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LEVEL OF CURRENT EXPENDITURE PER CLASSROOM UNIT-Continued

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Alabama. Arizona Arkansas. California. Colorado Connecticut Delaware. Florida. Georgia. Idaho. Illinois Indiana. Iowa. Kansas. Kentucky. Louisiana Maine Maryland. Massachusetts. Michigan Minnesota Mississippi. Missouri. Montana Nebraska.

$268, 741, 300 $20, 296, 900

17,000 16, 228, 700

32, 200 1, 468, 600

39, 800

31, 800 5, 113, 300 18, 592, 800

823, 900 7, 542, 700 2, 314, 800 7,333, 400 5, 929, 200 14, 366, 300 8,618, 400 2, 187, 900 884, 500

48, 800 4, 804, 300 4, 713, 600 21, 285, 700 10, 063, 300

980, 700 5, 242, 900

43, 700 144, 900

65, 600 939, 300 1,383, 300 21, 503, 100 4, 610,000 1, 837, 000 7,041, 100

863, 200 7, 257, 400

9, 500 9, 842, 400 3, 357, 100 14, 691, 400 13, 376, 600

167, 900

637, 900 13, 784, 200

134, 000 4, 140, 400 3, 532, 900

416, 900 9, 277, 100

$366, 319, 100
$24,994, 500

34, 000
19, 562, 400

199, 100 2, 286, 400 157, 400

69, 100 7, 162, 500 23, 237, 600

1, 524, 600 11,054, 700 4, 359, 400 10, 099, 600

8,010, 400 18, 134, 600 11, 488, 100 3, 199, 700 2, 046, 600

230, 100 7, 355, 300 6, 638,000 25, 330, 500 14,071, 200 1, 414, 800 7,084, 900

68, 800 360, 400

171, 200 1, 533, 700 2, 284, 000 28, 082, 500

6,043, 200 4, 225, 200 10, 689, 600

1, 436, 100 11, 561, 300

26, 600 12,780, 300 4,558, 100 19, 183,000 20, 447, 400

604, 700

971, 900 17,628, 500

313, 900 7, 641, 400 5, 304, 700

657, 100
11, 372, 300

$420, 095, 700
$27, 454, 400

50, 600
21, 232, 800

377, 000 2,761, 400 261, 800

99, 500 8, 348, 200 25, 635, 200

1,932, 100 13, 024, 500

5, 670, 800 11, 766, 100

9, 214,000 20, 052, 500 13, 014, 900 3, 718, 600 2, 661,500

415, 000 8,855, 200 7, 781, 300 27, 396, 300 18, 206, 400 1, 685, 300 8, 106, 900

84, 600 513, 900

262, 100 1, 920, 800 2, 770,000 31, 385, 000 6, 780, 800 5, 962, 600 12, 566, 300

1,781, 900 14, 284, 500

39, 700 14,300,000

5, 212, 700 21, 448, 100 24, 435, 600

868, 900 1, 157, 500 19, 620, 700

469, 300 9, 392, 700 6,326, 100

789, 600 12, 419, 900

$476, 497,000 $29, 914, 300

89, 600 22, 903, 300

639, 700 3, 277, 100

402, 900

137, 000 9, 589, 200 28, 032, 800

2,355, 600 15, 079, 500

7,056, 000 13, 600, 500 10, 519, 300 21, 974,000 14, 566,100 4, 254, 600 3, 276, 400

678, 800 10, 479, 400

9,057,000 29, 473, 800 18, 425, 700 1,976, 500 9, 166, 300

102,000 685, 500

379, 600 2, 327, 300 3,300, 100 34, 687, 500

7, 520, 300 8,018,500 14, 468, 900 2, 169, 300 17, 294, 000

95, 000 15, 825, 900

5,891, 500 23, 713, 200 28, 685, 600

1, 222, 500 1,348, 100 21, 653, 000

694, 300 11, 144, 800 7, 412, 300

932, 400 13, 467,500

$730, 106, 300

$535, 787, 400 32, 374, 200

141. 500 24, 573, 800 1,003, 900 3,879, 800

612, 100

181, 400 10, 858, 700 30, 434,400

2, 806, 500 17, 305. 200

8,578,000 15, 578, 200 11, 913, 900 23, 923, 200 16, 117, 300 4,813, 100 3. 938, 500 1,051, 500 12, 260, 800 10, 451, 900 31, 554, 300 20, 657, 300

2, 289, 700 10, 258, 700

208, 800 26, 244, 600

1,467, 800 4, 496, 200

875, 000

230, 100 12, 128, 200 32,836,000

3, 271, 300 19, 636.500 10, 203, 700 17, 611, 300 13, 428, 800 25. 907, 200 17, 668, 500 5, 395, 500 4, 705, 600 1.519. 200 14, 196, 100 11.947, 700 33, 640,000 22, 905, 700

