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ledge, and training private characters connexions of the Reverend Gentlefor becoming public benefactors at man to whom I have before referred, Manchester, has encouraged me to except from report that they are address you on a subject that may, highly respectable, or I should have through a divine blessing, be useful. been anxious whilst in the neighbour

I have lately been at Clifton. The hood to have inquired, whether there secession of a Reverend Gentleman might not some steps be taken for from the Established Church natu- making the attempt I have suggested. rally afforded matter for conversation. It occurred to me that, through the Among other topics was, the opportu- medium of your Repository, the subnity thus furnished for opening a place ject might meet the eye and awaken of worship, in which a reformed Li- the attention of those who inight be turgy might be used. I do not consi- competent to determine the expeder myself competent to argue the diency of the measure I have proquestion, which on the whole

is best, posed. If good is effected, my design extempore prayer or a printed form; is answered ; if nothing follows, I shall but I know from experience, that have acted as my conscience directed. those who have long been accustomed

I. P. to a Liturgy do not derive the same comforts, from the minister delivering

Torquay, a prayer, however pious, however ap


January 8, 1822. propriate

, aber would have donea had Water taught in Scripture that him with the fixed attention a printed that “we have redemption, that is, form excites.

remission of sins by his blood,” that Far be it from my intention to de- " we are reconciled to God by the tract from the admirable method in death of his Son.", and many other which the religious services are con- expressions are used of similar import. ducted at Lewin's Mead. I cannot That words like these convey somesufficiently praise the zeal, the piety thing very interesting and remarkable and the judgment shewn by the pas- must be admitted by all, and there is tors of that congregation. It is not a plainness and simplicity about them to oppose, it is to strengthen their which might seem to preclude much hands that this letter is written. I do diversity of opinion in regard to their not know what are their ideas on the interpretation. Yet we know that the use of Liturgies. Nor have I any in- fact is very different, and that there formation, whether the gentleman who are few parts of scripture doctrine has joined the Unitarians would like about which Christians are more dieither to reside in Bristol, or to under- vided. take the formation of a religious so- All must allow that we may learn ciety resembling that in Essex Street. from them as much as this, that the I purely narrate the subjects that in- end for which our Lord died was that terested my mind when conversing sins might be forgiven; and, on the with those who knew the respectabi- other hand, that the forgiveness of lity of his character, the importance sins was in some sense dependent on of his connexions and the want of a his death. The only question, thereplace of worship where those persons fore, is, in what way our Lord's death might assemble who are dissatisfied promoted this end; in what way the with the Liturgy of the Established forgiveness of sins depended on his Church, and do not like to unite death. Unitarians in general seem where extempore prayer is carried on. disposed to understand the matter in Many such I believe visit Clifton, and this way: That the death of Jesus many others would join if a proper Christ was a strong testimony to the attempt were made for combining de- truth of his doctrine, and a powerful votion with fervour, instruction with incitement to repentance and virtue ; liberality, and truth with freedom of that, therefore, so far as men are coninvestigation.

vinced by it of the truth of his reliI am not acquainted with the wealthy gion, and in this way led by it to reamong the Bristol Dissenters; I know pentance and virtue; since forgiveness nothing of the inclination of the lower of sins is promised to these, it becomes classes there, nor of the immediate the means or cause of forgiveness. In


the same sense, of course, every power- with this interpretation, inasmuch as ful advocate of the cause of truth and the pardons which the sacrifices prorighteousness, nay the Bible itself, or cured, followed immediately on the any other book which is efficacious in performance of them, and was obviawakening sinners to repentance, may ously independent of any change of be said to effect our redemption, and mind previously wrought, by the rite, be a propitiation for our sins. upon the worshiper. So far, then, as

In this view the death of Christ has the efficacy of our Lord's death has only an indirect or remote connexion any analogy with that of sacrifices, it with the forgiveness of sins, not an must be immediate, and not dependant immediate one. It is thus : The on the repentance which it may have death of Christ promotes repentance, been the means of producing. repentance will procure forgiveness, In what way then does the death of and thus the death of Christ procures Christ lead to the remission of sins ? forgiveness. Moreover, according to This is not a necessary inquiry, neither this view, no man owes his pardon to can we find any formal answer to it in the death of Christ, in any other light the Scripture. We there find the imthan as the occasion of that repentance mediate connexion between these two and amendment which have immedi- things strongly, repeatedly and variately procured that pardon. If I mis- ously asserted, and brought forward as take not, this is a fair representation a great and prominent truth of the of the prevailing opinion of Unitarians Gospel. We see that it was that way on this subject.

of reconciliation which it pleased the In proceeding to consider the just- Father to appoint, and we have geneness of this opinion, I may first observe, ral views given us of the intention of that it must be allowed that it is quite that appointment in such words as true as far as it goes : I mean, that these : "That God might be just and the death of Christ does in part pro- yet the justifier of him that believeth cure forgiveness through the means in Jesus."

