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straining, boiling, distilling, and so on. The pithy, emitting branches alternately, with a process is not always favourable to the health leafy wing running along every angle, like of such as are engaged in it. How easy to a three-edged sword blade, terminating here an African lip, a confusion of terms, as bat, and there in a rounded forin. These wings bath, botmon, botamo, albotim, balneum, and are thick, and curiously veined. When so on; and how natural to an enthusiast, a steeped in hot water, in order to expand confusion of coppers, persecutions, and the them, they become covered all over with a miracle of escaping unhurt."—ROBINSON. white powdery substance."— Trans. of the Hist. of Baptism.
Linnæan Soc. vol. 3.
New England Fasts and Thanksgivings. Christian Symbols.
“There is one distinguishing character“A LILLY on a tomb denotes a virgin or istic in the religious character of the New a confessor, and a palm-branch signifies a
Englanders which we must not omit menmartyr."—ROBINSON.
tioning; and that is the custom of annually celebrating fasts and thanksgivings. In the
spring, the governors of the several New Peruvian Bark.
England States, except Rhode Island, issue
their proclamations, appointing a day to be “There is a famous tree known in seves religiously observed in fasting, humiliation, ral provinces of South America under the and prayer, throughout their respective name of quina-quina, and in the province States, in which the predominating vices, of Maynas, on the banks of the river Ma
that particularly call for humiliation, are rannon, under that of Tatchi. A fragrant enumerated. In autumn, after harvest, that resin distills from the trunk by means of an gladsome era in the husbandman's life, the incision. The seeds, called by the Spaniards governors again issue their proclamations, Pepitas de quina-quina, have the form of appointing a day of public thanksgiving, beans, or of flat alınonds, and are enclosed enumerating the public blessings received in a kind of doubled leaf, between which
in the course of the foregoing year. This and the leaf is found a little of the same re
pious custom originated with their venerable sin that distills from the tree. Their chief ancestors, the first settlers of New England, use is to make fumigations, which are re
and has been handed down through the sucputed cordial and wholesome, but their re
cessive generations of their posterity. A putation is much less now than formerly.
custom so rational, and so happily calculated " This tree grows plentifully in several
to cherish in the minds of the people a sense provinces of high Peru. The natives make of their dependence on the Great Benefacrolls or masses of the resin, which they sell
tor of the world for all their blessings, it is at Potosi and Chucuisaca, where they serve hoped will ever be preserved."—WINTERnot only to fumigate or perfume with, but also for several other uses in physic, sometimes under the form of a plaster, sometimes under that of a compound oil made from
Du Guesclin. the resin. This substance is supposed to “ BERTRAND DU Guesclin had been alpromote perspiration, strengthen the nerves, wayes a most valiant knight, and one highly and to restore the motion of the joints in renowned in all histories. After he haul gouty people, by barely carrying in the performed many worthy enterprizes ever to hand, and continually handling it.
his fame and honour, he maried with a beau“The stalk is triangular, furrowed, and | tifull lady, named Tiphania, descended of a
noble family. After which mariage, he grow- | though they do bite, yet their biting is not ing to leave and discontinue his former ex- venomous, because they doe feede on the ercise of armes, as he sate discoursing with baulme tree, and sleepe under the shadow his lady, she gently began to blame and re- thereof."— Treasury, 8c. prove him, declaring that, before their mariage, hee followed the warres, wherein he had atchieved the cheifest reputation, and
Reason for Wearing Spectacles. that it neyther suted with the nature nor duty of a true gentleman to lose the least “I have heard of a great lord in Spaine, repute of honour wonne before, by over that would alwaies eate cherries with his much affecting a new-made choise. As for spectacles on his nose, onely to make them me, quoth she, who ought to shine by the seeme the bigger and more nourishing." bright radiance of your fame, I shall account
Ibid. myselfe too low dejected if you give over a course so well begun, and lose your spirits in doating love, wer it to one more worthy
St. Patrick's Purgatory. than myselfe.
