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is very true that in the former editions he advances, and which had not been of the Divine Government, I did not previously considered in the Illustraenter into any proof of this most essen- tions, may be arranged under these tial point. I do confess that in the two inquiries : simplicity of my heart, I did not sur
1. Whether punishment, under the mise it could be called in question.” Divine adıninistration, be invariably In the nineteenth century, in England, corrective. 2. Whether it be consisin this age and country of religion and tent with the Divine justice to inflict philosophy, I was addressing Chris- an endless punishment. tians, and I did not suppose
any Every argument that can be consione would deny the position, that, un- dered important, which he adduces der the administration of a God of under these beads, some of which he infinite power, of unerring wisdom, states with great acuteness and ability, and of perfect goodness, evil is the and which deserve very serious consi. means of producing good.
deration, I have examined and anSince, however, this position is de- swered with all the care in my power. nied, and since it is distinctly admitted I must add, that further consideraby the opponents of the doctrine of tion has induced me to give up some Universal Restoration, that this doc- passages of Scripture which were fortrine must follow of course, if that merly adduced as express testimonies position can be established, I have now in favour of the doctrine, that all manentered into the proof of it. In the kind will ultimately be restored to a new edition of the Divine Government, state of purity and happiness. which will be published probably as I may notice in conclusion, that soon as this article appears, I have under the evils of the social state some stated that proof at length.
considerations are suggested which Believing too, as I most sincerely may assist the mind in determining and firmly believe, that, taken in its the very important inquiry, whether whole extent, this is a subject with the law of population, as stated by which the virtue and happiness of Mr. Malthus, be or be not consistent mankind are more intimately connect- with the Divine benevolence. I had ed than with any other whatever, I entered with some minuteness into have also entered into a more compre- this thorny question of population, hensive and careful investigation of the but considering that this discussion origin, the nature and the tendency of might divert the mind too much from evil in general. I have considered se- the main argument of the work, I parately and in detail the several classes resolved to omit the greater part of of evil, namely, natural and moral evil, what I had prepared for the press. and the evils which have hitherto been I have, therefore, contented myself found inseparable from the social state, with stating what appears to me to be namely, poverty, dependence and ser- the real state of the question as it vitude. “I have endeavoured to shew now stands between Mr. Malthus and why these evils exist in the creation of his opponents; and with suggesting a Being of almighty power, of infinite what think sufficient to lead the wisdom, and of perfect goodness. I mind to the just conclusion respecting have endeavoured to lead the mind to the degree in which this question, the calm and serious consideration of however it be settled, can influence principles which seem adequate to di- our conceptions of the Divine benevest it of doubt, where doubt must be volence. unhappiness, and to conduct it to a There are some other topics in Dr. conclusion which, if once embraced Edwards’s work which I could have from conviction, must secure it from wished to discuss, but as they are not misery."
essential to the argument, I have omitI have also read with great attention ted them, lest my work should grow the work of Dr. Jonathan Edwards, to too great a bulk. The same reason entitled “The Salvation of all Men has prevented me from noticing any strictly examined,” which is, perhaps, other part of the articles in the Eclecthe ablest production on that side tic Review than that which I have which has ever appeared. Every mentioned. This is the only essential thing of importance, however, which point which, it appears to ine, they
have brought into discussion, and whom, I am proud to say, I was peron which there is any thing to be sonally and intimately acquainted; for advanced which has not been already such Presbyterianism, which claimed advanced. But there are several other authority from the Holy Ghost, which topics of great interest and import- imposed creeds of human invention, ance which I have always thought it and which abetted spiritual tyranny, would be very desirable to notice, and nursed and nurtured in the very spirit which I have always intended to re- and principles of religious liberty as I quest your permission, Mr. Editor, to have been, I never could plead. Yet discuss in your liberal and impartial even in that age of dark superstition, Repository. But more than two years Presbyterianism was, in many rehave passed away since that resolution spects, an enlightened form of Chriswas formed, and any time has been so tianity. Presbyterianism allowed no little at my own coinmand that I have other head of the Christian church, not been able to accomplish my pur- than Christ, and called no man master pose. However, if you think that upon earth. It was founded on the this is a proper subject for discussion precept, “ one is your master, even in the Repository, and if no other per- Christ, and ye are brethren.” It did, son will undertake the task, (though I indeed, acknowledge different offices, sincerely hope some of your able and and consequently different officers, in' less occupied correspondents will un- the church of Christ, which existed in dertake it,) I will endeavour to do so : the days of the apostles ; such as and if Quero do not find any thing in teachers, presbyters or elders, and what is now added to the Illustrations deacons, administrators of its secular to remove his doubts, I shall be happy concerns. to do all in my power to assist him in It must, however, be added, that solving them, if he will state thein Presbyterianism did insist upon faith with precision.
