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questioned public spirit and high standards of public and private morality differ radically as to his sincerity. Along certain lines there can be no reasonable question about his having done splendid work, especially along social and charitable lines. His eight years of service as mayor have been marked by an increasingly progressive and intelligent administration of the remedial agencies of the city government. There has been complaint, however, on the part of many, that he has permitted a condition of affairs tantamount to a wide-open city, and that he has been indifferent to far-reaching schemes of municipal improvement; although the physical condition of Cleveland at the present time would certainly seem to indicate that there had been a substantial improvement along these lines.

There is no doubt that one of the factors contributing to Mayor Johnson's defeat was his recent attitude on the street railway situation. After forcing the corporations to a point where they offered terms of settlement which a half-dozen years ago would have been considered, even by the most exacting person, as beyond the reach of the city, he refused to accept the terms and insisted upon his own new ones, which were generally regarded on the whole as somewhat less advantageous than those offered by the companies. I am not expressing my own views in this, but reflecting those of men who, until the last referendum campaign, which terminated on August 3rd last, had supported Mayor Johnson in his street railway campaign, but who, in that campaign and since, have opposed him because of what they considered his unreasonable attitude.

Brand Whitlock for the third time has been elected mayor of Toledo on an independent ticket, defeating both the Republican

and Democratic candidates, his majority being Brand Whitlock

5,002. Mr. Whitlock was the successor of “Golden Rule” Jones, who had several times been elected on an independent ticket. Mayor Whitlock has made a good record, and has justified the confidence the people of Toledo have placed in him. He has attended strictly to his municipal business, and has not sought to build up a machine, nor to play politics. In this respect his attitude is in striking contrast to that of Mayor Johnson, who not only built up a strong and powerful organization, which he justified with considerable skill on the ground that it was necessary for the maintenance of the work in which he was interested, but who constantly played politics.

Chicago's municipal voters' league achieved what many regard as a most decisive victory in its campaign of last April, the fourteenth in which it had participated. Early in the year the league took an aggressive attitude toward a most delicate and involved situation. With the improvement of the council the open, clearcut issues, on which it was formerly quite easy to line up candidates in two distinct classes, have disappeared. The tests of aldermanic fidelity to the city's interests and capacity to serve

them, are not so obvious and decisive as forChicago

merly. An alderman's committee work is a better test of his capacity; but the voters' league faced the situation, and election day saw the return of 23 candidates that it had endorsed. Only 9 of those to whom it was distinctly opposed were elected. The Survey points out two results of the voting as noteworthy: “ The total vote of fewer wards returning better aldermen were greater than the total vote of many wards returning disreputable men. So disproportionate has the size of the wards become that the smaller wards with a decreasing population have come to have an undue representation in the city council.

The most notable outcome of the whole election was the choice of Professor Charles E. Merriam, of the University of Chicago, to the council. He was elected by the largest majority polled by any candidate.

Throughout the West the interest in municipal affairs occupies a large share of public attention; and the number of improve

ments, both along administrative and physical Tho Western

lines, is increasing with rapidity. Here and Situation

there are signs of a temporary reaction; but on the whole the movement has been forward, and the results achieved during the past year satisfactory. The cities of Wisconsin are on the whole very well managed, barring the city of Milwaukee, which seems still to be subject to the fascinations of a successful political leader, who has more interest in his personal advancement than in that of the city. Des Moines, Iowa, has made very satisfactory progress under the Des Moines system, the five commissioners elected eighteen months ago having measurably fulfilled the expectations of them. St. Louis has chosen a new mayor to succeed Rolla Wells, who for eight years gave the city on the whole a most satisfactory administration. His successor, although of an opposite party, is likely to continue the good work begun, and substantially to improve upon it.

