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SUSINESS firms and individuals having a Letter of Substitution Appended to Power of Attorney.

large trade, where indebtedness is una.
voidably incurred for a long or short

It is customary to authorize the attorney to employ another to assist time, frequently find it necessary to cm.

him when necessary, which person so appointed is termed a substitute. ploy collectors whose special and entire

The power to appoint such sub-agent generally accompanies the docuduty it is to promptly collect such indebt ment giving power of attorney, and is worded as follows: cdness or see that the same is paid when KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that I, Jas. H. Hill, of Downer's due. Oftentimes their work of collec.

Grove, in the County of Dupage and State of Illinois, nained in the let

ter of attorney above inentioned, have made, appointed and substituted, tion will be in portions of the country and by these presents do make, appoint and substitute John Holland, of Un hundreds or thousands of miles from

said Downer's Grove, to be the true and lawful attorney of the said

Henry G. Holden in the above letter of attorney named, to do and per. the place of busincss or residence of the

form all such acts, matters and things as he may deem necessary or & creditor. It is usual under thesc circum expedient for the complete execution of the authority therein given, as m stances to invest such an agent, thus doing business,

fully in all respects, and to all intents and purposes, as I myself might

and could do by virtue of the power and authority therein delegated, if I with what is termed “Power of Attorney," which

wure personally present. is done by a written instrument usually under seal. In ivitness whereof, I, the said Jas. H. Hill, have hereunto set my The person or persons so authorized are called attor

hand and seal, the fifth day of December, in the year of our Lord one

thousand eight hundred and seventy-six. neys, and the person or persons so appointing are terined

Signed and sealed in presence of

JAS. H. HILL. [SEAL.] constituents.

If a power of attorney is to be recorded, it should be acknowledged. Where any act of the attorney is to be GenERAL POWER OF ATTORNEY TO COLLECT DEBTS. by deed, the authority to execute it must also be by deed. A document authorizing the attorney to execute a sealed KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that I, Henry G. Holden, in instrumeni, must of itself be under seal, and a power to

the town of Londonderry, County of Windhamn, and State of Verinont,

have inade, constituted and appointed, and by these presents do make, convey lands requires the same regulations in its acknowledgincnt by constitute and appoint Jas. H. Hill my true and lawful attorney, for me both husband and wise, in in:iny States, as a deed by them would

and in my name, to ask, deinand, sue for, recover and receive of John

Holland, and of all and every person and persons whomsoever indebted require. The following illustrates the general form and wording of

to me by note, account, or otherwise, all such suins of money, debt, and such a document, logether with other papers related thereto:

deinands whatsoever, as now are or may be due and owing to me from them or either of thein, And in default of payınent of the saine by

them or either of them, to take all lawful means, in iny name or other. GENERAL FORM OF POWER OF ATTORNEY.

wise, for the recovery thereof, by attachment, arrest or otherwise, and

to arrange and agree for the same; and on receipt thereof to discharge KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that I, Henry G. Holden, of

the saine, and seal and deliver in a lawful manner, and do all lawful Londonderry, in the County of Windham, and State of Verinont, have

acts concerning the preinises as I would do myself were I personally made, constituted and appointed, and by these presents do inake, con.

present; and make and revoke such attorneys under hiin as inay be stitute and appoint James II. Hill, of Downer's Grove, County of Du

necessary for the purposes aforesaid. page, and State of Illinois, a true and lawful attorncy for me, and in my

Hereby confirming all my said attorney shall in my name lawfully name, place and stead, and in my behalf, to here insert the things which

do, or cause to be done, in or about the premises. the altorney is to do), hert by giving and granting unto iny said attorney

In witness whereof, I, the said Henry G. Holden, have hereto set iny full power and authority in the premises to use all lawful means in iny

hand and seal, this ninth day of December, one thousand eight hundred name and for my sole benefit, for the purposes aforesaid. And generally

and seventy-six. to do and perform all such acts, matters and things as my said attorney

Signed and sealed in presence of | HENRY G. HIOLDEX. (SEAL.] shall deem necessary and expedient for the completion of the authority hereby given, as fully as I might and could do were I personally present. In witness whereof, 1, the said Henry G. Holden, have hereunto set

LETTER OF REVOCATION. my hand and seal, this first day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six.

