the average for South Caro. lina would be $1,000.

(4) The above figures would indicate that South Carolina is doing very little to educate its people, but let's look at the other side. According to the 1940 census, also, there are more children of school age per adult in South Carolina than in any other State in the Nation--589 per 1,000 adults between the ages of 20 and 64 years. California has only 277 children of school age per 1,000 adults. Thus, South Carolina's educational burden is twice that of California. The average for the Nation is approximately 365 children of school age per 1,000 adults. The national average income per person aged 20 to 64 was $976_the average for South Carolina was approximately $560. In California it was approximately $1,300.

It is apparent that California, with two and one-half times the per capita income and only half the educational burden of South Carolina, can give her children five times the educational offerings that South Carolina can give with the same amount of educational effort.

If every State in the Nation made the same average effort to support its public schools, South Carolina would be spending approximately $12 per child while Delaware would spend $158 per child. As a matter of fact, there are only four States which spend a larger percent of their relative taxpaying ability for public schools than does South Carolina.

Thus it is seen, from a look at both sides of the picture that while South Carolina is very low in its educational status, it is very high in its efforts to support education.

The Federal Government is the only agency that can tax wealth where it is, and can spend it where the needs are greatest. Only a sound “Federal Aid to Education" program, administered by the States through their regular constituted school agencies will at all equalize educational opportunities of the children of the Nation.


Newcastle, Wyo., February 10, 1945. Hon. JAMES E. MURRAY, Chairman, Senate Education and Labor Committee,

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR MURRAY: At the annual business meeting of our Wyoming Education Association at Casper, November 244, 1944, the following paragraph was included in our resolutions :

“We ask all Wyoming educators and all friends of education vigorously to favor legislation for Federal aid without Federal control so that greater equalization opportunity throughout the Nation will result.”

The previous year, on November 6, our resolutions included the statement: "We believe that equalization of educational opportunity on a national basis is a vital step in the promotion of democracy."

Similar action was taken at our annual meetings in 1942, 1941, 1910, 1939, and 1939.

For quite some years we have had Federal aid for high-school teaching of some such special subjects as agriculture, home economics, mechanics. There bas, likewise, been considerable amount of Federal aid to certain colleges for training teachers of special subjects, but there has not been direct Federal aid for cementary schools nor for high schools except for the special subjects mentioned.

For many years educators have felt that special aid to colleges and high schools was, to a considerable extent, failing to accomplish its objective since so many children were not offered adequate training in the elementary schools. Within the past generation the amount of taxable wealth in proportion to the number of children to be educated has tended to become more and more unequal among our 48 States. At the same time we have become a Nation of travelers and now think little more of changing our residence across a State line than our grandparents would have thought of moving across a county line. It is evident to the educators of America that we must offer adequate elementary and high-school training to all children in each of the 48 States, and it is equally evident to educational leaders that in consideration of the unequal financial ability of the States this result will never be accomplished in even a reasonably efficient manner until tax moneys are collected at the national level and distributed where the children reside.

We wish to state that we believe the Senate bill 181 would accomplish a great deal of good throughout the Nation. Very truly yours,

0. C. KERNEY, Secretary.


January 26, 1945. Hon. JAMES E. MURRAY, Chairman, Senate Education Committee,

Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR MURRAY: After deliberate consideration of S. 181, the Santa Barbara Chapter of Phi Delta Kappa Fraternity, in special session at the University Club, last night voted unanimously in favor of the passage of this bill.

As you know, California has had a tremendous increase in population during the last year. The school population has increased by thousands. The increased costs of education can be met in only one of two ways-by making the children of California pay the bill through reduced educational opportunities or by placing a tremendous burden on the taxpayers.

In view of the seriousness of the situation in regard to public education in
California, as well as throughout the Nation, we urge the passage of S. 181.
Very truly yours,

Roy L. SOULES, Chairman,
Past President, California Industrial Education Association.

Superintendent, Santa Barbara City Schools.

Dr. CHARLES A. JUDD, Consultant on Social Studies, Santa Barbara City Schools.

Dr. LEONARD L. BOWMAN, Member, Executive Committee, National Education Association.



