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HEARINGS

BEFORE A

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SUBCOMMITTEE OF THE
COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND LABOR

UNITED STATES SENATE

SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION

ON

S. 1313

A BILL TO STRENGTHEN THE NATIONAL DEFENSE
AND PROMOTE THE GENERAL WELFARE THROUGH
THE APPROPRIATION OF FUNDS TO ASSIST THE
STATES AND TERRITORIES IN MEETING FINANCIAL
EMERGENCIES IN EDUCATION AND IN REDUCING
INEQUALITIES OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES

(

APRIL 28, 29, AND 30, 1941

Printed for the use of the Committee on Education and Labor

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COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND LABOR

ELBERT D. THOMAS, Utah, Chairman DAVID I. WALSH, Massachusetts

ROBERT M. LA FOLLETTE, JR., Wisconsin JAMES E. MURRAY, Montana

ROBERT A. TAFT, Ohio CLAUDE PEPPER, Florida

STYLES BRIDGES, New Hampshire ALLEN J. ELLENDER, Louisiana

JOSEPH H. BALL, Minnesota JOSH LEE, Oklahoma

HUGH A. BUTLER, Nebraska
LISTER HILL, Alabama

GEORGE D. AIKEN, Vermont
DENNIS CHAVEZ, New Mexico
HARRY H. SCHWARTZ, Wyoming
JAMES M. MEAD, New York
BERKELEY L. BUNKER, Nevada
JOSEPH ROSIER, West Virginia

EARL B. WIXCEY Clerk
W. ALAN THODY and G. ERNEST BOURNE, Assistant Clerks

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1

SUBCOMMITTEE ON S. 1313

ELBERT D. THOMAS, Utah, Chairman CLAUDE PEPPER, Florida

ROBERT M. LA FOLLETTE, JR., Wisconsin ALLEN J. ELLENDER, Louisiana

STYLES BRIDGES, New Hampshire
JOSH LEE, Oklahoma

JOSEPH H. BALL, Minnesota
LISTER HILL, Alabama
BERKELEY L. BUNKER, Nevada

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DATE OF HEARING AND STATEMENT OF WITNESSES

April 28, 1941:

-Dawson, Dr. Howard A., director of rural service, National Educa-

tion Association..

McNutt, Hon. Paul V., Administrator, Federal Security Agency-

Reeves, Dr. Floyd W., chairman of the Advisory Committee on Edu-

cation, Federal Security Agency --

Hall, Sidney B., State superintendent of public instruction, Rich-

mond, Va..

Sutton, Dr. Willis A., superintendent of schools, Atlanta, Ga_

Norton, Dr. John K., Teachers College, Columbia University

Zook, Dr. George F., president, American Council on Education --

Crable, A. L., State superintendent of public instruction of Oklahoma-

Collins, Dr. M. D., State superintendent of schools of Georgia.

Parratt, J. Easton, president, Utah Education Association.

Gilbert, Levi, president, Pennsylvania State Education Association -

April 29, 1941:

Dinwiddie, Courtenay, general secretary, National Child Labor Com-

mittee

Wilson, Hon. Earl, Congressman from the State of Indiana-

McSherry, Lt. Col. Frank J., director, defense training, Federal Se-

curity Agency -

Fries, Maj. Gen. Amos A., regional director, Friends of the Public

Schools of America.

Alexander, Dr. Will W., assistant to the Federal Security Adminis-

trator, Federal Security Agency - -

Sparkman, Hon. John J., Congressman from the State of Oklahoma..

Houston, Charles H., general counsel, National Association for the

Advancement of Colored People -

Woodson, Howard D., chairman, Far Northeast Council of the Dis-

trict of Columbia..

Robnett, George W., executive secretary, the Church League of

America..

Vandiver, J. S., State superintendent of schools of the State of Mis-

sissippi.-

Wells, Jere A., superintendent of Fulton County schools, Fulton

County, Ga...

Phillips, K. G., president, North Carolina Education Association.

Trent, W. W., State superintendent of free schools of West Virginia -

April 30, 1941:

Harriman, Henry L., vice chairman, American Youth Commission.-

Studebaker, John W., United States Commissioner of Education.-

Alves, H. F., United States Office of Education.

Hart, Merwin K., president, New York State Economic Council..

Marsh, Benjamin C., executive secretary, People's Lobby -

Wilkerson, Dr. Doxey A., associate professor of education, Howard

University, Washington, D. C.---

Glenn, Dr. C. B., superintendent of schools, Birmingham, Ala

Scott, C. H., president, Federal Education Legislative Agency, Inc.,

Washington, D. C..-

Hetzel, Ralph' D., Jr., representing Congress of Industrial Organiza-

tions

Logan, Dr. Rayford, chairman, Committee on the Participation of

Negroes in the National Defense Program.

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Page
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332

April 30, 1941–Continued.

Dennis, L. H., executive secretary, American Vocational Association.
Givens, Willard E., executive secretary, National Education Associa-

tion.
Long, Dr. Howard H., representing the Association of Presidents of

Land Grant Colleges for Negroes.
Ogg, W. R., American Farm Bureau Federation, Washington, D. C.
Worrell, Mrs. Margaret H., representing the Columbia Heights Citi-

zens Association, Washington, D. C.---

333
339

342

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF WITNESSES

333

90

Alexander, Dr. Will W., assistant to the Federal Security Administrator,

Federal Security Agency --

Alves, H. F., United States Office of Education..