2, 648,000
11, 401, 100

$662, 696, 900
37, 294, 000

451, 000
27,915, 800
2.020, 200
5, 160, 400
1, 170. 200

303,000 13, 510, 900 35, 237, 600

3,741, 600 22,064, 800 11, 939, 200 19, 713, 100 14, 983, 800 27.894, 700 19, 219, 700 6,028, 600 5, 472, 700 2, 291. 600 16, 433, 700 13, 478,000 35, 730, 900 25, 172, 700

3, 034, 000 12, 564, 800

39, 753, 900

716. 400 29, 587, 100 2, 679,000 5, 848, 000 1,532, 000

397, 900 14,893, 600 37, 639, 200

4, 219.500 24, 663, 400 13, 730, 600 21. 849,000 16, 562, 900 29, 404, 600 20, 925, 800 6, 661, 700 6, 239, 800 3, 269, 000 18,728, 400 15, 034, 300 37, 821, 800 27,488, 900

3, 438, 200 13, 873, 100

$799, 477,500 42, 213, 800

1,032, 000 31, 258, 400 3, 389, 900 6,540,000 1,939, 800

504, 300 16, 276, 300 40, 040, 800

4,701, 200 27, 315, 400 15, 537, 300 24, 151, 600 18, 150, 300 31, 917,500 22, 631, 900 7, 294. 800 7,006, 900 4, 468.000 21, 174, 800 16, 609, 500 39, 914, 900 29. 807, 900

3,852, 000 15, 185, 100 $127, 800 895, 100

LEVEL OF CURRENT EXPENDITURE PER CLASSROOM UNIT—Continued

$2,000 to $2,099 $2,100 to $2,199 $2,200 to $2,299 $2,300 to $2,399 $2,400 to $2,499

Nevada... New Hampshire. New Jersey New Mexico New York. North Carolina. North Dakota... Ohio. Oklahoma. Oregon. Pennsylvania. Rhode Island. South Carolina. South Dakota. Tennessee. Texas. Utah. Vermont. Virginia. Washington. West Virginia. Wisconsin Wyoming.. Puerto Rico.

$2,500 to $2,599 $2,600 to $2,699 $2,700 to $2,799 $2,800 to $2,899 $2,900 to $2,999

United States.-Alabama. Arizons. Arkansas. California. Colorado. Connecticut. Delaware. Florida.. Georgia Idaho. Minois Indiana. Iowa. Kansas. Kentucky Louisiana. Maine. Maryland. Massachusetts Michigan. Minnesota Mississippi. Missouri. Montana. Nebraska. Nevada. New Hampshire. New Jersey. New Mexico New York. North Carolina. North Dakota. Ohio.. Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania. Rhode Island. South Carolina. South Dakota. Tennessee. Texas. Utah.. Vermont. Virginia. Washington West Virginia. Wisconsin. Wyoming Puerto Rico.

548, 100 2,745, 600 3, 899, 400 37, 990,000

8, 260, 300 10, 291, 400 16, 508, 300

2,603, 000 20, 593, 600

169, 500 17, 367. 400

6, 587, 900 25, 978, 300 33, 196, 000 1, 601, 700 1, 556, 300 23, 767, 700

994, 800 12, 896, 900

8, 570, 300 1,080, 100 14,515, 100

$156, 300 1, 120, 100

762, 000 3, 169, 300 4.582, 300 41, 292, 500

9, 004, 300 12, 838, 900 18, 554. 900

3,077, 700 24, 228, 400

252, 700 18, 927, 300

7, 307, 500 28, 243, 400 37, 909, 000 2, 122, 600 1, 766, 600 25, 882, 400

1, 426, 400 14, 705, 500 9, 846, 600 1, 232, 100 15, 562, 700

$187. 400 1, 353, 800 1,064, 200 3, 602, 400 5, 375, 700 44, 595,000

9,783, 800 15, 684, 700 20, 617, 300

3, 582, 900 28, 154, 800

348. 200 20, 530, 800

8, 072, 700 30, 508, 500 42,672,000 2, 646, 700 1, 984, 300 27, 997, 100

1,981, 400 16,516, 300 11, 182, 400

1, 427, 500 16, 610, 300

$219, 700 1,589, 400 1, 422, 100 4,042, 700 6, 305, 200 47, 897, 500 10, 563, 500 18, 944, 400 22, 695, 500

4, 106, 900 32, 364, 100

478, 200 22, 158, 400

8,837, 900 32.799, 400 47, 493, 400 3, 170, 800 2, 209, 000 30, 111, 800

2, 632, 300 18, 327, 100 12, 651, 100

1, 627, 800 17, 657, 900

$273, 900 1, 857, 900 1,858, 500 4, 495, 500 7, 372, 800 51, 200,000 11, 343, 200 22, 368, 900 24, 868, 200

