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General Grant's Order for the Protection of Cit. | the citizen must be left to the States alone, and under such izens.
regulations as the respective States choose voluntarily to
prescribe.” HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,
We have seen this doctrine of State sovereignty carried ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE,
out in its practical results until all authority in Congresa WASHINGTON, July 6, 1866.
was denied, the Union temporarily destroyed, the constitu(General Orders, No. 44.]
tional rights of the citizen of the South nearly annihilated, Department, district, and post commanders in the States and the land desolated by civil war. lately in rebellion are hereby directed to arrest all persons The time has come when the restructure of Southern who have been or may hereafter be charged with the com State government must be laid on constitutional principles, mission of crimes and offences against officers, agents, citi or the despotism, grown up under an atrocious leadership, zens, and inhabitants of the United States, irrespective of he permitted to remain. We know of no other plan than color, in cases where the civil authorities have failed, neg. that Congress, under its constitutional powers, shall now lected, or are unable to arrest and bring such parties to exercise its authority to establish the principle whereby trial, and to detain them in military confinement until such protection is made coextensive with citizenship. time as a proper judicial tribunal may be ready and willing We maintain that no State, either by its organic law of to try them.
legislation can make transgression on the rights of the A strict and prompt enforcement of this order is required. citizen legitimate. We demand and ask you to concur in By command of Lieutenant General Grant:
demanding protection to every citizen of the great Republic E. D. TOWNSEND, on the basis of equality before the law; and further, that Assistant Adjutant General. no State government should be recognized as legitimato
under the Constitution in so far as it does not by its organic
law make impartial protection full and complete. Unconditional Union Convention of Maryland, Under the doctrine of “State sovereignty,” with rebels in June 6, 1866.
the foreground, controlling Southern legislatures, and em
bittered by disappointment in their schemes to destroy the Resolved, That the registered loyal voters of Maryland
Union, there will be no safety for the loyal element of the will listen to no propositions to repeal or modify the regis South. Our reliance for protection is now on Congress, and try law, which was enacted in conformity with the provis the great Union party that has stood and is standing by our ions of the constitution, and must remain in full force until
nationality, by the constitutional rights of the citizen, and such time as the registered voters of the State shall decree
by the beneficent principles of the government. that the organic law shall be changed.
For the purpose of bringing the loyal Unionists of the 2. That the loyal people of the State are " the legitimate South into conjunctive action with the true friends of reguardians and depositaries of its power," and that the dis
publican government in the North, we invite you to send loyal “have no just right to complain of the hardships of a delegates in goodly numbers from all the Southern States, law which they have themselves deliberately provoked.”. including Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia, Maryland,
3. That it is the opinion of this convention, that if dis and Delaware, to meet at Independence Hall, in the city of loyal persons should be registered, it will be the duty of Philadelphia, on the first Monday of September next. It judges of election to administer the oath prescribed by the
is proposed that we should meet at that time to recommend constitution to all whose loyalty may be challenged, and, in
measures for the establishment of such government in the the language of the constitution, to “ carefully exclude from South as accords with and protects the rights of all citizens. voting” all that are disqualified.
We trust this call will be responded to by numerous dele4. That we cordially endorse the reconstruction policy of gations of such as represent the true loyalty of the South, Congress, which excludes the leaders of the rebellion from
That kind of government which gives full protection to all all offices of profit or trust under the National Government, rights of the citizen, such as our fathers intended, we claim and places the basis of representation on the only just and as our birthright. Either the lovers of constitutional libhonest principle, and that a white man in Virginia or South erty must rule the nation or rebels and their sympathizers Carolina should have just as much representative power, be permitted to misrule it. Shall loyalty or disloyalty have and no more, than a white man in Pennsylvania or Ohio. the keeping of the destinies of the nation ? Let the re
5. That the question of negro suffrage is not an issue in sponses to this call which is now in circulation for signatures, the State of Maryland, but is raised by the enemies of the and is being numerously signed, answer. Notice is given Union party for the purpose of dividing and distracting it, that gentlemen at a distance can have their names attached and by this means to ultimately enable rebels to vote.