.” It is also said, “He gave of producing repentance, to which it himself for us, that he might purify is so powerful an incentive. But is unto himself a peculiar people zealous not this too limited a view of its effi- of good works. Here no doubt we cacy, and has it not a more direct and see the general objects, in its tendency immediate connexion with the forgive. to promote which, the efficacy of the ness of sins? Is it only in considera- death of Christ, as a propitiation for tion of the repentance which in any sins, consisted. Its tendency to procase it has actually wrought in us, mote a just sense of the Divine authothat we can be said to have forgive- rity, and a deep and lasting repentance ness through the death of Christ? in those whose sins are forgiven, we Now, if we consider what the Scrip- may thus presume to be the principal tures say on this subject, we may ob- grounds of its propitiatory virtue : but serve generally, that the connexion yet this virtue is something very difwhich they mention is immediate and ferent from that of a testimony to the direct, and neither do the sacred wri- truth, or a pattern of righteousness. ters explain their meaning in the way They may be said to procure remiswe are considering, nor does their lan- sion of sins indirectly, through the guage bear to be so explained without means of such repentance as they may a degree of violence. The best way have occasioned; but this immediately, to be sensible of this, is to consider as a consideration influencing the mind how peculiar the language is which is of God, and that in regard to the reused concerning Christ, and how dif- pentance and holiness, which, in a ferent from any that is applied to any more extensive view, it is calculated other prophet or preacher. “Christ to promote and ensure. It is rather died for our sins,- for the remission of as a security for the future, than as our sins.” It is to me a violent strain- the cause of what is past, that it has ing of language to say, this means this efficacy. only that he died to convince us of the I have thus endeavoured to shew, truth, or to move us to repentance. that the death of Christ was something But especially, the frequent illustra- beyond a testimony to the truth, or tion of the death of the Lord, by allu- an example of righteousness; that it sion to the sacrifices, is inconsistent was truly a propitiation for sins; that


is, that it was appointed by God, as age,” as I find it in “ Á New View of what would be, besides the repentance London," 1708, p. 389. of the sinner, a proper provision or It is, however, probable that a paspreparation for forgiveness. I hope I sage, which had not occurred to Mr. shall not be thought to imply that any Wakefield, was Pope's original. It thing was wanting to give efficacy to forms part of an epitaph in the repentance. Far from it; but he who Church of Great Wychingham, in forgives the penitent may certainly Norfolk,” on Jane, the wife of Oliver preseribe the terms and mode of re- Le Neve, who died in 1704. She is conciliation. That I have advanced said never to have grieved her husband nothing in favour of the doctrine of or her friends, except by dying. satisfaction by vicarious punishment, is, I trust, evident. To conclude, let

quæ viro, suisque omnibus, me use this illustration : A father has

Non unquam erat, nisi moriendo gravis." many children, all of whom but one I quote these lines from Le Neve's have joined in an act of disobedience, Monumenta Anglicana, (p. 85,) puband, moreover, ill-treated the dutiful lished in 1717, and probably well child for his singularity: they become known to Pope in 1720, when he wrote sorry for their fault; but the father the epitaph on his friend Harcourt. prescribes, as the condition of forgive- In the same volume (p. 68) is anoness, that the dutiful child shall solicit ther epitaph worthy of being tranpardon for the others.

scribed, as excelling the common If, Sir, you should favour these re- strain of such compositions. It also marks with insertion, I hope shortly serves to shew, how even Christians, to send you a few more on the practi- when under the pressure of the weighcal importance of these views. tiest sorrows of mortality, are dis

T. F.B. posed, as if they credited the fam'd

fields of Heathenish bliss," to dwell

with fond affection on the fancied ocClapton,

cupations of a supposed separate state, SIR, March 21, 1822.

(on which supposition there is, strictly V such of your readers as amuse speaking, no death, but an uninter

themselves with conjectures on rupted and improving life,) instead the imitations and resemblances dis- of trusting, like Paul, that "the dead covered in the English poets, I beg shall live," because Jesus died and leave to point out the probable ori- rose again. ginal of that line in Pope's epitaph

“ In Clapham Church, near Bedford, in « On the Hon. Simon Harcourt:”

memory of Ursula Taylor.

