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validity by the term and validity of such foreign patent, but it is quite independent of all other foreign patents for the same invention, without regard to their date.

Unpatentable.--Preparations of food, beverages and medicines; discoveries, inventions or improvements which cannot be worked for reasons of public health ; morals, or safety, or as being contrary to the general interest of the State; scientific principles, or strictly scientific theories, even if the principle or theorem lead to the creation of new industrial products, a new means or a new method of production; inventions, which while worked in any foreign country are not patented there,

Novelty, Effect of Prior Patent or Publication.–To obtain a valid patent the application must be filed before the invention has been made public in Austria, either by a printed publication, or by the invention having been workid there. The printed copies of patents issued by the German Patent Office will not prevent the obtaining of a valid Austrian patent, provided the application for the latter be tiled within three months from the day of issue of such print, but a valid patent cannot be obtained after the expiration of this time. Printed copies of patents of other countries can only affect the validity of an Austrian patent when it is proven that they were introduced into Austria before the filing of the application. A valid Austrian patent can be obtained at any time during the life of a prior foreign patent for the same invention, so long as the invention has not been published, or become publicly known in Austria.

Taxes.—The legal taxes may be paid at once and in a lump sum, or in annual installments, as preferred by the patentee. In the latter case they must be paid yearly in advance, counting from the date of the issue of the patent. The amount of the taxes payable to the government are as follows: Second, third, fourih and fifth years, each, 21 Horins; sixth year, 31.50 florins; seventh year, 37 florins; eighth year, 42 florins; ninth year, 47.25 forins"; tenth year, 52.50 florins ; eleventh year, 63 florins; twelth year, 73.50 florins ; thirteenth year, 84 florins; fourteenth year, 94.50 forins, and fifteenth year, 105 florins. The Letters Patent sbould always be forwarded for the endorsement of such payment thereof. If for any reason it is impossible to forward the patent with the tax, the latter can be paid for one year without ihe production of this document. In this case, however, it becomes necessary to produce the patent with the next year's tax, or if it be lost, to apply for and obtain a duplicate of the patent. No extension of time for the payment of taxes can be obtained.

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Assignments. The following documents are necessary : 1. An assignment in German, signed by the assignor before a Notary Public and legalized by the Austrian Consul. 2. A power of attorney signed by the assignee before a Notary Public, and legalized by an Austrian Consul, authorizing the attorney to apply for and obtain the registration of the assignment and pay the taxes in connection therewith.

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Working.--The invention must be worked within one year from the day of the issue of the patent, and the working must not be discontinued thereafter for any two consecutive years. No extension of time for working can be obtained. To effect a legal working, the invention, if a machine, must be actually constructed in Austria, and of materials procured there; if a process, it must be put into operation there. Nominal workings, although very frequently made, are not legally valid, and we cannot recommend them. We will secure estimates of cost for actual workings, on receipt of particulars. According to the official decree of June 1, 1889, they must now be proven and entered upon the Patent Registers in connection with the patent to which thcy relate.

DOCUMENTS REQUIRED.

1. One copy of Specification.-Written or printed on any paper. No signatures required.

2. Drawings in duplicate.—May be made on tracing cloth, any size and margin. No signatures required.

3. Power of Attorney.-Signed by applicant before a Notary Public, and legalized by an Austrian Consul.

BAHAMA ISLANDS.

LAW AND PRACTICE. Who may be Patentee.-Practically anyone, whether the inventor or not, as the first importer may obtain a valid patent, as well as the first inventor.

Patents, Kind and Term.-Patents of Invention (or Importation) granted for seven years from the filing of the specification, but the duration may be extended for two additional terms of seven years each, (twenty-one years in all) upon due application and payment of the legal fees.

['npatentable.- Inventions that are not new within the Islands, as to the public use and exercise thereof at the time the application for patent therefor is filled ; if ihe applicant for the patent is not the true and first inventor within the Islands (the word inventor being held to include the true and first importer) of the invention described in the specification ; inventions which are at the time the specification is filed well-known elsewhere, and also known to some person or persons in the Islands other than the person filing such specification, and inventions already patented there.

Novelty, Effect of Prior Patent or Publication. To obtain a valid patent the application must be filed before the invention has been published or otherwise publicly known within the Bahama Islands. The fact that prior patents exist, or that the invention has been published, or is publicly known and used in other countries, will not prevent the obtaining of a perfectly valid patent, so long as the invention is new as to the Bahamas at the time the application is filed.

Taxes.-Strictly speaking there are none after the issue of the patent, the same being issued for seven years and the fees paid at the filing of the application being in full for this term. If, however, it is desired to continue the patent in force for a longer time, it may be extended for a second term of seven years upon payment of a fee of £10 and for a third term of seven years upon payment of a further fee of £20.

