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ture in general as its portrait, nor at good and virtuous minds, and is devithe Jewish nation in the series of their ating from the true meaning and scope history, nor at the Gentile world, of the sacred writers. In general the though aliens from the commonwealth estimation and judgment of the chaof Israel. And though the accounts, racters of all particular persons are in deplorable as they are, might be truly the hands of God, who will impute to given concerning many of the Jewish no man any evil but what he is truly and Gentile nations, and even of Chris- guilty of; who sees, distinctly, the tian nations too, yet never without various degrees of virtue and rice sóine particular exceptions. And, in- which are in every mind and life, and deed, when, in any age of the world, who will not depreciate or overlook the such universal characters of vice are least good that is cultivated and pracdrawn by the sacred writers, or by tised by any of his rational creatures. any writers, they generally refer not It is repugnant to the feelings of to all living, but to a certain great every well-disposed mind, to form the number of profane persons appearing most shocking ideas of the character openly in such times and places. of its nature. The honour of that
The very drawing of such characters should be consulted for the honour of implies a very great sense of the in- its great Author; and though it be famy of them in the breast of him found stained with great impurity, who draws them, who is, at least, sup- yet, let it ever be held a sacred truth, posed hiinself to be an exception; that its depravation is wilful, and and not only an exception, but, by arises not from the necessity and imthe detestation he expresses of this pulse of its divine formation, but from monstrous depravation, to be a real the voluntary abuse and perversion of example of the contrary virtues. its faculties. In the account the Apostle Paul
JAMES MANNING. has given of the vices of the Heathens, in the first chapter, no one can sup- Sir, Bristol, Nov. 1, 1821. inan under the light of nature, with book of Job was written by Moall that black catalogue of heinous ses ; the arguments of many former sins; or that there were not in his writers appeared to me almost conesteem, instances of persons among clusive upon that head. I have been them innocent of every one of them, lately reconsidering the subject, and and even commendable for all the con- think there are many strong reasons trary virtues. And in producing these to support the conclusion, that it was characters of Jews from Jewish wri- not produced earlier than the Babyters, he, doubtless, (I cannot doubtlonish captivity. One of the chief of it myself,) intended the same excep- these is, the machinery which is emtions.
ployed as an introduction to the whole. All that I have endeavoured at, is By the most judicious interpreters, to represent what appears to me the this is admitted to be allegorical; the genuine sense and extent of such de- allegory, however, must be derived scriptions as these in Scripture, that from the notions entertained by the to whomsoever they may be truly ap- writer, or the age in which the events plied, (as, alas! they are too often are supposed to have taken place, just to far greater numbers at all upon such subjects. Now it appears times than charity and virtue would to me, that if Moses had been either wish,) yet they are not to be taken the writer or the compiler of this for the genuine and natural portrait purely theistical and Unitarian poem, of human nature, and the universal and had known, or believed in the character of all men, even in very existence of such a powerful agent of corrupt times and nations.
evil as Satan is here represented to To found general doctrines concern- be, he would certainly have introduced ing human nature, the work of God, him, by name, in the account he has from such descriptions of the cha- given us of the introduction of sin racter of the great multitude of vicious into the world: this would, surely, persons, is înjurious to the Divine have been more intelligible than putBeing who formed us, the source of ting language into the mouth of an gloomy thoughts which terrify many animal who never had the power of
speech. What Moses meant, we have proper for a popular work, I am inno means of knowing but from the clined, with your permission, to suglanguage he has used; and it is certain gest a mode of defending the freedom that he has not given the slightest of human agency, which, if not conintimation that the tempter was some clusive, is perhaps not wholly absurd. superior being concealed under the I think it may be admitted, that the form of a serpent. The term Satan doctrine of Necessity should not be is a mere Hebrew word, and signifies affirmed, except its truth could be an adversary, an enemy, or accuser : made absolutely certain ; because it the first time it occurs in the Bible will hardly be denied, that bad conis 1 Chron. xxi. I, where he is said sequences may be the result of its to tempt David to number the people; admission. It is plainly contrary to the second and third times are in the the received opinions of mankind, and book of Job; the fourth time is Psalm to those opinions which, I think, have cix. 6, where the enemies of that been the basis of the belief of all prince are represented as saying, “ Set mankind in a future state. The disthou a wicked man over him, and let solution of the body of a man was as Satan” (an adversary) “ stand at his obvious to the senses of all men in all right hand.” The only remaining ages, as it is to us now; and there places in which this word occurs in could appear to be no sensible differthe Old Testament are in the first and ence between such a dissolution and second verses of the third chapter of that of the body of any other animal. the prophecy of Zechariah. The late How came it then, that an univerperiod in which this word was used sal belief pervaded all nations, ages, among the Jews, is an argument tongues and people, that for man, against the book of Job being written and man only, there would be a future by Moses; and, in connexion with the state ? Only, I think, because man manner in which it occurs in the pro- was supposed to be the master of his phecy of Zechariah, which was deli- own actions, and that his conduct, vered after the return of the Jews to whether good or bad, was the result their own land, a presumptive argu- of avoidable determinations. Now, ment that the said book was not the belief of all mankind, concerning written before the Babylonish capti- subjects of their own consciousness, is vity, and as it made a part of Ezra's surely entitled to most weighty consicanon, the most probable supposition deration. It is in vain to compare this is, that it was produced during that opinion to that of men concerning period.