“ Quæ quidem Trophonii fabula mihi “ These wordes did so neerely touch the adeo videtur similis ei, quæ de Patricii anknight, that hee began againe to follow tro, quod est in Hyberniâ, fertur, ut altera armes, wherein he carried himselfe so va
ex alterâ nata credi possit. Tametsi non liantly, that they did well and worthily at- desunt etiam hodiè permulti, qui descentribute it to him, to stand as a stout rampier dant, sed prius triduano evicti jejunio, ne for France, in the very sharpest times of capita sana ingrediantur. Qui descenderunt warre, and evermore made a meere barre aiunt sibi ridendi libidinem, in omni vitâ of his body, against the hottest invasions of ademptam."—ERASMUS. the English. By vertue of his valour, king Charles V. having reconquered most part of those territories, whiche had been insulted on in the reigne of the preceding kings, al
John the Baptist. wayes helde head against that valiant Ed
“When John was about thirty years of ward surnamed the Black Prince, and Prince age, in obedience to the heavenly call, he of Wales, and disappointed all his hopes. It entered on his ministry, by quitting the was he that re-established Henry II. king hill country, and going down by the wilderof Castille, in his kingdom, in despight of all ness to the plains of Jordan, by proclaimthe armies and English forces. Hee was also ing the kingdom of God, the near advent of made Constable of France by king Charles the Messiah, and the necessity of preparing V., who helde him in such endeared affec
to receive him by laying aside sin and sution for his valour, that having bestowed perstition, and by an exercise of universal great gifts on him in his life time, after his justice; and lastly, by identifying the perdeath he did him so much honour, as to let
son of Jesus as the Messiah. He distributed hiin be buried at S. Denis, at the feete of various rules of righteousness among the the same tombe which this king had prepared different classes that attended his ministry. there for himselfe."— Treasury of An. and He said to soldiers, Do violence to no man; Mo. Times.
he exhorted publicans to avoid exaction; and he taught the people benevolence, Let
him that hath two coats impart to him that Arabian Vipers.
hath none ; and he directed all to Jesus as “Ælianus avoucheth, that those vipers Master and Lord, in manifesting whom his which breed in the provinces of Arabia, al- l ministry was to cease. His dress was plain, his diet abstemious, and his whole deport- | the tetrarch must meet him before an imment grave, serious, and severe.
partial judge, who will reward or punish “ It is uncertain by what means John each according to the deeds done in the obtained an interview with Herod, but, body. In the present case, the judge bath certain it is, he reproved him for living in declared the character of John. John was adultery with Herodias his brother Philip's a burning and a shining light. Among them wife, and his language was that of a man that are born of women, there hath not risen who well understood civil government, for a greater than John the Baptist. he considered law as supreme in a state, and " Jesus speaking of the ill treatment of told the king, it is not lawful for thee to have | John, implies that posterity would do his thy brother's wife. Ierodias was extremely character justice; and true it is the childispleased with John for his honest free- dren of wisdom have justified John. But dom, and determined to destroy him, but mankind have entertained, according to though she prevailed on the king to impri- | their various prejudices, very different opison him, yet she could not persuade him to nions of that in which his work consisted. put him to death. Two great obstacles The Jews praise his rectitude, and pity his opposed her design. Herod himself was
Herod himself was fate, for John was their countryman, and shocked at the thought, for he had observed they hated Herod.' The Arabians celebrate Jolin, was convinced of his piety and love his abstemiousness, and say Providence of justice, he had received pleasure in hear-avenged his death. The Catholics have ining him, and had done many things which vented a thousand fables, and placed to John had advised him to do, and as there his account the origin of monachism, and is a dignity in innocence, the qualities of the working of miracles. They have put the man had struck him with an awe so him among their gods, consecrated waters, deep and solemn that, tyrant as he was, he built baptisteries and temples to his honour, could not think of taking away the life of assigned him a day in the calendar, called John. Herod also dreaded the resentment themselves by his name, collected his preof the public, for he knew the multitude held tended relics, adorned them with silver and John as a prophet. Herodias, therefore, gold and jewellery, and wholly overlooked waited for a favourable opportunity to sur- that which made John the greatest that had prise the king into the perpetration of a been born of women. How deplorable is crime, which neither justice nor policy it, that in the scventeenth century, in the could approve, and such an one she found enlightened kingdom of France, such a man on the king's birth-day. The story is at as Du Fresne, of extensive literature, of large in the gospel. Dreadful is the con- amiable manners, an instructor of all Eudition of a country where any one man is rope in matters of antiquity, should disabove controul, and can do what this ab
grace his pen by publishing a treatise to solute king did! whether he felt, or only pretended to feel, great sorrow, the fact
« 1 Joseph Gorion. I. 5. cap. 45. Ganz Tze. was the same, he sent an executioner, and mach David. i, xxv. 2. Herodes Johannem sacommanded the head of the prophet to be cerdotem maximum, eo quod ipsum redarguisset brought, and John was assassinated in the occidit gladio,cum multis aliis sapientibus Israel,
&c.” prison. “ The murder did not sit casy on the re
“ ?Koran, chap. 3, ch. 17, note 6. Joh. Hen.