4, 666, 400 36,780, 300

707, 600 23, 786, 800

9, 616,000 35. 090, 300 52, 341, 900 3,694, 900 2, 453,000 32, 226, 500

3, 369, 900 20, 138, 100 14, 211, 400

1, 841, 100 18, 705, 500

$871, 223, 500

$1, 176, 255, 000

44, 673, 700

1, 377, 100 32, 932, 200 4, 214, 700 7, 233, 300 2, 429, 600

618, 700 17, 659,000 42, 442, 400 5, 183, 200 30, 031, 100 17, 422, 100 26, 506, 600 19, 846, 300 33, 943, 200 24, 338, 000 7,927, 900 8,078, 000 5,854, 000 23, 691, 800 18, 358, 400 42,008,000 32, 131, 800

4, 281, 600 16, 549, 300

332, 700 2, 142, 500 2, 406, 500 4, 955, 200 8, 619, 300 54, 502, 500 12, 122, 900 25, 952, 200 27,042, 800

5, 238, 400 41, 505, 500

944, 600 25, 417, 400 10, 400, 800 37, 381, 200 57, 208, 900 4, 219, 000 2, 702, 400 34, 341, 200 4, 214, 100 21, 949, 100 15, 829, 600

2,062, 700 19, 753, 100

$944, 568, 500 $1, 019, 752, 200 $1,097, 194, 800
47, 133, 600 49, 593, 500 52,053, 400

1, 722, 200 2,086, 400 2, 459, 800
34, 606, 000 36, 279, 800 37, 953, 700
5, 106, 500 6,057, 800

7, 143, 800 7, 930, 200 8,658, 700 9, 398, 300 3,031, 300 3, 726, 900 4, 530, 000 734, 600

850, 500 1, 017, 300
19, 041, 700 20, 424, 400 21, 807, 100
44, 965, 400 47, 488, 400 50,011, 400

5, 665, 900 6, 149, 300 6, 632, 900
32, 808, 500 35, 655, 400 38, 565, 100
19, 595, 500 22, 020, 300 24, 478, 800
28, 862, 700 31, 271, 800 33, 681, 100
21, 550, 200 23, 258, 500 25, 018, 100
36,085, 900 38, 228, 600 40, 374, 300
26, 044, 100 27, 750, 200 29, 456, 300
8, 561, 000 9, 194, 100 9, 827, 200
9, 149, 100 10, 220, 200 11, 291, 300
7, 339, 200 8, 897, 800 10, 521, 000
26, 246, 300 28, 840,000 32, 492, 000
20, 125, 100 22, 182, 600 24, 261, 000
44, 101, 100 46, 194, 200 48, 287, 900
34, 553, 000 37, 002, 000 39, 451, 000
4, 715, 600 5, 182, 800 5, 651, 600
17, 916, 600 19, 283, 900 20, 651, 200
395, 400
458, 800

530, 000
2, 430, 700 2, 731, 800 3,033, 500
3,058, 900 3,802, 900 4, 633, 200
5, 417, 800 5,880, 400 6, 343, 000
10, 025, 700 11, 679, 000 13, 444, 400
57, 805, 000 61, 107, 500 64, 410,000
12, 902, 700 13, 682, 500

14, 462, 300 29, 542, 800 33, 322, 900 37, 122, 200 29, 219, 800 31, 398, 200 33, 576, 900

5, 826, 300 6, 416, 200 7, 176, 400 46, 375, 100 51, 410,000 56, 643, 700

1, 190, 200 1, 435, 800 1, 681, 400 27, 048, 000 28, 678, 600 30, 309, 200 11, 188, 500 11, 976, 200 12, 763, 900 39, 672, 100 41, 963, 000 44, 253, 900 62, 105, 000 67,006, 900 71, 920, 900

4, 743, 100 5, 267, 200 5, 791, 300 2, 959, 500 3, 216, 600 3, 477, 800 36, 458, 000 38, 588, 800 40, 719, 600

5,085, 400 5, 966, 500 6,852, 200 23, 760, 100 25, 571, 100 27, 382, 100 17, 480, 200 19, 174, 000 20,897, 300

2, 286, 900 2, 519, 200 2,754, 000 20, 800, 700 21, 848, 300 22, 895, 900

54, 513, 300 2, 833, 200 39, 627, 600

8, 269, 900 10, 139, 300 5, 391,600 1, 184, 100 23, 189, 800 52, 534, 400

7, 118, 200 41, 583, 500 26,937, 300 36, 090, 700 26, 782, 800 42, 542, 400 31, 162, 400 10, 460, 300 12, 362, 400 12, 323, 700 36, 146, 400 26, 408, 700 50, 381, 700 41, 900, 200 6, 127, 200 22,018, 500

603, 900 3, 335, 200 5, 544, 000 6, 805, 600 15, 390, 700 67, 712, 500 15, 242, 100 40, 957, 700 35, 755, 800

7, 940, 300 62, 039, 600

1, 943, 900 31, 940,000 13, 551, 600 46, 544, 800 76, 844, 200 6, 315, 400 3, 744, 700 42, 850, 400

8,014, 000 29, 193, 100 22, 967, 100

2,988, 800 23, 943, 500 1 Cited above.