Collins, Dr. M. D., State superintendent of schools of Georgia -

Crable, A. L., State superintendent of public instruction of Oklahoma -

Dawson, Dr. Howard A., director of rural service, National Education

Association.-

Dennis, L. H., executive secretary, American Vocational Association..

Dinwiddie, Courtenay, general secretary, National Child Labor Com-

mittee

Fries, Maj. Gen. Amos A., regional director, Friends of the Public Schools

of America.

Givens, Willard E., executive secretary, National Education Association.

Glenn, Dr. C. B., superintendent of schools, Birmingham, Ala---

Harriman, Henry L., vice chairman, American Youth Commission

Hart, Merwin K., president, New York State Economic Council.

Hetzel, Ralph D., Jr., representing Congress of Industrial Organizations.-

Houston, Charles H., general counsel, National Association for the Ad-

vancement of Colored People -

Gilbert, Levi, president, Pennsylvania State Education Association.

Hall, Sidney B., State superintendent of public instruction, Richmond, Va.

Logan, Dr. Rayford, chairman, Committee on the Participation of Negroes

in the National Defense Program..

Long, Dr. Howard H., representing the Association of Presidents of Land

Grant Colleges for Negroes -

McNutt, Hon. Paul V., Administrator, Federal Security Agency
McSherry, Lt. Col. Frank J., director, defense training, Federal Security

Agency

Marsh, Benjamin C., executive secretary, People's Lobby

Norton, Dr. John K., Teachers College, Columbia University.

Ogg, W. R., American Farm Bureau Federation, Washington, D. C.

Parratt, J. Easton, president, Utah Education Association...

Phillips, K. G., president, North Carolina Education Association -

Reeves, Dr. Floyd W., chairman of the Advisory Committee on Education,

Federal Security Agency -

Robnett, George W., executive secretary, the Church League of America -

Scott, C. H., president, Federal Education Legislature Agency, Inc.,

Washington, D. C-

Sparkman, Hon. John J., Congressman from the State of Alabama_
Studebaker, John W., United States Commissioner of Education.
Sutton, Dr. Willis A., superintendent of schools, Atlanta, Ga-
Trent, W. W., State superintendent of free schools of West Virginia -
Vandiver, J. S., State superintendent of schools of the State of Mississippi.
Wells, Jere A., superintendent of Fulton County schools, Fulton County,

Ga.
Wilkerson, Dr. Doxey A., associate professor of education, Howard

University, Washington, D. C.--

Wilson, Hon. Earl, Congressman from the State of Indiana

Woodson, Howard D., chairman, Far Northeast Council of the District of

Columbia

Worrell, Mrs. Margaret H., representing the Columbia Heights Citizens

Association, Washington, D. C.--

Zook, Dr. George F., president, American Council on Education

316

204
268
131
258
242

246

307

179

STATEMENTS, ETC., SUBMITTED

Page
378
362

357

363

357

378

360

24

Alabama Department of Education: Letter and analysis from...
American Federation of Labor: Statement of .-
American Federation of Teachers: Statement by Selma M. Borchardt,

legislative representative.-
American Library Association: Memorandum submitted by Forrest B.

Spaulding, chairman of the Federal relations committee of -
Borchardt, Selma M., legislative representative of the American Federa-

tion of Teachers; statement of
Collins, A. H., superintendent, Alabama Department of Education:

Letter received and analysis submitted.
Curtis, Catherine, national chairman of the Mothers National Executive

Committee: Statement submitted..
Dawson, Howard A., director of rural service, National Education Asso-
ciation:
Memorandum submitted..

Appendix to memorandum on New Problems in Financing Negro
Education-Text of four recent court decisions affecting Negro

education.

Equal educational opportunities for Negroes.

New Problems in Financing Negro Education,

Progress of Public Education for Negroes in United States,

1870–1930.--

Figure I. Percent of total population represented by Negroes,

1790–1930.-

Figure II. Rates of increase in Negro population, 1870–1930-

Figure III. School attendance of the Negro population of

school age and the average United States population of

school age, 1850–1930...

Figure IV. School attendance for urban and rural population,

aged 5–20: 1930—United States average and Negroes.-

Figure V. Illiteracy in the United States population (10 years

of age and over) for Negroes and all classes: 1870–1930.-

Figure VI. Percentage of total Negro school enrollment in

high school, 1917-18 to 1931-32---

Figure VII. Percentage increase in collegiate enrollment of

Negro men and women biennially from 1919–20 to 1931-32

over 1917-18.

Figure VIII. Distribution of Negro population: 1920–30...

Figure IX. Percentage of Negroes in total population of

each State: 1930..

Figure X. Regional Negro migration-Net change in Negro

population, 1920–30.

Graph showing expenditures for Negro and white schools,

1931-32

Graph showing standing of the Southern States in relation

to all States on ability to support education.

Table 1. Number of Negroes attending school in United

States, 1850–1930..

Table 2. Approximate percentage changes in school attend-

ance of Negroes and of total school population, 1860–1930-
Table 3. Ratio of enrollment in public school to school popu-

lation in 18 States...

Table 4. Enrollments of colored and white pupils in second-

ary schools and percentage of increase in enrollment by

specific periods, 1892–1930.-

Table 5. Negro high-school enrollment, numbers of gradu-

ates, and percentages graduates are of high-school enroll-

ment, 1930 (statistical schools).

Table 6. Number and percentage of Negro high-school gradu-

ates of 1939. by sex, who were continuing their education

in 1930 in 17 Southern States and the District of Columbia.

Table 7. Receipts and expenditures for each student of

college grade in 17 Negro land-grant colleges and 17

white land-grant colleges in the same States, 1932–33 -

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