January 18, 1945. RESOLUTION

Because the wealth of the Nation tends to center in certain areas; and

Because some States, according to studies made, cannot finance without undue hardships an adequate educational program, and thus the children are not given an equal educational opportunity; and

Because the schools of the Nation must serve as the basis of a sound national security program: Therefore be it

Resolved. That we, as the Central Utah Men's Education Club and the Tau Field Chapter of Phi Delta Kappa, recommend the passage of Federal legislation providing Federal financial help with the minimum Federal interference as expressed in S. 181 and H. R. 1296.

G. L. WOOLF, President.


Brigham, Utah, January 29, 1945. Senator MURRAY, Chairman, Senate Committee on Education and Labor,

Senate Chamber, Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR MURRAY: The Box Elder Chamber of Commerce asks that favorable consideration be given S. 181. It is our sincere belief that the passing of this bill will be an asset not only to our educational department but to the Nation as a whole. Sincerely yours,

HOWARD DEWEY, Secretary.


COUNTY SCHOOLS, ATLANTA, GA. Mr. WELLS. I would like to file a brief statement with reference to an analysis that I have made of the teachers who have left our school system in the last 15 months which includes information on the salaries we paid them, the positions they took elsewhere, and in some instances the salaries they received in those other positions. This statement will show that we have lost some of our top people with salaries as high as $3,000, when they were employed at still higher salaries elsewhere. We have a system in Fulton County that pays the highest salaries of any teachers in the State of Georgia, with the exception of Atlanta. It goes to show that during this emergency even teachers with better salaries are leaving the school systems and seeking work elsewhere. I want to emphasize the necessity for the emergency fund authorized by bill S. 181 to help us through in order to keep from wrecking our schools.

Senator Taft. I had letters from teachers and from departments of education asking me to intervene with the War Manpower Commission on the ground that school teaching was recognized as an essential industry, or whatever it is that is necessary to maintain them in schools. Do you have any difficulty in that respect?

Mr. WELLS. Yes.

Senator Tart. The men that do not want to be drafted feel they are safer if they go into war plants than if they remain in teaching.

Mr. WELLS. These teachers are not going to war plants necessarily, they are going to Government jobs other than war plants.

Senator Tarr. That is the same thing, as far as being considered essential to the war is concerned.

Mr. WELLS. Maybe that is so, but I have accepted resignations from teachers with families if they can get $50 to $75 or $100 more a month for salary, in an effort to meet the increased cost of living.

Senator Tart. What do you feel your teachers would be increased by this?

Mr. Wells. We haven't received a break-down for the State of Georgia in respect to the money that will come to the State of Georgia through this bill. We cannot tell, in these local school systems, until that is worked out, but I should think it would mean to Fulton County in the neighborhood of an 8- to 10-percent increase in our operating revenue.

Senator Taft. So, if a man could get $50 a month more somewhere else, it would be just about the same incentive for him to leave the school.

Mr. WELLS. We would be able to hold a great many more people, no doubt, with the 10-percent increases in salaries.

Senator Tarr. It would not come to anything like $50 a month, in which case you say you always grant the resignation.

Mr. Wells. It would not solve the problem entirely, of course, but it would be a step in the right direction.

(The statement submitted by Mr. Wells is as follows:) MR. CHAIRMAN AND MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE: I have made a careful analysis of the vacancies that have occurred in the Fulton County school system of Georgia for the last 15 months.

We have had 1 teacher with a salary of $3,000 a year leave us for better employment. We have had 2 teachers at a salary of $2,800 leave; 2 with salaries of $2,550; 3 with salaries of $2,100; 12 with salaries from $1,500 to $2,000; 18 with salaries from $1,200 to $1,500; 13 with salaries from $900 to $1,200; and 10 with salaries at $900 leave our schools.

These teachers have resigned for the following reasons: 17 accepted Government positions ; 13 accepted teaching positions elsewhere; 12 married and gave up teaching; 5 were employed by industry; 10 merely stated the salaries were too low, and we are unable to tell where they have gone for employment.