There has been a considerable improvement in the character of the city officials, not only in St. Louis, but generally throughout the West; although here and there an unfortunate and notable exception, of which Kansas City may be cited as the most conspicuous. The present mayor of that western metropolis is proving to be a reactionary, and is sympathetic with some of the least

a desirable elements in the city. The Democrats of Kansas City and St. Louis, who for years have been supporters of the state appointment of police commissions, are now becoming advocates

of municipal home rule because the governor Kansas City

of the state is no longer a member of their own party. Kansas City has given some indication of its attitude toward the present mayor by defeating a series of bonds totaling $4,000,000 which had been vigorously advocated by the mayor. It has a chance to show civic intelligence and independence in its vote on the proposal of the Metropolitan Street Railway Company for an extension of its franchises. Notwithstanding that these franchises have sixteen years to run, the company succeeded in passing through a complacent municipal legislature an extension of sixteen years to make the term thirty-two years in all from the present. The reason given for this extension, which was passed with undue and unseemly haste, and approved with equally undue and unseemly haste by the mayor, but which fortunately must be submitted to the voters of the city, was that the company needs to be refinanced and can do this on better terms with a long-time franchise. The company's proposition is to retain 5 per cent. annually on the valuation of $33,000,000 (no doubt an exaggerated valuation); to give the city 50 per cent. of all over that return; to give the city representation on the board of directors; to reduce the fares of school children under twelve to 272c.; reserving the right of the city to reduce fares generally throughout the life of the franchise. The voters will pass upon this proposition on December 18th.

66

If anything, the Pacific Coast cities, with the exception of San Francisco, are more progressive than their sisters of the Miss

issippi Valley and the Rocky Mountain region. Pacific Coast

Seattle, Tacoma, Portland and Los Angeles are Cities

contributing their full share to the solution of important municipal problems; and while they suffer from periods of recession, their general tendency is toward a more enlightened and effective administration of local affairs. Seattle is trying an experiment in municipal education which will be watched with interest: a series of lectures is being given under the head of “Know your City." They are designed to inform the people, and especially voters, of the exact facts concerning the municipal government. Tacoma, which has recently adopted the commission form of government, has formed a strong organization to secure the election of the right sort of men to carry out the new charter. Portland, Oregon, has a distinguished mayor, a former United

States senator, who is fulfiling his campaign Portland

promises and carrying on the city administration in an effective, business-like way. In the words of one who opposed Mr. Simon at the election : “He is an exceedingly able lawyer, and had the confidence and support of the business community. He has never been a grafter. . . . He has been out of politics for some time, ever since his period in the United States senate, and was sought for, rather than a seeker for, the present position. Many of the high-minded men of the city come out as his supporters for the mayoralty, on the general ground that things had changed from the old day and that whatever you say, Simon was never himself a grafter; that the city was badly in need of executive efficiency. Undoubtedly many saw in his election the outward sign of a restored though chastened Republican harmony. I think in general it may be said that Mr. Simon has made good. He has given assiduous attention to the duties of his office; and most of the departments of the administration are running smoothly, and with greatly increased efficiency.”

Heney's defeat in San Francisco baffles analysis at this distance, and with the information now in hand. On the surface it would seem to indicate that the people of San Francisco had grown tired of the graft prosecution; but I incline to the opinion that one of the real causes was that the progressive forces were

divided, not so much about Heney as about the San Francisco

rest of the ticket and the situation generally; while the forces on the other side were thoroughly well equipped and stood together as a man. Heney has fought against tremendous odds; but it was thought that his personality would triumph over them. The results show that definiteness of purpose and thorough organization are still powerful factors in political campaigns. The independent and progressive element should take to heart the lessons which their brethren in the regular political organizations set before them. They must organize and, above all, they must be willing to lay aside personal differences of opinion as to the details, and be willing to submerge individual interests in the larger good.

A majority of the men elected to the board of supervisors are said to be above the average, and that the outlook is not nearly so depressing as the first returns seemed to indicate.

Los Angeles has made another contribution to municipal methods that is worthy of general imitation. It consists in the

creation of a “good government fund,” organLos Angeles'

ized for the purpose of giving financial support Good Govern

to worthy movements for good government in ment Fund

Los Angeles city and county. Already $22,000 per annum have been subscribed by the citizens of Los Angeles; and those in charge of the fund, which is a guaranteed permanent one, feel sure that it will reach between $35,000 and $40,000. The announcement that such a fund has been raised and established will unquestionably have a most encouraging and stimulating effect upon the forces for better municipal conditions. It will relieve the men responsible for the conduct of these organizations of the always pressing necessity for funds and enable them to devote their time and attention to carrying out the purposes of their organization.

The developments of the past year have been encouraging. They indicate that there has been no diminution in the quickening of the moral sense of the nation. The outlook for the future is most encouraging; in fact, it may be said to be more

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