Whereas I, Henry G. Holden, of Londonderry, County of Windham, Signed and sealed in presence of | HENRY G. HOLDEN. (SEAL.) and State of Vermont, did on the first day of December, in cighteen

I hundred and seventy-six, by a certain instruinent in writing or letter of



attorney, make and appoint Jas. H. Hill, of Downer's Grove, County of

VERDICT WHERE DROWNED BY ACCIDENT. Dupage, State of Illinois, to be my lawful attorney in my name and for my use, to (here set forth what the attorney was authorized to do, pre STATE OF cisely in the language of the original power), as by the same writing, - COUNTY,


ss reference thereto being had, will fully appear: Now know all men by these presents, that I, the said Henry G. Holden, for a just cause, have

At an inquest held ( proceed as in case of verdict for murder], decide revoked, recalled and made void the said letter of attorney, and all

that the said R. H., on the day of , at -- o'clock - M., at powers or authorities therein granted, and all acts which shall or may

--, in the county aforesaid, went into - river in the town of be done by virtue thereof.

-, to bathe, and was accidentally drowned.
[If another attorney is to be appointed continue thus:] And further In witness, etc. (as in case of verdict for murder].
know ye, that I, the said Henry G. Holden, do by these presents name,
constitute and appoint John N. Hurd, of Aurora, County of Kane, and

State of Illinois, to be my lawful attorney.
Signed and sealed in presence of | HENRY G. HOLDEN. (SEAL.]

-- COUNTY, $8.

At an inquest held (proceed as in case of verdict for murder), decide

that the said E. B. on the day of , at in the town of DUTIES OF CORONERS.

---, in the county aforesaid, being found lying on the highway in the The office of coroner is one which the people of every community

town of (or as the case may be), with no marks of violence upon his

body, came to his death from natural causes. must provide for. Sudden deaths, which take place through violence,

In witness whereof, etc. (as in case of verdict for murder.] poison, suicide, and accident, demand investigation by persons compe• tent to determine the cause of such death; hence in every State there are statutes regulating the manner of holding the coroner's inquest. The duty of the coroner, upon being notified of a person being found

REPORTS OF COMMITTEES. dead, supposed to have come to his or her death through violence or

It is common with societies and assemblies of various kinds to entrust unnatural means, is to summon a jury of twelve men, usually. Upon

the special work of such society or assembly, requiring considerable intheir assembling he will appoint one of the number a foreman, who,

vestigation, to a committee usually consisting of three, five or more, who upon their being sworn to do their duty, will carefully proceed to inves:

are expected to examine the subject which they are appointed to investi. tigate the cause of the death, witnesses being sworn by the coroner, and

gate, and at a certain specified time, or at their earliest convenience, all other measures taken calculated to arrive at the true facts of the case.

bring in a written report of their conclusions. As soon as the inquest is held and the verdict of the jury is rendered,

It is customary to have such committee of an odd number, as three, if the deceased is unknown and is unclaimed by friends, immediate

five, etc., so that in case of the committee failing to agree there can be a measures are taken to bury the body, which is done at the expense of

majority vote, and a majority as well as a minority report. the deceased person's estate if such there be. If not, then at the ex.

The following may serve as specimens of various kinds of reports: pense, generally, of the county. All goods found, after ten days' notice, according to the law of various States, are sold, and the proceeds, along

MAJORITY REPORT. with the moneys, papers or other valuable thing or things, deposited with the county treasurer, the coroner taking a receipt therefor. In the

To the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Aurora, in Common Council

assembled: hands of the county treasurer they are to remain five years, subject to

Your committec, to whom was referred the proposition of John Jones the order of the legal representatives of the deceased. If in that time to sell to the city a gravel bed, comprising a piece of land of four rods they are not called for, then the property vests in the county.

by ten in size, being lot four in block ten in the original plat of the city It is made the duty of the coroner to keep a book of record in which

of Aurora, having had the same under advisement, ask leave to report

as follows, to wit: is fully detailed all the circumstances attending every inquest, the testi The gravel in this bed, though not of the uniform quality that may mony of witnesses, etc., and where any person or persons are implicated be desired, is yet sufficiently good to answer the purpose of grading the in the death, to arrange to have such witness or witnesses knowing the

streets. The quantity in this lot, according to estimate, will be sufficient

for the city's use in the east division of the city for the next five years, fact appear at the next term of court.

and, considering its accessibility, the city is recommended to buy the It is made the duty of the foreman to bring in the verdict, which will lot at the price offered, namely, five hundred dollars.