the rising, setting and motion of the It is, however, very possible, that sun, since that notion applies not to the introductory and concluding chap- consciousness, and is a similar error ters may have been added by some to that of a man who thinks the trees writer, soon after the return from the move when he is sailing down a river. Babylonish captivity, or during its If it should hereafter be discovered continuance; and that all the rest of that food does not nourish men, I this venerable poem may be as old, shall then think that a parallel case is or even older than the age of Moses. found; for men have always believed I am not sufficiently acquainted with that food nourishes them; and when the writings of learned Jews to know they are found to have erred in this, if any of them have adopted this opi. I will admit that they may have erred nion. If you should insert these brief in their notions of liberty, of which thoughts in your valuable work, per- they have ever thought themselves haps some of your correspondents conscious. Having made these rewill endeavour to throw some light marks, I proceed to state the way in upon the subject, -should that be the which I think the freedom of huajan case it will be very acceptable to agency may be defended, always bearE. BUTCHER. ing in mind, that I think it reasonable,
on such a question, to demand that SIR,
probabilities, on this side, should be A
LTHOUGH I think with your met only with certainties on the other
correspondent S., (XVI. 596- side, from the consideration of possi599,) that such questions as those of ble consequences. Liberty and Necessity are not very Reason is conversant only with facts, and without facts she can do mind. Motive is something that moves; nothing. In her purest and most and to apply it to the considerations conclusive exercise, on mathematical in the view of the human mind in truth, facts are her sine quâ non. action, is to take the very matter in With the liberty of human agency, dispute for granted. The imagination therefore, reason has nothing to do immediately plays tricks with the previously to the establishment of the word, and converts the motive into the facts of the case. Whence do we col- agent. In point of fact, does not this lect evidence of the existence of this argument of Mr. Edwards' (far the liberty? Only by consciousness. If, most powerful assertor of Necessity) therefore, it exist, it is a mere fact, take for granted, that we are able to in the establishment or overthrow of analyze all the operations of the bnwhich reason has nothing to do. man mind? If it do, I think it is not Othello's occupation is gone. As to entitled to our confidence; and he the evidence of this freedom, as a fact, thought it demonstration, as he entito each individual his own conscious- tled the chapter containing it, the ness is the first and best evidence, and impossibility of Free Will. Now it is then the testimony of others, as to their evident that this assertion implies no consciousness. Look at this testi- less than that we know that it is immony: Is it not nearly universal ? possible for God to create a free agent. The feeling of remorse in men, in all Do we, indeed, know this? ages, is conclusive. We do not feel Now nothing seems more clear to remorse because we catch a cold or a me than this, that it has been the fever, though such as are fond of life belief of the freedom of human acmay feel sorrow on such an occasion; tions, that has laid the foundation of but who does not know that remorse the belief of a future state in every and sorrow are two very different feels age and country ; and that this belief ings? It is of the essence of remorse alone preserves the expectation of that he who feels it thinks that a dif- such a state amongst mankind. I say ferent determination, concerning cer- this with the highest respect for the tain actions, was in his power; and I characters and talents of such as are think every one who reflects upon the advocates for the opposite doctrine, nature of remorse must admit this. and leave the reasoning to the judgDr. Priestley seems to admit that even ment of the reader. Necessarians, from former association,
HOMO. feel remorse, but suggests, that a pure Necessarian, acting up to his princi- P.S. I do not perceive that the ples, would feel none ; but all his Edinburgh definition of Cause and remarks shew, that, even in his opi. Effect, as quoted in your last Number, nion, no speculations can destroy the [XVI. 700,] by Dr. Morell, at all feeling of remorse. So strong and affects the subject in dispute ; it is, so universal is the consciousness of besides, rather a definition of the manfreedom !