in doctrines, which, to me, appear to SOUTHWOOD SMITH. be corruptions of the pure gospel of
Christ. But let it likewise be rememSir, Cork, January, 1822. bered that this was not peculiar to Y
scribes himself (XVI. 727—729] vailed in all Christian churches, and "No Presbyterian,” replies with some even in spiritual republics, styling degree of warmth to a charge of mis- themselves Independent. Yet, with representation, absolutely imaginary; all its faults and defects, it was proa charge which I never meant to bring ductive of various utilities ; its form against him, or any others of my En- of worship was plain and simple ; it glish Dissenting brethren. With re- disavowed temporal authority in relispect to the circumstance of which he gious concerns. I beg leave to quote complained, I did not feel interested its character as drawn by the translain it, and, consequently, meant not to tor of the Memoirs of the Rebellion in make any allusion to it. It was the 1745, by the Chevalier de Johnstone: paper in your valuable Repository, “Wherever the Presbyterian systemi signed John M'Cready, [XVI. 473— has been established-in Scotland, in 475,) which called forth iny explana- the north of Ireland, in Holland, Gertion of the peculiar circumstances of many and Switzerland, or in the wilds the ministers and congregations to of North America, it has uniformly whom he alluded, and my representa- been accompanied by a marked elevation of what Presbyterianism now is, tion of character. The great body of in a great part of Ireland, by which the people identify theinselves with I wished to give information, which Presbytery ; the humblest individual might be pleasing to my highly re- feels himself something under it, and spected English friends ; information raised in his own eyes, and no virtue which I deemed justice required. For can exist withont such respect; the Presbyterianism, as described in the grand foundation on which the strucEncyclopedia Perthensis, or as de- ture of society rests, becomes thus nounced by that most ainiable, pious firm and solid. The complete estaand eminent labourer in the gospel blishment of Presbytery produced such vineyard, the late Dr. Toulmin, with effects, that the Scotch, who, in one century, were the most unprincipled shall give way to the farther advances and desperate marauders, were, in the of knowledge, reflection and intellinext, examples of sobriety and peace. gence, the Presbyterian claims will It is not meant to defend the intoler- recede more and more." I know bot.. ance with which the Presbyterians, as And as it does not arrogate power dewell as other sects, were chargeable. rived from the Holy Ghost by the Peace be to their errors! The auste- imposition of the hands of the Presbyrity too of the Presbyterians may tery; nor attempt to infringe, in any seem to throw an unnecessary gloom respect, the rights of conscience, but, over human life, and it cannot be de- as I conceive, is productive of many nied, that they formerly carried their salutary effects, I cannot join in the hatred of pleasure to an unwarrantable wish, that the very name of Presbyteexcess; but the open profligacy of rianism should be banished from the their opponents, the keen struggle earth. they had so long maintained, and their
SENIOR. almost unparalleled sufferings, could hardly fail to throw them into the ex- Sir,
(R. succeeded others of a different complexion, in which nature asserted her for the Liberty of the Press,” has very dominion over the Presbyterians; and properly omitted some acrimonious their austerity has long ceased to pass passages concerning Dr. Horsley, of the bounds of propriety."