L. O. HILL, vary according to circumstances, as follows:



To the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Aurora, in Common Council Al an inquest held at the house of A. B. in the town of county assembled: of —, on the --day of —, 18—, before C. D., a coroner or justice of The undersigned, the minority of a committee to whom was referred the peace in said county, upon the body of E. F. (or, a person unknown), the proposition of John Jones to sell to the city a gravel bed, comprising there lying dead, the following jurymen being sworn to inquire into ali a piece of land four rods by ten in size, being lot four in block ten in the the circumstances attending the death of the said E. F. [or, a person original plat of the city of Aurora, having had the same under adviseunknown), decide that one G. H., of (or, late of the town of - , in inent, asks leave to report as follows, to wit: the county of , aforesaid, (or as the case may be] on the day The gravel in this bed is not such as the city should purchase as a of , in the year 18, at — o'clock in the afternoon of that day, covering for the streets, being in certain veins too fine, and in other made an assault upon the body of the deceased with a rod of iron (or as places altogether too coarse. As there are other points in the city where the case may be), from which assault wounds were inflicted on his left lots can be purchased containing gravel which is much better adapted breast, causing the death of the deceased on the day of

to the purpose of graveling streets, just as accessible and quite as cheap, IS .

the undersigned therefore recommends that the city do not purchase the If others were implicated in the murder, state the fact, and who.] lot at the price offered, naniely, five hundred dollars. In witness whereof, the jurors have to this verdict set their hands on

S. B. HAWLEY. the day of the inquest. [To be signed by the jurors.)

REPORT OF THF TREASURER OF AN ASSOCIATIOX. The justice or coroner should indorse on the verdict of the jury his | The undersigned, treasurer of the New York Mutual Benefit Associa. acceptance thereof, which may be as follows:

tion, herewith submits his annual report: The within verdict was made, signed and delivered to me this ---

The balance in the treasurer's hands at the commencement of the day of — ,isA. B., Coroner or Justice of the Peace.

present year, was forty-four (44) dollars. During the year, as shown by

the accompanying exhibit A, which is hereto appended, there have been VERDICT IN CASE OF SUICIDE.

received into the treasury, from all sources, five hundred and ninety one

(591) dollars and eighty-four (84) cents. During the same time the cx. At an inquest held proceed as in case of verdict for murder), decide penditures have been two hundred and fifty-seven (257) dollars and ten that the said O. P. (or, person unknown] did on the day of

(10) cents, leaving a balance in the treasury, and subject to the order of S, at the town of min said county of --, voluntarily and with the society, the sum of three hundred and thirty-four (334) dollars and his own hand (here state the nature of his death), from which act he seventy-four (74) cents. instantly died (or as the case may be).

All of which is respectfully submitted. In witness whereof, etc. (as in case of verdict for murder).

A. VAN OSDEL, Treasurer, N. r. M. B. A.

the accompanying exury from all sources,

the same time the ci

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with a low railing on the outer side of the same. This change can be
cheaply made from the present high railing in the room, which should
be taken down. The outer doors should also be changed to swing out,
instead of in as they now do. The cost of these changes will be but
eighty-nine (89) dollars. The entire sum required for the above pur-
poses will amount to one hundred and eighty (180) dollars.
All of which is respectfully submitted

N. E. CUSHMAN,' Committee on City Hall.




To A. VAN OSDEL, Treas., Cr. 1877.

1877 Dec. 31. To cash paid to as

Jan. 1. By balance on hand sist various mem

from last year's bers ............$110.00

account..........$ 44.00 To rent paid S. B., 70.00

By dues .... “ carpet........ 41.00

* initiation fees .. 64.00 “ stationery ..... 5.10

(6 fines......

1.84 " advertising ... 31.00

$257.10 Balance on hand.. 331-74 $591.8+

$591.54 The undersigned, a committee appointed for the purpose, have compared the foregoing account with the vouchers, and find it to be correct.