· Vicina hàc tacità tumulantur urna “ Or gave his father grief, but when he

Ursulæ filiolæ sacræ reliquiæ : died,"

Dum vixit, Patris, formâ et indole Among the resemblances mentioned Vera effigies. by Mr. Wakefield, in his “ Observa- Pthisis utrisque fuit fatalis. tions on Pope,” (p. 124,) is the follow- Lachrymas absterge bis vidua mater, ing, which“ Hackett (II. 15) quotes

Patrem visit qui est cum Deo, from Montfaucon :

Et plusquam 10,000 cælestium virginum

Čætu divino splendet triumphans.

Obiit Martii 20, 1703, Ætat. 15.""
Vixit annis XXVI. ·
Nihil unquàm peccavit

These lines, which mnight have been
Nisi quod mortua est.

written if the Christian doctrine of a Mr. Wakefield also quotes, from an

resurrection had never been promulepitaph on a stone in St. Mary gated, may be thus literally translated : Magdalen's, Bermondsey, 1694,” this

Near this silent urn are deposited concluding line:

the dear reinains of Ursula, a daugh

ter who died in her tender age. While Who never disobey'd, but in her death.” living, she was a fair resemblance of

The whole epitaph, which rises her father, in person and disposition. above the sepulchral doggrel of the A consumption was fatal to both. Yet 17th century, was written on a daugh- dry thy tears, twice-widowed mother ; ter who died " in the 11th year of her for she now beholds her father, who is

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with God, and shines triumphant in “ Upon the Dutch, concerning a lathe divine company of more than mentable destruction which lately hap10,000 celestial virgins. From the pened to their pavy, through the force of phrase, bis vidua mater, it appears the winds and violent assault of a sea that Ursula was an only child.

tempest, wherein (as it is reported) many Many of your readers will recollect ships of war and some thousands of how the author of the Pleasures of

men perished by shipwrack. Memory describes a widowed mother, “ A Duodecastick Verse. pensively musing over her sleeping “ Wo to ye Dutch, if th' elements apinfant till

pear Oft she lifts the veil to trace 'Gainst you, and eke the Lord, then The father's features in the daughter's

dread and fear : face."

What can your plots, your nation,

ships avail, Having been led back into the 17th

If Chrisi t oppose and's flock, ye hoist century, I take the liberty of adding a poetical effusion on the destruction of

Repent, repent 0 Holland ! cease from à Dutch fleet, in 1653, during the wars, war between England and Holland. The English nation are for peace, not

The lines appear in a journal of “se- jars : veral proceedings of Parliament,” pub- It's for the Lord they stand, that lished weekly, with the imprimatur of

Christ alone “ Hen. Scobell, Clerk of the Parlia

May reign in Sion, and Antichrist dement.” Articles of intelligence are

throne. occasionally introduced. One of these

Then ope your eyes, and heavenward is an account of "a violent tempest,

set your face,

That so Gods hand may teach you on the coast of Holland, Nov. 4, 1653,

peace timbrace : “ upon which occasion these verses

Least for your evil deeds, the Lord were written," in the true spirit of an

repay, age which ventured, with remarkable And from heavens joys ye perish quite confidence, to interpret the dispensa- away." tions of Providence:

Augustine Wingfield, in the Shortor “ In Belgas de clede calamitosa eorum Barbone's Parliament, (of which see classi, viventorum et tempestatis marinæ XIV. 357, 358,) was one of the three impetu, nuper illata, in qua (ut ajunt) multæ nares Bellicae et hominum millia representatives for Middlesex. I have naufragio periêre.

paid so much respect to the memory

of a quondam M. P. for our county as Carmen Duodechastichon.

to attempt, in the following translaVæ vobis Belgæ, si contrà militat tion, to give his Carmen Duodechasæther,

ticon a modern dress, not quite so Angligenumque Deus, ventus et oceae uncouth as the made English of 1653. Quid stratagema yalet ? Quid gens ? Woe to the Belgians ! leagued against Quid bellica classis ?

them see Si contra Christum, Christi columque Ocean and air, and England's Deity. gregem.