which he has given notice to the reader At present, as it exists in a great in his Advertisement, and one reason part of this country, Presbyterianism he assigns for the omission of these is to be considered, not as implying passages is, that they were scarcely belief in any particular controverted consistent with the “REVERENCE DUB opinions, but rather as a religious as- TO DEPARTED Genius.” Now with sociation of various and (as to faith and whatever feelings we contemplate what worship) Independent Christian So- is called Genius, that of REVERENCE cieties, represented in annual Synods surely ought not to be one of them. by their Elders and Ministers, and I REVERENCE only moral excellence. thus forming, as I mentioned in my. In all the writings of the early Chrisformer communication, tribunals for tians, I find no ReVerence attached the preservation of temporal funds to Genius, living or departed. The and property; for the settlement of Author of the Christian dispensation such differences as may unlıappily expresses no REVERENCE for men of arise between pastors and their con- Genius. If Christians were to become gregations, and for examining into like little children, they were not perthe characters and qualifications, not mitted to value themselves or others the religious opinions, of candidates as men of Genius. Indeed, this term for the ministerial office. No creed Genius, as it is now used, inspires is imposed ; no authority is assumed nothing but disgust. Now every poeover conscience, no absolute power of tastic and flippant witling is a man of decision, but simply the Christian Genius, and may think himself, for right and duty of exhorting, of admo- aught I know, entitled to REVERENCE! nishing, of warning. The greater part, If Dr. Horsley in the privacy of his I believe I may say all, of the minis- own heart, sacrificed either passion or ters of the Synods of Munster and interest to a sense of duty, I will not Antrim, and many of the ministers of deny him REVERENCE, and he will the far more numerous Synod of Ul- bave his reward. ster, hold the doctrine of the pure But Mr. Hall, in his REVERENCE unity of God, and pay religious adora- FOR DEPARTED Genius, has omitted tion to the Father only. This Presby- in this edition of his tract his elaborate terianism (as I have already stated) eulogium on Dr. Priestley, WITHOUT claims no command over religious opi- giving to the reader the slightest innions or religious worship; to what timation of such omission. Perhaps claims, therefore, “ No Presbyterian" Dr. Priestley, when departed, was not refers, when he expresses his convic- to be regarded as a man of Genius, tion, "that as ignorance and bigotry though whilst living, he received the homage of Mr. Hall! or, perhaps, Mr. confess I read his writings against the Hall offers up the manes of Dr. Priest- Trinity without interest; because writley, to the feelings of orthodox asso- ings for or against an impossibility, ciates ! But enough of conjecture, Mr. if they display all the acuteness of Hall alone knows his own motives of Scotus himself, are of little value. If action. However, there are those who there were a fault in the mental charegard Dr. Priestley not only as a man racter of Priestley, I should be inclined of Genius, but as a man of the most to think it was too conclusive, as he solid clairns to REVERENCE. Priest- seems to me to be confident someley, by nature or habit, or both, was a times on subjects which hardly admit man of restless activity; but he uni- of positive decision. But one should formly directed that activity to what hesitate, perhaps, here ; the fault may seemed to him the public good, seek- be in one's own mind. ing neither emolument nor honour He wrote his life when he was in from men. His youth, devoted to the zenith of his reputation, and dislabour and spent in the habit of chas- dains not then to tell us, where he tity, temperance, and every virtue, was preached in his youth, and with what a faultless example to all, and a striking acceptance his sermons were received contrast to that of some men who have by an unlettered audience. He was, been called men of Genius. He knew in short, a perfect pattern of Christian how to bear poverty without murmur- simplicity, and such an union of talents ing, and disappointinent without fret- and attainments, with so much sanctity fulness. He justified the will of his of character, I believe never before aunt, which deprived him of expecta- existed. And shall we regard this tions she had excited. His attainments DEPARTD GENIUS” without REVEwere various and extensive, yet such Rence? was his true Christian humility, that If Mr. Hall have ceased to praise when his reputation as a discoverer in Priestley, there is little to be lamented physics was higher than that of any in this silence, when we perceive how man in Europe, he urged men to the liberal he is of his praise to his orthopursuit of natural philosophy, alleging dox associates living or dead. This that the pursuit demanded nothing Tract contains very little “satis elomore than commON POWERS OF MIND. quentiæ, sapientiæ parùm," and the So far was he from demanding REVE- statesman and moralist will find in it RENCE DUE TO GENIUS. When phi- nothing