to it by sending a request by letter directed to D. W. Bing6. That we are pledged to the maintenance of the pres- | ham, Esq., of Washington, D. C. ent constitution of Maryland, which expressly and em
Tennessee. phatically prohibits both rebel suffrage and negro suffrage,
.W. B. STOKES, and we are equally determined to uphold the registry law,
Jos. S. FOWLER, which disfranchises rebels and excludes negroes from voting,
A. J. HAMILTON,
GEO. W. PASCHAL, 7. That we warn the Union men of Maryland " that no
* LORENZO SHERWOOD,
C. B. SABIN. Union man, high or low, should court the favor of traitors, as they can never win it-from the first they have held him
G. W. ASHBURN,
HENRY G. COLE, as their enemy, and to the last they will be his; and that they should eschew petty rivalries, frivolous jealousies,
..J. W. MCCLURG,
John R. KELSO, and self-seeking cabals; so shall they save theniselves falling one by one, an unpitied sacrifice, in a contemptible
J. F. BENJAMIN,
GEO, W. ANDERSON struggle." The vote upon the adoption of each resolution was unani
Virginia... .John B. TROTA, mous, with the exception of the sixth resolution, upon
J. M. STEWART, which a division was called, and the result showed 54 yeas
WM. N. BERKLEY,
ALLEN C. HARMON, The resolutions were then read as a whole, and adopted
* LEWIS MCKENZIE, unanimously as the utterance of the Convention.
J. W. HUNNICUTT,
ALEX. M. DAVIS. TO THE LOYAL UNIONISTS OF THE SOUTE:
North Carolina..... .BYRON LAFLIN,
DANIEL R. GOODLOE. The great issue is upon us! The majority in Congress,
Alabama..... ..GEORGE REESE, and its supporters, firmly declare that “the rights of thé
D. H. BINGHAM, citizen enumerated in the Constitution, and established by
M. R. SAFFOLD, the supreme law, must be maintained inviolate.”
J. H. LARCOMBE, Rebels and rebel sympathizers assert that "the rights of WASHINGTON, July 4, 1866.
to 14 nays.
XIII.-Interesting Figures chiefly from the Census of 1860, bearing on Representation,
* Nevada admitted since, with ove Representative-making whole number, at present, 242. West Virginia created since, with three Representatives—leaving Virginia 8, instead of 11 allowed in 1860.
| Including Asiatics. * Estimated.
Votes in the U.S. House of Representatives on the Various Tariffs.
Tariff of Tariff of Tariff of Tariff of Tariff of Tariff of Tariff of Tariff of Tariff of
1816. 1824. 1828. 1832, 1842. 1846. 1857. 1861. 1864.
Tarif Bill of 1866.
04 0 54 107 102 105 94 132 65 104 103 114 | 95 122 72 105 64 81
28 | 94 53
Statement of the Public Debt of the United States on the 1st of June, 1866.
* July 12—In SENATE, postponed till December next-yeas 23, nays 17, as follow: YEAS–Messrs. Brown, Davis, Doolittle, Foster, Grimes, Guthrie, Harris, Ilenderson, Hendricks, Johnson, Kirkwood, Lane, Morgan, Nesmith, Norton, Pomeroy, Ridule, Sauls bury, Sumner, Trumbull, Willey, Williams, Wilson-23.
NAYS–Messrs. Anthony, Chandler, Clark, Conness, Cowan, Cragin, Edmunds, Fessenden, Howard, Howe, Poland, RamBey, Sherman, Sprague, Stewart, Van Winkle, Wade-17.
ABAMA, reconstruction facts, 12, 21-34; claimants in Con- | ELECTIONS OF 1866, returns of, 120.
gress, 107, 108; resolutions of legislature, 22; laws on ELECTIVE FRANCHISE in the States, resolution concerning,
110; in Territories, to be no discrimination on account
and Secretary Seward's report upon, 83, 84; votes adopt 24, 49, 52–55; President Lincoln, note, 24.
ing, 102; preliminary votes and propositions, 103-106. FENIANS, President Johnson's proclamation respecting, 17,
18; resolution on, 113, 114.
FLORIDA, provisional governor appointed, 12; General Gill-
6; action of insurrectionary States. 19-24; President for meeting of rebel legislature, 24; reconstruction,
steps in, 24, 25; Freedmen's code, 38–41; claimants in
Foot, SOLOMON, Senator, death of, 107.
President Johnson to, 61.
FREEDMEN'S BUREAU, President Johnson's veto of bill for, and
issued by, to April 1, 1866, note, 69.
concerning Tennessee, 105; amendment to resolution call for a meeting of the rebel legislature, 20; recon-
struction, steps in, 20, 21; laws on freedmen, 32, 33;
claimants in Congress, 107, 108.
tionary States, 67, 68; surrender of Lee to, 120, 121;
nowspapers, 122, 123, 124.
15; resolution on, 112; bill respecting, 116.
HALE, ROBERT S., amendment to District of Columbia suf-
frage bill, 114.
HENDERSON, JAMES H. D., resolution on punishment of trea-
amendment respecting, 102; legislation upon, 78; Pres. HOLDEN, WILLIAM W., appointed provisional governor of
North Carolina, 11 President Johnson's telegram to,
respecting rebel debt, 19; defeated for Governor, 19.