ESTIMATE FOR PAINTING ROOF AND INTERIOR OF UPPER HALL. For painting roof two coats, mineral paint.

$26.00 For calcimining ceiling of upper hall....

- 14.00 For setting seventeen panes of large glas

• 9.00 For painting walls two coats...-.

24.00 For painting and graining seats ...........


REPORT OF A SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON CITY HALL. The Committee on City Hall beg leave to submit the following report:

The present state of the building requires the early attention of the city, both in reference to needed changes in the arrangement of some of the rooms and in general repairs.

The roof is in need of immediate repair, the paint being so worn away as to leave much of the tin exposed to the weather, which is, con. sequently, badly rusted. The ceiling, walls and seats of the upper hall also require calcimining and painting, and many lights of glass need resetting. They recommend that this room be generally repainted, which, by the painter's estimate, annexed and marked A, can be done for ninety-one (91) dollars.

In connection with this improvement, they recommend the remodel. ing of the office of city clerk, by constructing a platform eight inches in height and seven feet in width on the south and west sides of the room,

$91.00 BARNARD & STONE, Painters. REPORT OF COMMITTEE AT AN AGRICULTURAL FAIR. To the President and Superintendent of the Washington County Fair:

GENTLEMEN --Your committee to whom was assigned the duty of deciding concerning the relative merit of swine on exhibition at this show, make the following report:

The exhibit of different breeds is good, there being nine distinct classes in the exhibition. Of these, for size, cleanliness and generally superior condition, the first premium is awarded to four animals of the Poland China breed, in pen c, division four. The second premium is given to pen D, division three, containing three animals, Suffolks, which are to be commended for their great weight, considering their age. Very Respectfully ARTHUR MONROE,



PRINTED TITLE FOR ENTRY BEFORE PUBLICATION. 1. A printed copy of the title of the book, map, chart, dramatic or musical composition, engravins, cut, print, photograph, or a description of the paiating, drawing, chroino, statue, statuary, or model or design for a work of the fine arts, for which copyright is desired, must be sent by mail, prepaid, addressed LIBRARIAN OF CONGRESS,

WASHINGTON, D, C. This must be done before publication of the book or other article.

COPYRIGUT FEES. 2. A fee of 50 cents, for recording the title of each book or other article, raust be iaclosed with the title as above, and 50.cents in addition (or $1 in all) for each certificate of copyright under seal of the Librarian of Congress, which will be transmiited by return mail.

WILAT IS REQUIRED TO PERFECT COPYRIGUT. 3. Within ten days after publication of each book or other article, two complete copies of the best edition issued must be sent, to perfect the copyright, with the address LIBRARIAN OF CONGRESS,

WASHINGTON, D. C. It is optional with those sending books and other articles to perfect copyright to send them by mail or express; but, in either case, the charges are to be prepaid by the sendery. Without the deposit of copics above required, the copyright is void, and a penalty of $25 is incurred. No copy is required to be depositud elsewhere.

NOTICE OF COPYRIGUT TO BE GIVEN BY IMPRINT. 4. No copyright hereafter isened is valid unless notice is given by inserting in every copy published, on the title page, or the page following, if it be a book; or, if a map, chart, musical composition, print, cut, engraving, photograph, painting, drawing, chromo, statue, statuary, or model or design intended to be perfected as a work of the fine arts, by inscribing upon some portion of the face or front thereof, or on the face of the substance on which the same is mounted, the following words, viz.: Entered according to act of Congress, in the year - by , in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Wash. ing'on. Or thus: Copyright, 18— by A, B.

The law imposes a penalty of $100 upon any person who has not obtained copyright who sball insert the notice *entered according to act of Congress," etc., or words of the same import, in or upon any book or other article.

TRANSLATIONS, ETC. 5. Any author may reserve the right to translate or to dramatize his own work. In this case, notice should be given by printing the words, Right of translation reserved, or All rights reserved, below the notice

of copyright entry, and notifying the Librarian of Congress of such reservation, to be entered upon the record.