ric. Hottingeri Historia Oriental. ex variis Oricollection of Herod, for, soon after, when ental. monument. collecta. Tiguri. 1651. cap. 3. he heard of the fame of Jesus, his conscience Muhammedis geneal. p. 86.96. Beidhavi. Zam. exclaimed, it is John whom I beheaded, he haschari, Kesseus, &c. D'Herbelot. Bibl. Jahia
Ben Zacharia." is risen from the dead! Certainly John the 66 3 Baron. Annal. - Acta Sanct. - Paciaudi Baptist will rise from the dead, and Herod | Antiq. Christ.”
prove that his native city of Amiens was in Si l'on trouve que je fais aux siècles dont possession of that precious relic the head of je parle plus d'honneur qu'ils ne méritent, St. John the Baptist, found at Jerusalem, en leur attribuant des idées si saines et des carried to Constantinople, discovered again sentimens si vertueux, on peut chercher in the city of Emesa, then transported to
dans la vanité des mêmes siècles la source Comana, carried again to Constantinople, de cet usage : mais il faudra, du moins, where the French found it when they took avouer que la vanité concouroit alors au the city, and whence they conveyed it to bien public, et qu'elle imitoit la vertu."Amiens, where it is now enshrined in all | Mémoires sur l'ancienne Chevalerie, par the odour of saintship.”l-ROBINSON'S Hist. SAINTE-PALAYE. Baptism.
Education of Chivalry.
Palace Pomp of the Barons. “ REMONTONS jusqu à l'enfance de celui “ L'ESPÈCe d'indépendance dont avoient que l'on destinoit à devenir Chevalier. Dès joui les hauts Barons, au commencement de qu'il avoit atteint l'âge de sept ans, on le re- la troisième race, et l'état de leurs Maisons, tiroit des mains des femmes, pour le confier composées des mêmes officiers que celle du aux hommes. Une éducation mâle et ro- Roi, furent pour leurs successeurs comme buste le préparoit de bonne heure aux tra- des titres qui les mettoient en droit d'imivaux de la guerre, dont la profession étoit ter, par le faste de ce qu'ils appelloient leur la même que celle de la Chevalerie. Au dé- Cour, la splendeur et la magnificence qui faut des secours paternels, une infinité de n'appartenoient qu' à la dignite Royale. Cours de Princes et de châteaux offroient D'autres Seigneurs subalternes, par une esdes écoles toujours ouvertes, où la jeune pèce de contagion trop ordinaire dans tous Noblesse recevoit les premières leçons du les siècles, en cherchant de plus en plus à métier qu'elle devoit embrasser ; et même se rapprocher de ceux-ci, s'efforcoient égaledes hospices où la générosité des Seigneurs ment d'élever l'état de leurs maisons. On fournissoit abondamment à tous ses besoins. trouvoit dans un château, dans un monasCette ressource étoit la seule, dans ces siè- tère, des offices semblables à ceux de la cles malheureux, où la puissance et la libé- cour d'un Souverain; et comme le Roi comralité des Souverains, également restreintes, mettoit ces offices aux Princes de son sang, n'avoient point encore ouvert une route plus les Seigneurs distribuoient aussi de pareilles noble et plus utile, pour quiconque vouloit dignités à leurs parens; qui de leur côté rese dévouer à la défense et à la gloire de gardoient ces places sous le même point de leur état et de leur couronne. S'attacher vûe, et trouvoient, en les acceptant, de quoi à quelque illustre Chevalier n'avoit rien, satisfaire la vanité dont ils se repaissoient." dans ce temps-là, qui pût avilir, ni dégrader :
Ibid. c'étoit rendre service pour service; et l'on ne connoissoit point les raffinemens d'une délicatesse plus subtile que juclicieuse, qui
Pages. auroit refusé de rendre à celui qui vouloit “ Les premières places que l'on donnoit généreusement tenir lieu de père, les ser- à remplir aux jeunes gens qui sortoient de vices qu'un père doit attendre de son fils. l'enfance, étoient celles de Pages, Varlets ou
Damoiseaux ; noms quelquefois communs
aux ecuyers. Les fonctions de ces Pages “ 1 Traité historique du chef de S. Jean Bap- étoient les services ordinaires des domestiste, avec des preuves et des rem par Charles du Fresne, Sr. du Cange. Paris, Cra- tiques auprès de la personne de leur maître moisy. 1665."