to direct their conduct. And losophy was in fashion, and he, as one as to eloquence, (of which Mr. Hall of its great masters, was in fashion, he has an ample share,) I fear it is seldom wrote on religion, to the injury of his subservient to the promotion of relireputation, only because he believed it gion. The effect of eloquence is to still more important to mankind than rouse men to some sudden act. To any of the pursuits of philosophy. His give a vote, or to fight a battle, men writings in philosophy, history, theo- may be roused by eloquence. But logy, criticism, and metaphysics, re- religion is no sudden impulse. The main monuments of a vigorous, varied Christian warfare is constant, perseand extensive Genius. But leaving vering, and ends only with life. Elohis writings out of the case, he was quence can do nothing here. Who one of the most laborious clergymen that is bent upon the discharge of who ever lived. His preaching, cate- Christian duty, does not find in the chising, and other ministerial labours, simple but classic page of William would have been beyond the ability of Law, more efficacious persuasion than any other man. Some men have called in all the eloquent declamation (rich him the head of a sect. If he were, and varied as it is) of Jeremy Taylor ? no one who ever sustained that charac- Mr. Hall is eloquent; he is, perhaps, ter, is worthy to be compared with a man of Genius; but if he be a good him. The Luthers, Calvins, Knoxes man, is on that account only entitled and Cranmers, for comprehension of to REVERENCE: sanctity of character, mind, acuteness of distinction, depth and that alone, is above all Greek, of research and varied attainments above all Roman praise. were all mere children to Priestley. I
Art. I.--An Inquiry into the Proba- been treated by most of our contem
bility and Rationality of Mr. Hun- poraries with disgraceful bigotry, we ter's Theory of Life, &c. By John shall attempt a general retrospect of
Abernethy, F. R. Š., &c. 1814. the publications we have enumerated, Art. II.-An Introduction to Com- bespeaking the indulgence of our rea
parative Anatomy and Physiology, ders on account of our necessarily gc. By William Lawrence, F.R.S. restricted limits. 1816.
The inquiry into the principle of Art. III.- Physiological Lectures, life and organization is intrinsically
&c. By John Abernethy, F.R.S. one of philosophical curiosity, and 1817.
peculiarly so to Unitarians, who, perArt. IV.- Lectures on Physiology, haps, in their general sectarian cha
Zoology and the Natural History racter, may be denominated Mateof Man, delivered at the Royal Col- rialists. On this particular question lege of Surgeons. By William our own individual opinions are unsetLawrence, F. Ř.S. 1819.
tled, and perhaps at variance with the Art. V.- Sketches on the Philoso- theory of Materialism; but at the
phy of Life. By Sir T. C. Morgan. same time we cannot stand timidly by 1819.
and witness the scandalous opinions ART. VI.-Remarks on Scepticism, imputed to the Materialists, as conse
being an Answer to the Views of quences of their doctrine, and repeated Bichat, Sir T. C. Morgan, and Mr. in a geometrical progressive ratio with Laurence. By the Rev. Thomas the solemnity and repetition of denial : Rennell, A. M., Christian Advocate for what, in the year A. D. 1821, could in the University of Cambridge. exceed the following sentence in Mr. 1819.
Rennell's (the Christian Advocate's) Art. VII. Cursory Observations Remarks on Scepticism: “Atheism and
upon the Lectures, &c. By one of Materialism go hand in hand”? We
the People called Christians. 1819. offer this Christian Advocate” his Art. VIII.-A Letter to the Rev. choice of the two horns of the dilem
Thomas Rennell. From a Gradu- ma-ignorance or impudence. ate in Medicine. 1819.
This controversy has also become Art. IX.- A Letter on the Reputed more interesting from the recent sup
Immateriality of the Humun Soul: pression of Mr. Lawrence's works, with Strictures on the Rer. T. Ren- which appears to have become necesnell's late Publication. 1821. Hun- sary from the clamour of bigotry in ter. 38.
fits, and the imminent danger of his Art. X.-An Inquiry into the Opic gown and temporalities—the Profes
nions, Ancient and Modern, con- sorship of Anatomy and Surgery to the cerning Life and Organization. Royal College of Surgeons, &c. The By John Barclay, M. D. Edin- “Holy ALLIANCE” (in the name of burgh. 1922. 12.
the Holy Trinity) and their connexions,
it is well known, are great epicures in [A correspondent having sent the follow- books, and seem to have given Mr.
ing paper in the form of a Review, the Lawrence a place in the revived Ind. Editor publishes it in that form, though Expurg. Anglicanus: such is the spiwithout pledging himself to every opi- rit of these literary incendiaries. nion expressed iu it.]
The theory of life was, undoubtedly, TE have been alınost deterred by at an earlier period of philosophical in this controversy, from entering the more anxious importance than at prefield and attempting a Review of their sent, since the possibility and probarespective merits ; but the subject be- bility of a future state were deeply ing one of peculiar interest, and having implicated in the research, while the