[merged small][graphic][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed]

Dr. NORTON. The information for each State is given in the long study, yes, with figures, diagrams, and explanation.

Senator ELLENDER. Will that be made a part of the record ?
The CHAIRMAN. Yes.

Dr. Norton. Dealing with Montana, Montana would have to spend $1,180,000 more in order to bring all districts up to the national median.

The CHAIRMAN. Are the States doing their part in carrying out this obligation ?

Dr. Norton. Could I answer that question in just a moment with a chart that is coming up?

The CHAIRMAN. Yes. I was going to say in some States they have completely wiped out their debt and have money in the treasury

and are bragging about the splendid position they put the State in. They have allowed the Government to take over all of the obligation with reference to the poor, with reference to education, and everything

FEDERAL AID FOR EDUCATION

else. My State is one of the States that is doing that. At the last election the Governor was elected on the basis of reduced taxes and a balance in the treasury and at the same time he was allowing education to go to the dogs.

Dr. NORTON. I would say that the surplus in most States is a temporary war phenomenon, taking account of the total economic situation and the obligations against those amounts. If you took that money and devoted it all to education, it would only be a drop in the bucket. It would help for a year or so at most. Then the State would be right back to where it is now. In other words, the fiscal significance of these temporary war surpluses has been greatly exaggerated, with reference to this problem of providing a decent minimum of school support in all States.

Senator Hill. I wonder if I might not say this, that so far as these surpluses are concerned, they are a good deal like an individual's or corporation's plant account. They do not necessarily indicate what the wealth of the corporation or individual might be. A corporation or a man might be bankrupt and yet they might have a pretty good bank account, whereas some individual or some corporation that owned great wealth might have a very, very small bank account; isn't that true?

Dr. NORTON. Yes.

Senator Hill. You have got to consider this thing on the basis of the wealth, the resources, what is available to be reached through the years from taxation—isn't that true-rather than any bank account that might temporarily be in the bank!

Dr. NORTON. That is true. That is, you have to take some real indication of fiscal ability, such as the total income of the people, and relate that to the job to be done before you get any valid measure of ability to finance education. Would I not be right, Senator, to say that many of these surpluses are really obligated already? They are largely postponed expenditures that will have to be made as soon as the war is over.

Arkansas is shown next in chart 65. Arkansas, spending in round numbers $10,000,000 for education now, would have to spend $18,000,000, represented by this part of the area [indicating], in order to come up to the national median.

Next, let us look at charts 66, 67, and 68. These are among the more significant charts in the whole investigation. In each of these charts the States are arranged in order of median level of support for education. At the bottom of each chart the 10 highest States and the 10 lowest States are thrown together in a group. New York State has an average of $4,100 back of each classroom. Mississippi has an average of $400 back of each classroom. The States are arranged in order of rank, from the highest to the lowest in financial support.

Chart 66 shows the relationship of support to percentage of children, per thousand population. States like Mississippi, Arkansas, and the agricultural States are the seedbed of our population. There is where we find the higher birth rates, whereas States like New York, California, and other States at the top are below the average in ratio of children to total population. As the ratio of children increases,

. the provision made for their education tends to decrease. So we have an indefensible situation. If we had planned it, we could not have

CHART 65 -- DISTRIBUTION OF CLASSROOM UNITS ACCORDING TO LEVELS OF EXPENDITURE

ARKANSAS

CURRENT EXPENDITURE PER CLASSROOM UNIT 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4.000 4,500 5,000 5,500 6,000

[blocks in formation]

AMOUNT OF PROPOSED ALLOTMENT
UNDER NATIONAL EDUCATION
FINANCE ACT OF 19 4 3

$ 6,855, 138

[blocks in formation]

$500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 6,000

done it more poorly. In the parts of the country where the higher proportions of children are we provide the poorest education facilities in terms of finance. In the parts of the country where the smaller proportions of children are born we provide the most generous amounts for education.

Chart 67 also lists the States in order of expenditure per classroom unit, from New York, with a high level of support, clear on down to Mississippi with a low level. This chart compares level of support with ability to finance education, or income per capita, which I believe economists recognize as one of the more valid measures of fiscal capacity.

Senator ELLENDER. Mr. Chairman, will these charts be placed in the record in connection with the witness' testimony !

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