HOWARD, 0. O., orders of, as Commissioner of Freedmen's
INSURRECTIONARY STATES, President's proclamations concern-
son's messages, concerning, 64-67; Lieutenant General
address to, 63; conventions and action of, in insurrec tation of, 57–66, 71, 72; votes in Congress upon, note,
72; reports and propositions, 102–106; claimants from,
Gov. Sharkey on, 19, 20; President Lincoln's letter to | JOHNSON, ANDREW, Cabinet of, 107: inauguration of, 44.
L. Stearns, 48, 49; to colored soldiers, October 10, 1865,
tion respecting suffrage, and reply of, 52-55; with com-
form of goverument, 112; President Johnson's telegram February 22, 1866, 58-63; speech to colored people of
JOHNSON, ANDREW, MESSAGES OF-Annual, 64-66 ; special,
veto of Freedmen's Bureau bill, 68-72; veto of civil
ard's certificate of ratification of anti-slavery amend posed constitutional amendment, 83.
trial and punishment of Abraham Lincoln's assassins,
Democratic National, 118; of Pennsylvania Union and others, 7; for release of latter, note, 8; recognizing
rebel cruisers receiving hospitality in foreign ports, 9;
North Carolina, Mississippi, Georgia, Texas, Alabama,
13; for return of property to pırdoned persons, 13; re-
Democratic Congressmen, 119, 120; platform of Penna., withdrawing martial law from Kentucky, 15; annulling
the suspension of the habeas corpus, 15; announcing
that the rebellion has ended, 15, 16; President John.
tary courts and comm ssions, 17; forbidding the inva-
Holden ou repudiating rebel debt of North Carolina,
19; to Provisional Governor Sharkey, on colored suf-
frage in Mississippi, 19, 20; to Provisional Governor | REPRESENTATION, proposed constitutional amendment
RESOLUTIONS ON POLITICAL SUBJECTS, 109-114.
SCIENCK, ROBERT C., propositions on representation,
of Columbia, 115.
reports of, 81-101; various propositions of, and votes ratification of anti-slavery amendment, 6; telegra
to provisional governors, 21, 23, 24, 25;* report
Sharkey, WILLIAM L., provisional governor of Mississippi
12; action as, 19, 20; President Johnson's telegram
colored suffrage, 19, 20; claimant as Senator, 107.
sins of, 7; letter of, to Governor Hahn on colored suf Johnston, 121, 122.
South CAROLINA, provisional governor appointed, 12; tem
roo mayor of New Orleans, and pardon of, 28, 29; legis President Johnson's and Secretary Seward's telegram,
form of ratifying anti-slavery amendment, 23; lawi
thereto, 34-37; claimants in Congress, 107, 108.
SPEED, JAMES, Attorney General, 107; order for arrest of
Fenians, note, 18.
STEARNS, GEORGE L., President Johnson's interview with,
dition of insurrectionary States, 66; vetoes of Freedmen’s | STEPHENS, ALEXANDER H., parole of, 14; claimant in Con-
STEVENS, THADDEUS, allusion of President Johnson to, 61;
from Reconstruction Committee, 103–105; resolutiit
reconstruction steps in, 19, 20; President Johnson's the North Carolina State government, 113.
upon, note, 20; President Johnson, 19, 20, 24, 49, 52-55.
TABER, STEPHEX, amendment to homestead act, 116
TABULAR STATEMENTS, on representation, tariff, debt, 125,
TARIFF, votes on all, since 1816, 126.
taken in reconstruction, 18, 19; claimants for seats in suppression of insurrection in, 13; franchise acts in, 27,
legislation on freedmen, 42, 43; joint resolution con-
TERRITORIES, elective franchise in, 116.
men's code for South Carolina, 36-38; of General Terry 41, 42; sustained by President Johnson, 42.
Texas, provisional governor appointed, 12; action of con-
vention, 28; legislation on freedmen, 43.
Treasox, PUNISHMENT OF, resolution respecting, 109.
VIRGINIA, order to re-establish authority of United States in,
coln's telegram forbidding it, 25; legislation, &c., in, 26,
South Carolina, 12; telegrams on sundry topics, 22, 23, aside vagrant act, +1, 42; claimaats in Congress, 107,
gress, 103; unseated, note, 108; resolution endorsing
President Johnson's policy, 11.
posed constitutional amendment respecting, 102, 103; Ciu; by to, prohibiting the meeting of the rebel legisla-
ture of Mississippi, 19.
WASHBURN, HENRY D., qualified as Representative, note, 108.
WALLES, GIDEON, Secretary of the Navy, 107.
WEST VIRGINIA, bill, vot-s on, 116; election of 1866, 120.
bill 115, 116.
concerning, 109; action of legislatures of insurrection force, 111.
Wilson, JAMES F., proposition relative to rebel d. bt, 108,
District of Columbia bill, 114.