ner how we obtain the evidence of the I am well aware of the subtile argu- existence of Cause and Effect, than ment of Jonathan Edwards, that every of what constitutes Cause and Effect. present volition must either be deter- The dispute about what we call Limined by the existing motives, or byberty and Necessity is not at all a a previous volition; going back in an merely verbal dispute; but one conindissoluble chain of connexion to the cerning a most momentous distinction. first volition. But until we know If the conduct of man be the certain something more of the human mind, result of his bodily and mental conthis cannot be admitted to be a de- stitution and circumstances, of which monstration. For why should any vo- he is not the author, the doctrine of lition be determined by motives ? The Philosophical Necessity is true ; if mind in determining is not destitute otherwise, it is false. Is this a mere of consideration; but that motives de- verbal question? I confess, I can contermine it, and not its own agency in ceive of no question that was ever the survey of many considerations, agitated by man, less entitled to the ought to be proved. I reject the term character of a play upon words than motives, as applied to the considera- this is. tions under the survey of the human
-Cursory Remarks on the Island Bor- this vast island, is navigable for large
neo, made during a Residence of boats, nearly 500 miles from its nearly Three Years thereon; and mouth ; and were the country ever to during Voyages made to different become populous and civilized, its Places on it, and the neighbouring importance would be enhanced acIslands.
cordingly. Besides this principal river
there are numerous others falling into * [Referred to in Unitarian Fund Report, the sea all round its coasts; some of * 1821. See Vol. XVI. p. 740.]
which, as the river of Pontiana on the tion. — From Tanjong Salatan, N. W. coasts, both, and particularly S. E. pt. lat. 4° 11' South ; to Tan- the last, are much larger than the joug Sampan-Mangis, N. pt. lat. 79 Thames. Some of the mountains on
20 North; being in diameter, N. and the N. W. coast are volcanic, but not S., 691 miles.
of a violent description, and earthFrom Point Kaneeoongan, in lon. quakes are rarely felt, and never com.119° 10' East; to Tanjong Apec, in mit devastation in the manner frelon. 108° 40 East; being in diameter, quently effected in Java by them. East and West, 580 miles.
Both hills and valleys are fully wooded, General appearance.-Two chains
except where spotted by human culof mountains, the highest of which tivation. The vegetable productions are granitic, beginning in the S. E. are numerous and important, though and S. W. corners of the island, and the scantiness of the population renders running generally parallel to the coast, them, as it were, useless to that poputhough at a considerable distance, and lation themselves, and also to their leaving an alluvial border, containing neighbours. Among the valuable timplains of great extent, and moderately ber trees are the following: teak, elevated and undulating lands between mahogany, manchineel, iron wood, it and the sea. The Eastern chain is ebony, lignum-vitæ, blackwood, greenof regular appearance and moderate heart, camphor, cedar, sassafras, blielevation, increasing as you proceed ary, a wood nearly incorruptible in to the northward; the Western chain any possible situation, and resisting begins in insulated hills, chiefly of the the attacks of the teredo-navalis, or table appearance, though some few sea worm, for many years. Many dye of a conical shape are to be seen and medicinal woods also are to be amongst it, and it increases in height found in abundance; and the botanical and regularity of appearance on pro- productions of the country will amply ceeding to the northward, where the reward those who shall be enabled to two chains approximate to each other, explore its treasures. The staple article in an arched form, leaving the vast of vegetable produce for exportation, mountain on the north coast, called is pepper, and after it are camphor, ratKeeney-Balloo, as it were the key of tans, canes, frankincense, lignum, aloes, the arch, or rather semi-circle. This the excellent red dye, known in commountain is visible at upwards of 100 merce by the name of dragon's-blood, miles' distance in clear weather, having and which is manufactured by boiling myself seen it appearing of considera- the seed-nuts of a peculiar species of ble height at 95 miles distance. A rattan or cane. Sugar cane is large little to the southward of this moun- and plentiful, but only reared for the tain, the great river takes its rise, of purpose of eating, or rather sucking, which the river of Banjer Massin is in its raw state by the natives. Sago the second branch in magnitude; that is manufactured by them, but to little called the Great Dyac River being of extent, although the palm abounds : sufficient depth at its entrance, and an extensive and valuable pearl-fishery, for