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Assignments. — These should be prepared in duplicate, and in the English language; almost any form will answer, and no legalization of the document is now held to be neces. sary. As this practice may be changed at any time it is preferable to have the documents acknowledged before a Notary Publie whenever it is convenient to do so .

Special.-This Colony does not issue a formal document or “ Letters Patent” to serve as a title deed. It is hoped that the Colony will soon have proper forms printed, and issue such a document to every patentee. Until this is done, however, the only documents that can be forwarded for the use of the patentee are : 1. The certificate of the Registrar of Records that the specification has been filed, and, 2. A copy of the Official Gazette containing a notice of the filing of the specification. If desired, a certified copy of the patent can be obtained, but only at an expense of from $15 to $35 according to the length of the specification, as the fees demanded by the Attorney-General for such copies are very high.

DOCUMENTS REQUIRED. 1. Four copies of the Specification. These may be written or printed on any suitable paper, and of any size, No signatures nor legalization required.

2. FO copies of the Drawings.-On bristol board or tracing cloth, or any suitauble size. No signatures required.

3. Petition.-Signed by applicant, may be on any suitable paper.

4. Declaration.-Signed by applicant, before a Notary Public, or other person authorized by law to administer an oath, who must affix his official seal.

5. Power of Attorney.-Signed by applicant and two witnesses.

6. Where a prior foreign Patent exists. -A certified copy of such patent must be supplied. Where there are several foreign patents, the certified copy may be a copy of any one of them, but it is best, where possible, to file a copy of the United States or British patent.

BARBADOS.

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LAW AND PRACTICE. Who may be Patentee.-" The first and true inventor,” which is interpreted to include the first and true importer into Barbados.

Patents, Kind and Term.-Patents of Invention (or Importation), which are granted for seven years from the filing of the specification ; but the duration may be extended for two additional terms of seven years each (twenty-one years in all), upon due application made, and payment of the legal fees.

Unpatentable.--Inventions that are not new in Barbados at the time the applica. tion is filed ; inventions of which the applicant for patent is not the true and tirst inventor within the Colony. (The word inventor is held to mean and include the true and first importer.) Inventions which are, at the time the specification is filed, well-known elsewhere, and also known to some person or persons in Barbados, other than the person filing the specification ; and inventions already patented there.

Novelty, Effect of Prior Patent or Pablication.-To obtain a valid patent the application must be filed before the invention has been published, or otherwise become publicly known in Barbados, but the fact that prior patents exist, or that the invention has been published, or is publicly known and used in other countries will not prevent the obtaining of a perfectly valid patent, so long as the invention is new in Barbados at the time the application is filed.

Taxes.-Strictly speaking there are none after the issue of the patent, the same being granted for seven years, and the fees paid at the filing of the specification being in full for this term. If, however, it is desired to continue the patent in force for a longer term, it may be extended for a second term of seven years upon payment of a fee of £10, and for a third term of seven years upon payment of a further fee of £20.

Assignments. —The documents must be prepared in duplicate in the English language. The signature of the assignor must be proven by one of the subscribing witnesses under oath, before a Notary, and the document must be legalized by a British Consul.

Working.–The law requires that the invention must be “ brought into operation within a period of three years after the filing of the specification.". The present practice is not to require the actual construction of the patented article in Barbados, it being held sufficient to import, or cause the articles 10 be imported into the Colony, and there offer and expose them for sale. In the case of a process it should be put into practice there.

Special.-Barbados issues no formal document or Letters Patent, the only document issued to patentees being the official certificate of the filing of the specification. We also supply a copy of the Official Gazette containing the legal notice of the filing of the speci. fication. A certified copy of the patent can be obtained when desired, but this is expensive, costing from $20 to $40, according to the length of the specification.

DOCUMENTS REQUIRED. 1.-Specification in Daplicato.—Signed by the applicant.

2. Dra

æquired.

ings in duplicate.-Any convenient size and material. No signatures 3. Power of Attorney.-Signed by the applicant and two witnesses. The signa. ture of the inventor must be proven by one of the witnesses under oath before a Notary, and the document must be legalized by a British Consul.

4. Decla ration.-Signed by applicant.

BELGIUM.

LAW AND PRACTICE.

Who may be Patentee. -Any person, whether the inventor or not, a firm or cor poration, may obtain a patent. If the applicant is not the inventor, it is desirable that he should have the inventor's written consent permitting him to make the application.

Patents, Kind and Term.-Patents are of three kinds : Patents of Invention, granted to the applicant who applies for his Belgian patent before the actual grant of letters patent in any other country; Patents of Importation, granted to an inventor or his assigns who, previous to lodging his application in Belgium, has obtained letters patent in some other country ; Patents of Addition for improvements on inventions already patented.