DURATION OF COPYRIGHT. 6. Each copyright secures the exclusive right of publishing the book or article copyrighted for the term of twenty-eight years. At the end of that time, the author or designer, or bis widow or children, may secure a renewal for the further term of fourteen years, making fortytwo years in all. Applications for renewal must be accompanied by explicit statement of ownership, in the case of the author, or of relationship, in the case of his heirs, and must state definitely the date and place of eutry of the original copyright.

TIME OF PUBLICATION. 7. The time within which any work copyrighted may be issued from the press is not limited by any law or regulation, but depends upon the discretion of the proprietor. A copyright may be secured for a projected work as well as for a completed one.

ASSIGNMENTS. 8. Any copyright is assignable in law by any instrument of writing, but such assignment must be recorded in the office of the Librarian of Congress within sixty days from its date. The fee for this record is fifteen cents for every 100 words, and ten cents for every 100 words for a copy of the record of assignment.

Cories, or DUPLICATE CERTIFICATES, 9. A copy of the record (or duplicate certificate) of any copyright entry will be suruished under seal, at the rate of fifty cents each. SERIALS OR SEPARATE PUBLICATIONS TO BE COPYRIGHTED SEPARATELY.

10. In the case of books published in more than one volume, is issued or sold separately, or of periodicals published in numbers, or of en

vings, photographs, or other articles published with variatione, a copyright is to be taken out for cach volume of a book, or number of a periodical, or variety, as to size or inscription, of any other article.

COPYRIGHTS FOR WORKS OF ART. 11. To secure a copyright for a painting, statne, model or design intended to be perfected as a work of the fine arts, so as to prevent infringement by copying, engraving, or vending such design, a definite description must accompany the application for copyright, and a photograph of the fame, at least as large as “cabinet size," must be mailed to the Librariau of Congress within ten days from the completion of the work.

FULL NAME OF PROPRIETOR REQUIRED. 12. Every applicant for a copyright must state distinctly the name and residence of the claimant, and whether the right is claimed as author, designer, or proprietor. No atlidavit or formal application is required

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Their Weight, Fineness and Value as Assayed at the United States || As Assayed at the United States Afint, the basis of valuation being Hint.

$1.22% per ounce of standard fineness. NOTE.—The weight is given in Troy-ounces and decimals of the same; the fineness shows how many parts in 1000 are fine gold; the

NOTE.-Weight in Troy ounces; ineness in thousandths. value is the intrinsic relative value, as compared with the amount of fine gold in United States coin.


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DENOMINATIONS. Weight Dess. Value

Old Rix Dollar

0.902 833 $1,023 Old Scudo.....

0.836 902 1.026 Australia ........Pound of 1852...

0.281 | 916.5 $5.324

Florin before 1858.

0.451 833

.511 Sovereigu, 1855 and 1860..... 0.2565

New Floriu......

0.397 900

.486 Austria..


New Union Dollar..

0.596 900 .731
Sovereig! .. .
0.363 900 | 6.754

Maria Theresa Dollar, 17 0.895 838 1.021 New Union Coin.. 0.357 900 6.642 Belgium

Five Francs.

0.803 897 .98 Belgit 25 Francs...---


Bolivia .
New Dollar



.981 Bolivia Doubioon ..... 0.867 870 15.593 Brazil

Double Milreis ....

0.820 918.5 1.025 Brazil.. Twenty Milreis.. 0.575 917.5 10.906 Canada.

Twenty Cents

0.150 925 .189 Central Am Two Escudos..... 0.209 853.5 3.688

Twenty-five Cents

0.1875 925 .236 Four Reals. 0.027 875 0.488 Central America. Dollar.

0.866 850 1.002 Old Doubloon...

Old Dollar .....


1.068 Ten Pesos 0.492 900 9.154

New Dollar...

0.801 900.5 .982 Denmark Tun Tualers ..

0.427 895 7.90


Dollar (English) assumed. 0.866 901 1.062 Ecuador Four Escudos 0.433 844 7.555

Ten Cents..

0.087 901 .106 England. Pouud or Sovereigu, vew.... 0.2567 916.5 4.863 Denmark.

Two Riysdaler....

0.927 877 1.107 average 0.2562 916 4.851 England

Shillius, UtW'......

0.1825 921.51 France.. Twenty Francs, Dew......


average .....