upwards of 150 miles inland, to existing on the north coast, would be admit ships of any size or burthen. of immense advantage, if the pirates This great river, on reaching the level were not to harass and capture the lands, divides into three large branches, fishermen. Bees' wax is an article of of which are what is called the River considerable export to China and Benof Banjer Massin and that of the gal. The edible bird's nest is found Great and Little Dacs. This noble in considerable quantities in the cariver, affording access to the interior of verns of the mountains, and is very valuable in the Chinese market. Cof- pelago. Pit coat is in great abunfee has been lately introduced, and dance, and so near the surface as to will amply repay its cultivation; in- be exposed to the air to a great exdigo also would become very impor- tent in several places. Asphaltum or tant under a free and enlightened earth oil, which forms so valuable an system of government. All the nu- article of produce in Pegu, is here in merous varieties of fruit, produced in abundance, but quite neglected. Plathe islands of the Archipelago, are tina is found among the gold, but common to Borneo. The mangustin thrown away by the natives. Though and pomegranate appear, however, to many other valuable mineral producbe superior to the same fruit else- tions doubtless exist, yet as being unwhere. The rivers and coasts abound known to the natives, I shall close the with fish of many different sorts, most list with the diamond, which is found of which are extremely good. The in various parts of the country, chiefly alligator and crocodile are numerous in that of the Aborigines, in considein the rivers, but are very little feared rable abundance, and of different sizes by the natives, and, indeed, may be and water. One of the largest diasaid to be very harmless. Although monds in the world, weighing 367 the neighbouring islands of Java and carats, is in the possession of the petty Sumatra have the tiger in abundance, Malay Prince of Luceadana. yet Borneo is perfectly exempt from The population of Borneo consists wild beasts, of any dangerous kinds : of Aborigines, under the names of Pani, a small species of bear is found in it, Dyac, Ngaju, Idaan, Buguet, &c., and the rhinoceros exists in the interior. possessing the whole interior of the Deer are very numerous, being seen country, and south and north-eastern in herds of many thousands." Wild coasts. The Pani are the most feroswine are also extremely numerous : cious, devouring the slain, and someand wild buffaloes, and almost every times some or all of the prisoners species of the monkey, from the orange after a battle. The Dyac is a step ootan to the smallest species known. further advanced, or rather less deSnakes of many kinds exist, but not graded, in intelligence and civilization, in very great quantity, and few are of and having had considerable acquaina venomous species. The double- tance with them, I can speak of their headed snake, I have seen a pretty habits with a greater degree of cerlarge specimen of, but whether it be tainty than those of any of the others. a lusus naturæ or otherwise, I am not The Buguet, or Bukit, are timid, and able to say with any degree of cer. inhabit (as their name implies) the tainty. Gold is generally distributed secluded glens of the mountains, and through the whole extent of the coun- on the appearance of strangers abantry, and the mining for it affords em- don their huts and hide themselves ployment to little short of 100,000 in the caverns. Salt is exchanged Chinese emigrants, who are constantly with some of them in the most inaccoming from and returning to China cessible places of the country, for with their gains. The natives confine from one half to the whole of its their searches after this precious metal weight in gold. to the sands of the rivers in the dry The coasts are mostly
inhabited by season. The import of Bornean gold Malayan, Javanese and Chinese colo into Calcutta has been for some years nists; the two former under indepen(previous to the Dutch restoration to dent princes, generally of Arabic, misthe controul of the Malayan Archipe- sionary, trader, or pirate extraction. lago) upwards of £50,000 annually. Pontiana, on the west coast of the The annual produce of the island is island, and now one of the most flouprobably upwards of £500,000, the rishing, was formed early in the last chief part of which goes to China. century by an Arab pirate, with the Copper has lately been found, and is crews of his fleet. Banjar Massin was now wrought in the western parts of founded by an expatriated Javan prince the island. Iron ore, of most excellent about five centuries ago, and is the quality, is abundant, and though but most civilized and populous state on partially wrought by the ignorant na- the island, after Borneo Proper, which tives, it would, in the hands of Euro- is chiefly Chinese, though the prince peans, suffice to supply all the Archi. be nominally a Malay. The Abori.