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advocated in “Conjectural Observa- veries and improvements. May we tions on Alphabetical Writing,” 1772. not, therefore, be authorised in con
J. T. RUTT. jecturing, that the figures from whence
the characters of the alphabet have Manchester,
originated, might have been suggested
from the awkward atteinpts towards DEAR SIR, November 5, 1784.
drawing hieroglyphic characters made I have the pleasure of transmitting by some person who either had not your diploma as an honorary member sufficient ingenuity, or wished to spare of the Literary and Philosophical So- himself the trouble of forming the ciety, which I have hitherto been pre necessary design? You will readily vented from sending, by a variety of conceive the inference I made.circumstances. Allow me, at the When once a figure that did not consame time, to thank you for the satis- vey the least relative appearance to faction your Essay on Alphabetic the thing it was meant to represent, Writing afforded me. Had I been
or assist in representing, was, neverfavoured with a sight of it before I theless, sufficient to give an idea of had occasion to treat on the subject in resemblance to the mind, the first difmy Course of Lectures, I should cer: ficulty would be surmounted, and the tainly have taken the liberty to avail imperfect and laborious system of myself of your observations, and not hieroglyphic writing would be superonly spared myself the study of some seded as a more perfect and simple days, but, likewise, the exposure of one was formed, and which we see some nonsense.
accomplished in the most important In treating on a subject so involved discovery of representing sounds and in obscurity, it is not to be wondered speech by the combination of alphathat I found much difficulty in say- betic characters. ing any thing satisfactory; however, The small number of letters emby the assistance of a number of au- ployed in early times (Cadmus having thorities, I proceeded tolerably well only introduced 16 letters, and the through the known gradations of Etruscan alphabet, at a still earlier Hieroglyphic and Syllabic Writing. period, being said to consist of no And though the origin of the charac- more than 14 letters) is a circumters of the alphabet do not seem illus- stance that luckily favours my hypotrated by any historical relation that thesis ; and to this may be added, that can in the least degree be depended hieroglyphic characters were employon, yet, like most young adventurers, ed at the time, and even long after
the with more rashness than judgment, use of alphabetic ones. The latter, 1 ventured to hazard a conjecture, ra- if of human invention, must have ther than utterly relinquish the in- been effected by very slow degrees, quiry. As (I remarked) it appeared and it would, therefore, be necessary probable that the alphabet of every to supply their early deficiency with language is derived froin one source, picturesque representations, which we I supposed it possible that the idea of may imagine might have some similisubstituting a character which has no tude to the hieroglyphic puzzle-pasimilitude to the thing it is to assist in pers that are put into the hands of representing to the mind, might .pos- children. sibly take place from one of those I fear from the length of this Letter fortuitous circumstances that often. that you will be induced to think me times occur, and instantaneously pre- a hunter of hypotheses and fond of arsent the accomplishment of what may gument, to both which charges I must in vain have exercised the most labo plead not guilty in general. I will, rious study and investigation. It is however, put an end to this page, with needless to suggest to you that the subscribing myself, with the truest perfecting, and even the inventing, of esteem and respect, inany of the most important things in
Dear Sir, science and the arts, have been owing Your most obedient Servant, to accidental and unlooked-for inci
GEO. BEW. dents which ingenious and intelligent The Rev. Mr. Wakefield. people have availed themselves of, so as to determine to important disco
Newcastle-under-Lyne, reached our destined harbour in the Sir,
March 27, 1822 morning of the 25th of December. FTER this long delay, feel It does not fall within my present
myself able to comply with the design to attempt a description of the request of your correspondent Q., pp. truly sublime scenery which now pre665, 666, of your last volume. sented itself to our view : those who