0.178 925 average.. 0.207 899 3.847 France

Five Francs, average...

0.800 900 Germany, Ten Thalers .....

0.427 895 7.90

Two Francs....

0.320 8355 .364 Ten Mark.....

0.129 900 2.38

Que Mark.......


900 .19 Krope (crowd).. 0.357 900 6.642

New Thaler.

0.595 900 .729 Twenty Mark

Florin before 1857.


.417 Greece Twenty Drachms 0.186 900 3.442

New Florin, assumed

0.340 900 .417 Hindostan Mohur..

0.374 916 7.082 Greece.

Five Drachms ..

0.719 900 .851 Italy. Twenty Lire....

0.207 898 3.843

Hindostan ...
Rupee ....

0.374 916 .466

... Japan Old Cobang ..... 0.362 568 4.44 Japan


0.279 991 .376 0.289 672 3.576 New Itzabu.

0.279 8.0
Yen (new, assumed)

900 9.956

10 Sen (new coinaye).


.985 Mexico Doublood, average .. 0.8675 866 15.53 Mexico

Dollar, new ...

0.8675 903 1.066 new ...... 0.8675 870.5 15.611

* average...



1.062 Twenty Pesos (Max.).


Peso of Maximilian

0.861 902.51 1.055
1.090 875 | 19.72 Naples...-

Scudo ..........

0.844 830

.953 Naples Six Ducacti.... 1.245 996 15.044 Netherlands 21, Guilders ....

0.804 944 1.083 Netherlands .. Ten Guilders.....

0.215 899 3.997 Norway

Specie Daler....

0.927 877 1.107 New Granada. Old Doubloon (Boyuta) 0.868 870 15.611 New Granada Dollar of 1857.

0.803 896

98 (Popayan).. 0.867 858 15.378 Peru..

Old Dollar...

0.866 901 1.062 Ten Pesos..... 0.525 891.5 9.675

Dollar of 1858

0.766 909 Peru .... Old Doubloon... 0.867 868 15.557

Ilalf Dollar, 1835 and 1838. 0.433 650 .883 Twenty Sols......


Sol ....

0.802 900 .982 Portugal Gold Crown..... 0.308 912 5.807 Prussia

Thaler before 1857.


.727 Prussia. New Crowu (assumed 0.357 900 6.642

New Thaler...

0.595 900 .729 Rome... 24. Scudi (new)


2.605 Rome.
Scudo ........

0.864 900 1.058 Russia.. Five Rubles .. 0.210 916 3.976 Russia..


0.667 875 .794 Spain. 100 Reals.


4.964 Sardinia.
Five Lire ....

0.800 900
80 " ...
0.215 B69.5 3.864 Spain...... New Pistareen

0.166 899 .203 Sweden. Ducat. 0.111 875 2.237 Sweden..

Rix Dollar

0.092 750 1.115 Carolin, 10 frs 0.104 900 1.935 Switzerland Two Francg ....

0.323 899 Tunis. 25 Piastres.... 0.101 900 2.995 Tunis....... Five Piantreg ...

0.511 893.5 .625 Turkey 100) 0.231 915 4.369 Turkey

Twenty Piastres ...

0.770 830
0.112 999 2.313 Tuscany ... Floriu ..


.276 United States.... Dollar. 0.05375 900 1.00 United States . Dollar .......

0.859361 900
Quarter Eagle
0.13437 900 2.50

.. llall Dollar ...

0.400 900
Three Dollar.

0.16125 900
Quarter Dollar ..

Half Eayle..
0.26875 900 5.00

. Dime...

0.080 900
0.5375 900 10.00

llar Dime......

0.040 900
... Double
1 1.075 900 1 20.00

... Three Cent....

1 0.024 900 United States Trade Dollar. Weight, 420 Grains; 900 Fine. The values of United States Silver Coins are not given owing to their fluctuation.



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The Sizes in Inches,


Troy. 24 grains (gr.) 1 pennyw'ht,-dwt. 20 dwts ........1 ounce,-oz. 3.2 grains, 1 carat, diamond wt.

By this weight gold, silver, and jewels only are weighed. The ounce and pound in this, are the same as in apothecaries' weight.


