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Mr. Forbush replied that the chief reduction had been made on the outside, but that many colonies had been also exterminated in the cen. ter of the region. The greatest progress was made during the first and second years of the State board work. There had been cases of reinfestation of “exterminated” territory from larvæ brought from the infested center.
At the request of Mr. Fernald, Mr. Kirkland spoke briefly of the experimental work of the past year. He stated that two main lines of investigation had been followed-experiments with insecticides and study of natural enemies. In conjunction with the chemist, who prepared the compounds, a large series of arsenical preparations had been tested. Sulpharsenates did not give results superior to arsenates. Experiments with arsenite of lead versus arsenate of lead had shown the two poisons to be about equal in insecticidal properties, the arsenite of lead not being quite as effective as the arsenate. The experiments with barium arsenate had already been described.
Of the hymenopterous parasites, Pimpla pedalis and P. tenuicornis bad been reared in small numbers. The work on life histories of the predaceous beetles had been carried on by a man especially detailed for the purpose, Mr. A. F. Burgess, and much valuable information obtained.
The predaceous heteroptera had been studied by Mr. Kirkland and many doubtful points in their life history cleared up. These insects when emerging from their hibernating quarters attack the larvæ of the tent caterpillar in great numbers. Mr. Kirkland referred to the fact that the same legislative delay that hindered the spring field work also seriously handicapped the experimental work.
In discussing the above remarks, Mr. Hopkins highly commended the good work that had been done in destroying the gypsy moth, but expressed the opinion that extermination would not be accomplished, owing to the lack of financial support on the part of the legislature.
Mr. Lintner advocated the desirability of extermination and stated that it was his opinion that if the State would grant sufficient funds extermination would be accomplished. The time had come when Mas. sachusetts should be aided by the financial support of the National Government. He contrasted the action of the Government concerning the Rocky Mountain locust invasions with its present inaction as regards the gypsy moth. National support would also inspire the Massachusetts people with more confidence.
Mr. Fletcher spoke in very flattering terms of the success in exter. mination thus far obtained and of the value of the special report on the gypsy moth to entomologists in general. This book he considered would be an invaluable reference work to economic entomologists. He had been in the infested region twice and knew that the work had been well done, and this in spite of difficulties arising from insufficient means.
In answer to a question by Mr. Fletcher, Mr. Forbush made a more explicit statement concerning the progress of the work and the conditions governing the same. He cited the case of the city of Lynn, where over 1,000 colonies of the gypsy moth had been exterminated.
Mr. Fletcher suggested that the association should give formal expression of its opinion regarding the attempt being made by the State of Massachusetts to stamp out this pest.
Mr. Smith stated that New Jersey devoutly hoped that the insect would be kept within its present domain, and offered resolutions commending the work already accomplished by the State of Massachusetts and urging the continuance of the same with liberal financial support.
Mr. Webster moved the adoption of Mr. Smith's resolutions. The motion was seconded by Mr. Hopkins and was carried by a unanimous vote.
The resolutions are as follows: Resolved, That in the opinion of this association the work done by the gypsy moth committee in Massachusetts is of the utmost importance and value, not only to that State, but to all the surrounding States and to the country at large.
Resolred, That in our opinion the cessation of the work of that committee would be a national misfortune, and a failure on the part of the State of Massachusetts to continue it would be a calamity which would involve immense loss to the people of that State and of the entire country.
Resolved, That we have full confidence in the ability of the officers now in charge of the work of this commission, as evidenced by the report recently issued, which contains not only matter of extreme importance to the economic entomologist, but of the highest value to the farmer and fruit grower.
The association then adjourned until 2 o'clock p. m.
AFTERNOOV SESSION, AUGUST 22, 1896. Mr. Slingerland exhibited and explained a series of mounted photographs illustrating some of the subjects which have been under investigation by the department of entomology of the Cornell Experiment Station during the year. The photographs were of insects, natural size and enlarged, and represented also the different stages, manner of work, and injuries to plants. Among other subjects, they covered the saw-fly currant-borer, army worm, pear midge, codling moth, etc. The photographs were exceptionally fine and strikingly emphasized the value of this means of illustrating insects and insect work. Mr. Slingerland gave a brief résumé of some of the more important facts relating to the subjects photographed, particularly the codling moth.