et de leur maîtresse : ils les accompagnoient à la chasse, dans leurs voyages, dans leurs leur âge, d'imiter tout ce qu'ils voyoient visites ou promenades, faisoient leurs mes- faire aux personnes d'un âge plus avancé, sages, et même les servoient à table, et leur les portoit à lancer comme eux la pierre ou versoient à boire.”—Ibid.
le dard, à défendre un passage que d'autres essayoient de forcer ; et faisant de leurs chaperons des casques ou des bucinets, ils se
disputoient la prise de quelque place; ils L'Amour de Dieu et des Dames.
prenoient un avant-goût des différentes es“ Les premières leçons qu'on leur don- pèces de Tournois, et commençoient à se noit regardoient principalement l'amour de former aux noble exercices des Ecuyers et Dieu et des Dames, c'est à dire, la religion des Chevaliers.”—Ibid. et la galanterie. Si l'on en croit la chronique de Jean de Saintré, c'étoit ordinairement les Dames qui se chargeoient du soin de leur apprendre, en même tems, leur ca
Ceremony on quitting Pagehood. téchisme et l'art d'aimer. Mais autant la “ Avant que de passer de l'état de Page dévotion qu'on leur inspiroit étoit accom- à celui d'Ecuyer, la religion avoit introduit pagnée de puérilités et de superstitions, au- une espèce de cérémonie dont le but étoit tant l'amour des Dames, qu'on leur recom- d'apprendre aux jeunes gens l'usage qu'ils mandoit, étoit-il rempli de raffinement et de devoient faire de l'épée, qui pour la prefanatisme. Il semble qu'on ne pouvoit, dansmière fois leur étoit remise entre les mains. ces siècles ignorans et grossiers, présenter Le jeune Gentilhomme, nouvellement sorti aux hommes la religion sous une forme as- hors de Page, étoit présenté à l'autel par sez matérielle
pour la mettre à leur portée; son père et sa mère, qui chacun un cierge ni leur donner, en même temps, une idée de à la main alloient à l'offrande. Le Prêtre l'amour assez pure, assez métaphysique, célébrant prenoit de dessus l'autel une épée pour prévenir les excès dont étoit capable et une ceinture, sur laquelle il faisoit pluune Nation qui conservoit par-tout le ca- sieurs bénédictions, et l'attachoit au côté du ractère impétueux qu'elle montroit à la jeune Gentilhomme qui alors commençoit guerre.
à la porter.”—Ibid. “ Pour mettre le jeune novice en état de pratiquer ces bizarres leçons de galanterie, on lui faisoit de bonne heure faire choix de quelqu'une des plus nobles, des plus
Blackbird and Woodlark belles et des plus vertueuses Dames des The blackbird is a solitary bird, freCours qu'il fréquentoit ; c'étoit elle à qui, quenting woods and thickets, chiefly of comme à l'Etre souverain, il rapportoit tous evergreens, such as pines, firs, &c. especially ses sentimens, toutes ses pensées et toutes where there are perennial springs, which ses actions. Cet amour, aussi indulgent que afford it both shelter and subsistence. They la religion de ce temps-là, se prêtoit et s'ac- begin to warble earlier than any other commodoit à d'autres passions moins pures birds, and their most obvious character is et moins honnêtes.”—Ibid.
The Amusements of the Pages. “ Les jeux mêmes, qui faisoient partie de l'amusement des élèves contribuoient encore à leur instruction. Le goût naturel à
Ladders blackened. “At the attempt to surprise Geneva 1602, the ladders on which the scalade was