Their stratagems, their martial Davies Ah revocate gradum Batavi! desistite bello,

Christ and his flock-'er these po hosts Angliades non sunt gens inimica togæ. prevail. Pro Christo pugnant, ut Christus monte Ah cease Batavians ! from the contest

Sionis Regnet apud Gentes, et ruat urbs Ba- With Albion's sons, no foes to arts of bylon.

peace. Pandite tunc oculos Belgæ, vestigia cæli For Christ they combat, till he reign o'er Cernite, sit Castris, pax pietasque all redux.

On Sion's Mount, and Babel's turrets fall. Ne Deus omnipotens vobis malefacta re- Yes, Belgians ! Heaven's high providence pendat,

discern, Et pereat refragis, spesque salusque And quick to peace and piety return, poli.

Or ere the Almighty's well-earn'd wrath Augustinus Wingfieldus, Parlia. ye prové, menti Membrum.

And pcrish, hopeless of the bliss above.


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I have preserved, as you will per- from distinct recollection, that there ceive, what the former translator lost, had then existed, for several years, a the author's Angligenum Deus, a too very common opinion, however entercommon presumption, claiming the tained, that there were “tame Dis“Father of all the families of the senters," ready to barter their rights earth” as peculiarly, if not exclusively, for the smiles of a court. Among the God of Britain, which, according these “the Rev. Mr. Marten,” who, to the fond nationality of Watts, in I remember, was said to have had a his version of the 67th Psalm, is, or, friendly visit from Bishop Horsley, at least, is to be, celebrated to “ the was conspicuous; though, I undercreation's utmost bound," as the Al- stood that “the other receivers and mighty's “ chosen isle,” and “the distributors of the regium donum mofavourite land.”

ney" had been either supplanted by Give me leave to remark, on the Mr. Marten, or had declined to act “Verses composed by a Lady,” (XVI. with him, rather than that they had 733,) that, though probably new to encouraged his courtly propensities. I most of your readers, (as they must trust, however, that “ An Old Dissenbe interesting to all, they are not very ter," unless he can be more explicit, modern, for the ingenious authoress will not persuade your readers, or, on has been more than a century in her reflection, satisfy himself, that Dr. grave. I find those lines in Cibber's Toulmin was eminently credulous, (Shield's) " Lives of the Poets,” though his well-known candid temper (1753, III. 201,) and there attributed might sometimes indulge to excess to "the Hon. Mrs. Monk,” daughter the charity that “thinketh no evil.” of Mr. Locke's friend, the justly cele- I take this opportunity of offering brated Lord Molesworth, who thus you another letter, which also remaindescribes her accomplishments, in a ed in MS. among Mr. Wakefield's prefatory dedication to her "Poems papers in 1804, because the writer and Translations,” published in 1716, was then living. Mr. George Bew under the title of Marinda :

was for some years Secretary of the " In a remote country retirement, Manchester Society, and, if I am not without omitting the daily care due to mistaken, a Lecturer in the Manchesa large family, she not only perfectly ter College, now removed to York. acquired the several languages here I find by a friend's obliging informamade use of, (Latin, Italian, Spanish tion, in 1820," that he died at Kendal and French,) but the good morals and some time ago," and that “there is principles contained in those books, no printed notice of him.” One of so as to put them in practice, as well your correspondents can, probably, during her life and languishing sick- supply the deficiency. Beas, as at the hour of her death; in Mr. Wakefield, referring to Mr. short, she died, not only like a Chris- Bew's Letter, (Mem. I. 269,) says, tian, but a Roman lady, and so be- that his Essay on the Origin of Alphacame at once the objeet of the grief betical Characters was * read to the and comfort of her relations. I Society at two successive meetings, loved her more," adds Lord Moles- published in the second volume of worth, as a parent's highest commen- their Memoirs,” and “inserted in the dation, “because she deserved it, than New Annual Register for 1795, and because she was inine.” (Cibber, III. the Encyclopædia Britannica." In 201.)

this Essay, which appeared in both I should not have expected that editions of his Memoirs, Mr. Wake* An Old Dissenter," (p. 158,) would field maintains, contrary to the more have considered it as correet, under an common notion, that letters were an anonymous signature, and without jus- immediate divine communication. This tifying his censure by a single example, opinion, which is well known to have to represent Dr. Toulmin, “an in- been Dr. Winder's, (On Knowledge, dustrious collector of anecdotes," from 1756, II. 30-55,) I find maintained, whose pen we have derived so much in 1726, in an anonymous Essay interesting contemporaneous biogra- upon Literature ;-proving that the phy, as "too ready to record as facts Two Tables written by the Finger of unauthenticated reports.”. As to the God in Mount Sinai was the first report, in question, I can safely affirm, Writing in the World." It is also

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