In addition to the 61 vacancies created by resignations, we have 77 teachers on leave of absence for service in the armed forces or with the Red Cross, or on account of illness. These leaves of absences have been granted during the last 212 years. We have had over 200 changes made in the last 2 years in our system that employs 700 teachers. We have the best salary system in the State of Georgia, with the exception of the city of Atlanta. We have other advantages such as tenure, retirement provisions, insurance that should induce teachers to stay in the profession. However, in spite of these advantages and our salary schedule, we are losing many of our top teachers. I wish to emphasize the necessity for Federal aid, not only as an equalizing measure, but especially as an emergency feature at the present time. Unless we are able to compete with Government agencies and industry during this emergency with a salary schedule competent to attract deserving teachers, the school systems will be irreparably damaged and the children miserably neglected.

There are now 23 vacancies in Fulton County, and 17 teachers with only temporary certificates.

Senator JOHNSTON. Is there anyone else who has just papers or statements to file? If not, we will proceed with Mr. Robnett.


CHURCH LEAGUE OF AMERICA, CHICAGO, ILL. Senator Johnston. Will you please give your name, where you are from, and whom you represent?

Mr. ROBNETT. My name is George W. Robnett. I am from Chicago. I am the secretary-treasurer of the Church League of America and the National Laymen's Council, both with headquarters in Chicago.

The Church League of America is a voluntary organization made up of three main committees. The committee of clergy is composed of around 600 clergymen and educators of essentially all denominations and located all over the country. Our committee of laymen is composed of business and professional men most of whom are active in church and social work. Bridging these two groups is an executive committee. Our work is primarily educational and devoted to the common and mutual interests of those whom we serve. Our educational material is rather widely distributed.

I am before you to voice opposition to S. 181, known as the Educational Finance Act of 1945. I shall divide my testimony into two main sections. The first will deal with principles involved in this legislative proposal and the second will deal analytically with the bill itself.

In the first field of critical suggestion I will include 10 points. These
I will list for you as follows and then discuss them:

1. Background and history of the proposal.
2. Revolutionary character of the plan.
3. Would implement trend to statism.
4. Would create political control.
5. The States have not asked for help.
6. States are better off comparatively than Federal Government.
7. Constitutional questions involved.
8. Would increase tax load materially,
9. Similarity to NYA is threat to teachers.
10. Danger as a Federal subsidy.

To analyze these points we will first examine the "background and history of the proposal.” This is important in the same general sense that a doctor considers case history essential in any diagnosis.

The history of this particular bill starts back in 1937–38. That was a period when the country was at the height of its so-called “recovery” agitation. Vast public spending experiments were being tried. It was clear that those in power believed that most of our economic troubles could be solved by accelerating the circulation of money.

It is not necessary to recite here the feverish search that was made at the time for ways and means to prime the pump. But it would, however, be a mistake for this committee not to recall the period and conditions that attended the birth of this measure. It would seem to be more than mere coincidence that at this particular time Mr. Roosevelt selected Prof. Floyd Reeves of the University of Chicago to head a committee to make a survey of the public school field to discover what sort of Federal aid might be applied in'that field.

Dr. Reeves is a distinguished educator but we may, with perfect propriety, also keep in mind that he may have been chosen for this work because he was at the moment connected administratively with TVA and, therefore, could be expected to approach this survey problem with the proper viewpoint. His educational contact was with a university and not the public schools.

The committee headed by Dr. Reeves spent several months and (according to reports) some $60,000 on the survey, and the report was made to the President. It was this report that served as a basis for the first of this series of Federal-aid bills.

The first bill was devoted largely to the main thesis of the Reeves' report which emphasized the need for equalizing educational opportunity among the various states.

This same declared objective has been retained in each revised edition of the bill, but in constantly lessening degree and is now relegated to secondary importance. When this plea for “equalizing educational opportunities did not arouse much interest the theme was changed to emphasize the emergency educational needs of migratory workers around the new war plants.

This failed also to arouse much support for the measure. The proponents of the bill then hit on the idea of earmarking a large portion of the proposed $300,000,000 to be used for subsidizing and increasing teachers' salaries. As soon as this idea got around to the teachers the pressure behind the bill began to increase.

Various State teachers' associations are using this as an argument for getting members, and this promise of increased salaries has created

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