In the discussion which followed, Mr. Slingerland stated in response to a query from Mr. Smith, that the number of eggs deposited by a single female codling moth bad not been determined.
With reference to the amount of arsenic which would be found in the calyx of a sprayed apple, referring to some of the analyses made by Mr. Slingerland, Mr. Smith said that we can hardly expect more than a trace of this small portion on a single apple when one considers the very small amount which goes on the entire tree. Ile believed that a very slight trace would be ample to cause death of the codling moth larva in its newly batched state.
The excellence and value of the photographs exhibited were commented on in most flattering terms by Mr. Fernald and Mr. Lintner.
Mr. Hopkins also exhibited some photographs which were taken by placing the objects to be photographed on glass, which prevented the presence of shadows.
In the matter of the number of broods of the codling moth, Mr. Slingerland stated that as a general rule there is certainly but one brood in New York.
Mr. Fernald said that his experience indicated but a single brood for the codling moth in Maine.
Mr. Fletcher had found one brood to be the rule in Canada, except west of Toronto, where two broods are normal.
In response to a query by Mr. Smith, Mr. Slingerland described his method of preserving larve to keep the form and color. He said that it consisted in first dropping them in boiling water for about one minute, then placing them for permanent keeping in 50 per cent alcohol.
Mr. Smith said that he was following the same method, only varying in that he placed them for final preservation in a 2 per cent solution of formaline.
Mr. Lintner presented the following paper:
NOTES ON SOME OF THE INSECTS OF THE YEAR IN THE STATE
OF NEW YORK.
By J. A. LINTNER, Albany, N. Y.
The year has been characterized by the absence of attacks of the usual severity of a considerable number of our common insect pests, particularly those that infest our fruit trees. I do not recall a year before the present one in which reports have not been received by me of abundance of the apple-tree aplis (Aphis mali Linn.), and of injuries feared from it. The eye-spotted bud-moth (Tmetocera ocellana Schiff.), which has become so destructive to orchards in the western counties of the State, has hardly been heard from. Yo abundant presence of
No the apple-leaf Bucculatrix (Bucculatrix pomifoliella Clem.), has been reported; nor of the apple case-bearer (Coleophora fletcherella Fern.), until incidentally mentioned at the present meeting. The apple-tree tent-caterpillar (Clisiocampa americana Harr.), has been less injurious than in preceding years. The hop-vine aphis (Phorodon humuli Schr.), made its appearance late in the season, in August, in portions of Madison and Oneida counties, and the blackening of the leaves from deposit of honeydew excited some alarm, but it is not believed that serious harm has been done.
So far as my observation las extended, confirmed also by the observation of several collectors and others, with a few notable exceptions,
has also been remarkable for a scarcity of insect life. Some short excursions made in the vicinity of Albany, specially for collecting,
were without any satisfactory results. My Adirondack collections were unusually limited. Apparently not one fourth of the usual
number of insects were abroad (exceptions to this were the common house fly and grasshoppers). Mosquitoes, the gray gnat (Ceratopogon sp.), and the black fly (Simulium spp.) were among the rarities even in tbe month of July. The scarcity of butterflies was particularly notice. able, and was remarked upon by others than entomologists. Not a single Papilio turnus was seen, nor any of the other Papilios except one asterias. No Graptas were taken, when in former years hundreds could have been captured. The argynnids were very few, aud mainly atlantis. Feniseca tarquinius, for which keene Valley is a noted locality, was not seen. Colias philodice was comparatively rare, while Pieris rapæ was abundant in the fields and about the blossoms of the burdock. The presence and capture of several examples of Pieris oleracea was welcomed as evidence that our once familiar native species had not been entirely driven away by the hosts of the foreign invader. In part compensation for the absence of so many of our diurnals, the beautiful "red admiral” (Vanessa atalanta) was uncommonly abundant in the last week of July and in early August.