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2 pints ..... 1 quart,- qt.
8 quarts .... 1 peck, -p
4 pecks ...... i bushel, - bu.

36 bushels.. ... 1 chaldron.

barleycorns.. 1 inch,-in.

ins. .. 1 United States standard (Win

.....1 foot,-ft.

3 it...... chester) bushel – 18% inches

.... 1 yard,- yd. in diameter, and 8 inches

4 yds....... .....1 rod, -ra.

40 rds ......1 furlong.- f
deep-contains 2150.42 cubic

8 fur ............1 mile.

Liquid or Wine.

2x Inches................1 nall.
4 gills ...... .1 pint-pt,

4 nails....... ......1 quarter.
2 pints .... 1 quart-ot.

4 quarters.............1 yard.
4 quarts........1 gallon-gal.
81% gallons.....1 barrel--bbl.

2 barrels....... 1 hogshead-hhd.

inches..........1 palm. U. S. standard

inches..........1 hand. gallon .......231 cubic Inches. 16 inches.... ...1 span, Beer gallon ...28

18 inches....... ...1 cubit.
....1 bbl.

21.8 inches..........1 Bible cubit.
2% feet...........1 military pace.

feet...........1 common pace.
60 seconds .1 minute.
60 minutes.. .1 hour.
24 hours..... .1 day.

144 sq. Ins.............1 sq. foot.
7 days..... . 1 week.

9 sq. ft...... 4 weeks...... ..1 lunar month.

1 sq. yard, 28, 29, 30, or

30% sq. yds..

1 sq. rod.
calendar month.
31 days,

1 rood.

40 sq. rods.. 3

4 roods......

1 acre.
30 days........1 month, (in coin-

puting interest ).
52 weeks and 1 day....!
12 calendar months...

365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and

7.92 inches.........1 link. 49 seconds......1 solar year.

25 links......

.1 rod.

4 rods...... .....1 chain. Circular.

10 square chains. 1 acre.

160 square rods...
60 seconds...........

..... 1 minute, 640 acres.............1 square milo
60 minutes..... ... 1 degree.
80 degrees.....

90 degrees...... quadrant.
4 quadrants....

1 circle.

1728 cubic inches.....I cubic foot. 360 degrees.......

27 cubic feet........1 " yard. A convenient method of finding 128 cubic feet .....1 cord (wood.) the difference in time between 40 cubicfeet... 1 ton(shipping.) two places, is to notice their dis 2150.42 cubic in...1 standard bu. tancē apart in degrees of longi

268.8 * " ..1 * cal.
tude, and allow 4 minutes to each 1 cubic ft., four-fifths of a bushel.
degree, based on the following

To find the number of bushels

in a bin of any dimensions, find
1440 minutes..... ..... 1 day, the number of cubic feet by mul-

or revolution of the earth. tiplying the three dimensions of 1 revolution of the earth is the bin in feet; deduct one-fifth, 360 degrees; therefore,

and the result is the number of 1 degree...

.4 minutes. bushels.

20 grains..

. 1 scruple 3 scruples....

drachm. 8 drs, ......

1 ounce. 12 ozs.......

pound. Avoirdupois. 16 drams ( drs.) 1 ounce,-- oz. 16 ozs, ..........1 pound,- lb. 25 lbs. ...........1 quarter,-qr.

4 quarters.....100 weight,-cwt. 20 cwts.......... 1 ton.

Formerly 28 lbs, were allowed to the quarter, but the practice is now nearly out of use excepting in the coal mines in Pennsylvania, the Eastern fish markets, and the U.S. Custom House.

Grains are the same in each of the above weights. 5,760 gralns, apothecaries'or troy weight......

.......1 lb. 7,000 grains, a voirdupois

weight....... ......1 lb. Therefore, 144 lbs, avoir. equal 175 lbs. apoth. or troy.

Of Liquids. 1 gallon oil weighs 9.32 lbs. avoir. 1 gallon distilled water, 10 lbs. 1 gallon sea water, 10.32 lbs. 1 gallon proof spirits, 9.08 lbs.


IRON, LEAD, ETC. 14 lbs.

.......1 stone. 21% stones..

...1 pig. 8 pigs ...........

