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a similar principle, a quadrireme would have four horizontal tiers of oars, as follows:

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but, as in the case of the trireme, she would still be a quadrireme, only of a larger size, if she had more than four oblique rows. There is, however, a limit beyond which oars could not be worked when placed over each other in any fashion. That limit would be reached at the fifth horizontal row, and for the reasons already named, a sixth row, however obliquely placed-for obliquity has also its limits—would be useless. Therefore, while a quinquereme had five horizontal rows, and the same number of oblique rows formed a quincunx, thus :

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the galley, it would appear, acquired another name when she had more than five of these oblique rous. For instance, vessels with six oblique rows were, in our opinion, called hexiremes; with seven rows, septiremes ; with eight rows, octoremes, and so forth ; up to Ptolemy Philopater's tesseraconteres. That the number of men placed on board the ships of the ancients was regulated as at present by the work they had to perform, and by the size of the ship, there can be no doubt; but the number of men had nothing in itself to do with the class or grade of the galley. In some triremes there may have been frequently not more than fifty rowers, and in others five hundred. Our theory does not require the number of men to harmonize with the number recorded by Polybius, Athenæus, and other authors, to have been employed in the different rated galleys of the ancients. In the trireme, which is described as having thirty oars and one hundred and/fifty rowers, it would not be necessary to place five men at each oar, as Mr. Howell has done, to make his theory harmonize with this account. Six men to each of the oars of

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the highest bank, five to each oar of the second, and four men to each oar of the third bank, would give the requisite number of one hundred and fifty rowers, who would be far more effective than if placed in the manner he describes. In the case of the quinquereme, which, according to Polybius, had three hundred rowers, instead of placing six men, presuming there were no reliefs, to each of her fifty oars, our theory, while it equally solves the difficulty created by the statement of Polybius-a difficulty which could arise in quinqueremes with so large a crew as three hundred rowers,—is one which could be carried out with much more practical effect; for, by placing on the 1st bank 8 men x 5=40; 2nd, 7, x 5 = 35; 3rd, 6, x 5 = 30; 4th, 5, x 5 25; 5th, 4, x 5 = 20; there would be 150 on each side, or 300 rowers in all, as represented in the transverse midship section of what a quinquereme really must have been. (Fig. 2.)

(To be Continued.)

BEFORE AND AFTER.—WHAT WE WERE AND WHAT WE

ARE.

The following statement shows the position of British Commerce, Navigation and Finance, before and since the Adoption of Free Trade and the Repeal of the Navigation Laws :

The real value of British imports can only be ascertained since the year 1854. In that year they amounted to £152,389,053, whilst they had increased in 1865 to £271,072,285, and in 1870 to £303,257,493.

The real values of the exports from the United Kingdom in the years 1854, 1865, and 1870 were

1854

115,821,092 1865

218,831,576 1870

244,080,577 The real values of these exports cannot be given previously to 1854, as such values of Foreign and Colonial merchandise were not ascertained until that year.

The real value of exports of British and Irish manufactures during the years 1842, 1858, 1865, and 1870 respectively, was

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1842

47,284,988 1853

98,933,781 1865

165,835,725 1870

199,586,822 In the years 1854, 1865, and 1870 the real values of our exports of Foreign and Colonial merchandise were

$ 1854

18,636,866 1865

52,995,851 1870

44,493,755 The quantities of the various principal articles of food below-mentioned, and now admitted duty free, were as follows for the respective periods :

1842.
1853.
1865.

1870.

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Cattle
No.2

125,253 283,271 202,172

259,420 914,170 669,905 Bseon and Hams Cwts. 8,355 205,667 713,346 567,164

175,197 403,289 1,083,717 1,159,210 No. 89,548,747 123,450,678 364,013,040 430,842,240

Cwts. 511,414 1,504,629 1,941,580 4,077,468 The quantities retained for consumption of the following articles, were

Sheep
Butter ...
Eggs
Rice

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Cocoa ...
Coffee
Sugar, raw ...
Tea

Lbs. 2,246,569 3,997,198 3,826,425 6,153,981

28,519,646 36,983,122 30,505,972 30,230,572 Cwt. 3,868,437 7,272,833 9,878,933 11,542,937

Lbs. (37,355,911 58,834,087 97,834,600 117,551,152 Tobacco, anmanfctrd. 22,013,146 29,348,598 38,076,842 40,531,098

Galls. 4,815,222 6,813,830 11,993,760 15,079,854 The declared or real values of the more important articles of British manufacture exported during the same years are as follows :

1842.
1853.
1865.

1870.

Wine

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Apparel, haberdashery

and millinery Cotton yarn

goods
Earthenware & porcelain
Hardware and cutlery
Leather and leather wares
Linen yarns

manufactures
Machinery
Iron and steel
fin plates
Silk thrown & manufctrd.
Woollen yarn ...

...

1,143,270 7,771,464 13,907,884

555,430 1,398,487

400,927 1,025,551 2,346,749

554,653
2,457,717

363,686
590,189

manufactures ...

637,305 5,185,045

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...

The tonnage of British and Foreign vessels which entered and cleared in the United Kingdom with cargoes, in the years 1842, 1853, 1865, and 1870 respectively, was

1842. o 1853. 1865. 1870.
Tons.
Tons.
Tons.

Tons. British

5,415,821 9,064,705 17,413,643 22,243,039 Foreign

1,930,983 6,316,456 7,572,202 9,381,641 Total

7,346,804 15,381,161 24,985,8450 | 31,624,680 The coasting tonnage of the United Kingdom has likewise increased greatly, notwithstanding the severe competition of the Inland Railway Carrying Trade, as is shown by the accompanying figures of the tonnage of British and Foreign vessels engaged with cargoes in the coasting trade of the United Kingdom :

1842.
1853.
1865.

1870.

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...

Tons.
Tons.
Tons.

Tons. British

10,785,450 12,820,745 18,150,649 18,210,519 Foreign None. None.

77,705 89,756 Total

10,785,450 12,820,745 18,228,354 18,300,275 The tonnage of vessels built and registered in the United Kingdom in the years 1842, 1853, 1865, and 1870 was—

1842.
1853.
1865.

1870.

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Tons.
Tons.
Tons.

Tons. Sailing-vessels

116,213 154,956 235,555 136,286 Steam-vessels...

13,716 48,215 179,649 226,591 Total

129,929 203,171 415,204 362,877 The following amount of foreign tonnage was registered in the United Kingdom 1842. 1853. 1864.

1870.

Tons.
Tons.
Tons.

Tons.
None
30,073 - 128,761

12,185 The total registered tonnage of the United Kingdom was in the years

Tons. 1842

2,990,849 1853*

4,030,204 1864*.

5,627,500 1865*

5,760,809

5,690,7891 The figures for these years include the registered tonnage of the Channel Isle of Man.

LT

1870* 2013,

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Islands and the I.

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