The night-flying species-the moths- were also very few, and it was only possible to secure a few of the attractive Plusias that abound at these high elevations, but among them were several examples of the resplendent Plusia balluca Geyer.
In each of the other orders was there an equally poor representation of the species commonly met with-quite noticeable in the families of the Cicindelidae, Coccinellida, Cerambycidae, in the Bombyliidze and Syrphidae, in the dragon flies, and many others.
What particular climatic conditions have resulted in so marked a reduction in the usual abundance of insect life is beyond our knowledge. It would be interesting to know if any other class of the animal kingdom was similarly affected, and if it also extended to the flora.
The notable entomological event of the year has been the occurrence and the ravages of the army worm (Leucania unipuncta) over the greater part of the State from its eastern to its western borders and from its southern to nearly its northern boundary. It has been authentically reported from forty-eight of the sixty counties of the State. Its extension and the injuries committed by it are believed to be greater than had before been recorded in the State. When it appeared on Long Island and in Westchester County in 1880, although serious harm was done to the crops invaded, it was limited to the southeastern portion of the State, although spreading over some of the New England States, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, etc.
Its habits have been similar to the many recorded occurrences elsewhere, unless that in many instances its operations were first observed in rye tields. From these it spread to oats, to timothy, and corn. Clover has been reported as eaten by it, and pease to a limited extent. Grass, of course, was consumed in its travels.
Of its abundance it may suffice to state: In many places they occurred in millions. Roadways crossed by them were “blackened” by their numbers. They covered fences," and it has been said that they cov. ered sides of buildings. The noise made by their feeding could be heard after nightfall. The clothing of a person standing for a short time in an infested field needed frequent brushing and picking over to remove them. The sight of their marching armies was said to be “ nauseating.”
Of the many preventives employed heretofore to prevent their ravages, plowing furrows with a perpendicular side toward the field to be protected from invasion was the most effective, and the one more generally resorted to. Attempts to save fields of barley, oats, and timothy, when once in fested, were of little avail.
The earliest notice of the insect within our State came to me on July 1, when they were found on corn near Albany. This was followed on the 2d instant by examples sent from Cambridge, Washington County, and for the week thereafter reports followed closely and thickly of army. worm ravages in several of the eastern counties, and later from southern and western parts of the State.
Larvae received and collected by me were full grown and entered the ground for pupation as early as July 4. Two changed to pupä on the 9th on the surface of the ground in the box with earth given them. On the 23d the moths commenced to emerge, and on the same date some of its parasites, Nemoræa leucaniæ, also made their appearance. Only a few of the parasites were disclosed. Their eggs had not been observed on any of the larvæ that I had examined, while in the western part of the State they have been reported as not at all uncommon.
The wheat-headarmy worm (Leucania albilinea) has been reported from the town of Morley, in St. Lawrence County. I was informed, under date of July 22, that the caterpillar, identified from examples sent me, was doing much damage in barley fields. Its operations were shown, first, in the awns of the barley having to a great extent fallen, or more probably been cut off, and second, a great number of the heads were cut off bet ireen the head and the next joint below. In one instance, where the crop had been a most promising one, it was estimated by the owner that two-thirds of it had been destroyed. The injury had not been sudden or rapid as in the work of the army worm, but had been under observation for some considerable time. The barley heads lying on the ground were subsequently eaten out, leaving only the husks or chatt remaining. This it was thought was done by the caterpillars.
A feature noticed in the work of this insect was that the leaves of the barley were not eaten—the first to be consumed by the army wormbut that, with the exception of the severed head, the plant was left in all its freshness and healthy appearance.
The spring cankerworm (Inisoptery.r vernata Peck), which is quite local in the State and seldom very injurious, has this season been committing serious depredations in scattered localities. The present year