Påtents of Invention are granted for twenty years, subject to the payment of the prescribed taxes, and proper working of the invention. Patents of Importation are limited to the term of the prior foreign patent having the longest term; not, however, to exceed the maximum duration. Patents of Addition are granted for the unexpiren term of the original patent and expire with it.

Unpatentable.-Any discovery or improvement that is not capable of being worked as an article of industry or of commerce.

Novelty, Effect of Prior Patent or Publication. To obtain valid patents, appli cations for Patents of Invention should be made before any public use or publication of the invention in Belgium, and before any patent for the same invention is actually issued in another country. It is sufficient under the present practice to file the Belgian application upon the date of issue of the United States patent. Applications for Patents of Importation may be made at any time during the term of the foreign patent, provided the patented article has not been worked, or made use of for commercial purposes in Belgium by other parties, or the complete specifications and accurate drawings of the patented article have not been published in a printed work, prior to the date of the application. (Official or other publications prescribed by law, such as the English blue books and the publications of the U. S. Patent Office, do not affect the validity of Patents of Importation.) Applications for Patents of Addition sliould be made before public use, or publication of the invention in Belgium.

Taxes.—Taxes art payable upon all Belgiau patents (except Patents of Addition), in instaliments, yearly in advance, counting from the date of the filing of the application. The annual taxes payable to the government are 20 francs for the second year ; 30 francs for the third year, and so on; increasing ten francs each year. There is one month's grace, without fine, for making the payment, or six months' grace, with a fine of ten francs ($2.00).

Assignments. The documents should be in the French language, and be executed in triplicate before a Notary Public, and legalized by a Belgian Consul.

Working.–The invention must be worked in Belgium within one year of its first commercial working in any other country, and the working must not thereafter be dis. continued for any twelve consecutive months. The working must be bona fide. If the invention relates to machines, tools, instruments or like articles, they should be manufactured in Belgium in sufficient numbers to give the appearance, at least, of putting the invention into commercial use. If the invention relates to a process, the latter should be carried into practice in some manufactory in Belgium, and for a sufficient length of time to obtain proof that the working has been genuine.

The question of working has been left by the law entirely to the discretion of the government, which alone has the power to decide what shall constitute an efficient working, and to judge in each individual case whether the working made is sufficient or not. The courts decline all competency in this matter, and assume that a patent has been properly worked until it has been annulled by the government. In the case of patents which have been annulled for insufficient working, the government has held that it is not sufficient to import the patented articles into Belgium from abroad and put them on sale there, even if large numbers are sold in the country by this means. It is not even considered sufficient tc have a number of the patented articles made in Belgium if the same articles are aiso imported from abroad and sold in Belgium. The mere importation of patented articles, except in limited quantities to serve as samples or models, while not prohibited by law, seems to be considered as contrary to the spirit of the law. To effect a strictly legal working therefore it would seem that the patentee should not only manufacture the patented article in Belgium, but should manufacture all s ich articles there that may be required to meet the commercial demand for them, and abstain from importing similar articles from abroad for the purposes of trade. The government seldom or never interferes as regards the working of an invention unless called upon to do so by an interested party. "If the inventor cannot then establish the fact that his invention has been properly worked his patent will be annulled. It is, of course, impossible for us to fix a stated price for legal workings, as the cost of manufacture of different articles varies so greatly. We will, however, furnish estimates of costs in each individual case upon receiving particulars.

Inasmuch as we are constantly receiving orders for nominal workings we quote a price for them, but it must be understood that we do not recommend them.

DOCUMENTS REQUIRED. 1. One copy of Specification.- No signatures required.

2. Drawings in duplicate.-On tracing cloth. The sheets should measure 34 centimetres (1338 inches), in height, by 21 centimetres (836 inches), in width, with a frame or margin line all around of 414 centimetres (134 inches), from the edge of the sheet. When this size is not sufficient it may be doubled or trebled either way, but the sheet must be capable of folding exactly within the above dimensions. No signatures Decessary.

3. Power of Attorney.-Signed by the applicant

BERMUDA ISLANDS.

There is at present no patent law in this British Colony. The government will, however, grant protection for inventions by way of special Legislative Act, provided the invention is likely to prove of practical utility in the country.

DOCUMENTS REQUIRED. The same as for the Bahama Islands.

BOLIVIA.

LAW AND PRACTICE

Who may be Patentee.-The true and first inventor, or the true and first importer of an invention into Bolivia.

Patents, Kind and Term.-Patents of Invention are granted for not less than ten, nor more than fifteen years. Patents of Importation are granted for three years if the

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