...1 fother. BEEF, PORK, ETC. 200 lbs.............

1 barrel. 196 lbs. (flour).... ......1 barrel. 100 lbs. (fish)............1 quintal.

Flat Writing-Papers.
Flat Letter... ........10 x 16
Flat Cap......

....14 x 17
Double Flat Letter......16 x 20
Flat Foolscap..... ...13 x
Crown .......
Folio Post...
Demy. ......
Medium ...
Check Follo.
Bank Folio.
Double Cap.....

17 x 28 Royal..........

19 x 24 Super Royal ....

20 x 28 Imperial .....

23 x 31 of the different sizes there are also several different weights of each size, as Demy 20, 22, 24, 26, and 28 ius. per ream.

Stationers usually rule, cut and fold the sizes required to make the various styles of letter and note papers - a flat sheet making one, two or four sheets of letter or note paper.

Ledger Papers. Flat Cap.....

....... 14 x 17 Crown ..

.....15 x 19 Folio.......

.....17 v 22 Demy....

.....16 x 21 Medium

.. 18 x 23
Super Royal.

.....23 x 28
Book Papers.
The usual sizes of these, from
the different American and Eng-
113h manufacturers, differ but
little from the above, except to
fill special orders.

Paper Counts. 24 sheets.....

..1 quire. 10% quires...

...1 token. 20 quires...

ream. 2 reams...

.1 bundle. 5 bundles...

1 bale. Units of Anything. 12 pieces.............1 dozen. 12 dozen...

1 gross. 12 gross..... ..1 great gross. 20 units.

...1 score,


United States Land Measure.t

6 1 5| 4 | 3 | 2 | 1
? | 8 | 9 | 10 11 | 12
18 17 16 15 14 13
19 | 20 | 21 22 | 23 | 24
30 | 29 | 28 27 | 26 | 25
31 32 33 34 35 36






4.55 ..


Railway Signals.

Difference of Time between Washington

and other cities of the World. One pull of bell-cord signifies "stop." Two pulls mean "go ahead." 12.00 o'clock (noon) at.......... WASHINGTON.

N. W. X. E. Three pulls signify "back up."

12.12 .. " .....P.M...... .. New York. One whistle siguifies "down brakes."

12.24 .. "

...Boston. Two whistles mean “ of brakes."


8. E. Three whistles signify " back up."

....St. John (N. F). Cortinued whistles indicate " danger."

....Angra (Azores). Rapid short whistles, "a cattle alarm."


Each section has

four quarter-secA sweeping parting of the hands, on a level

4.43 ..
. Dublin.

tions, designated with the eyes, signifies “ go ahead."

.. Edinburgh,

as above, each A slowly sweeping meeting of the hands, 5.07


containing 160 over the head, means "back slowly."

acres. 5.17

... Paris. Downward motion of the hands, with ex

... Rome.

la Several States. tended arms, signifies "stop."

The township is six miles square, divided into 6.02

..Berlin, Beckoning motion of one hand, indicates

36 square miles or sections, numbered as above, "back."


. Vienna.

each containing 640 acres. A red flag waved up the track, signifies

....Cape Town.




The following table will assist in making an. A red flag standing by the roadside, means

..Calcutta. "danger ahead."

estimate of the amount of land in fields and lots. 12.54

...Pekin. A red flag carried on a locomotive, signifies

$10 rods x 16 rods .... ....1 acre. "an engine following.'



† 5 yards x 968 yards.... .... 1 A red flag raised at a station, is a signal to


# 220 feet x 198 feet....... ..... 1 ** stop."


..San Francisco.

25 feet x 125 feet..................0717 " A lantern at night raised and lowered ver- | 9.40

...Salt Lake. tically, is a signal to "start."

4356 sq. ft., .10 acre. 10890 sq. ft., .25 " 11.08

........ New Orleans. A lantern swung at right angles across the


.50 " 32670 · 75 11.18 ..."

....Chicago. track, means "stop.”

Or any two numbers whose product is 160. A lantern swung in a circle, signifies "back


+ Or any two numbers whose product is 4,840. the train." 12.00 .."....(noon).............Lima (Peru).

I Or any two numbers whose product is 43.560. * For Metric System of Weights and Measures, see page 215.


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