And, in the first place, it may be wish for a true idea of it, inust cross proper for me to state, that Jamaica the mighty waters. But just after the is the only island I visited during my vessel came to an anchor, a circumlate residence in the West Indies; and stance occurred which, though trifling that my knowledge of that colony is in itself, made an indelible impression confined to the three following pa- on our minds. I will here relate rishes :* Hanover, Westmorland and it in as few words as possible. Three St. James. I have, however, been men came along-side, two of whom repeatedly assured, by gentlemen who (a negro and a mulatto) quickly prehave spent many years in the island, sented themselves on deck, and enand travelled over the greater part tered into conversation with us. We of it, that what I saw may safely treated them as we should have done be deemed a fair specimen of the any other individuals of their appearwhole. The estate upon which I lived ance, not suspecting what they were, is one of the finest in the parish of when, towards the close of the conHanover : at one period it contained versation, they told us we were wrong a population of four hundred and ten in taking them for free-men, adding, slaves; but now the number is reduced that they were slaves. The informato about three hundred and ninety. tion, like an unexpected clap of thun
The sole object of my mission was der, chilled all the blood in our veins : to ascertain the practicability of im- it was the first time we had ever seen proving the condition of the negroes human nature thus fallen. But we on this property, by means of religious were now to become familiar with instruction. And, with a view to ren- persons of this description, for they der my task as easy and as agreeable were constantly about us during the as possible, I was authorized by the three years and four months it was proprietort to adopt my own plans our lot to pass in the torrid regions. of tuition; provided they should in It being Christmas time, we were no respect be found incompatible introduced to the negroes under cirwith the order and management of cumstances of the inost favourable the plantation. A house was provided kind. Numbers of them were decked for me, pleasantly situated, about a in their best attire, exhibiting a thoumile from the negro village; and I sand marks of mirth and gladness. was made quite independent of the For, at this season of the year, they other white people connected with the are allowed, throughout the island, a slaves. These preliminaries being set- few days' liberty, which they comtled, I and my wife embarked at monly spend in dressing, dancing, Gravesend, in the ship Ann, late in feasting and singing. On these occaOctober, 1817, and, after a tedious sions they seem, indeed, almost to passage to the Land's End, and a fancy themselves on a par with the charming run across the Atlantic, we whites ; from whom they now experi
ence great hospitalityand even affability.
Shortly after we entered our new • All the parishes of Jamaica are of habitations, several of them came to very large extent, and, in general, pretty pay their respects to us; and, with thickly populated. St. James contains this intent, most of the slaves belong25,688 slaves ; Hanover, in which we were ing to the estate waited upon us before situated all the time we were in the the end of a fortnight. Many of them island, 23,853; Westmorland, 21,200 ; and the whole island, 324,410; besides
were exceedingly well dressed, and a very large number of whites, browns they all affected great politeness ; and blacks of free condition. See the assuring us, that they felt particularly Jamaica Almanack for 1821..
happy to see persons of our descrip+ Robert Hibbert, Esq., of East-Hide, tion amongst them. They inquired near Luton, Bedfordshire
after their master and mistress in EnVOL. XVII.
gland. On the whole, their appear- Almost immediately on our arrival ance and behaviour made a favourable on the estate, care was taken to inform impression on our minds, while, at the the slaves, that they were all at full same time, we could not help seeing liberty to ask me any questions they much about them calculated to excite pleased, on subjects of a religious nathe deepest commiseration. We ques- ture, and to form themselves into a tioned them respecting their families, society under my directions, as soon their ages, their knowledge of good as they felt disposed to do so. Acand evil, of God, of Jesus Christ, and cordingly, about eighty of them came of a life to come ; but most of their to our house one Sunday morning for answers were of a very unsatisfactory the purpose, as they said, of hearing and ambiguous nature. Their igno- me preach. They were all invited to rance on points of this kind, as inay come in; and I concluded that I could easily be imagined, is, certainly, very not do better, on such an occasion, deplorable ; yet by no means so pro- than explain to them, in the fullest found as they endeavoured to make manner, the object I had in view in us believe. One young woman, on taking up my abode amongst them ; being asked a few questions by Mrs. and, at the same time, state a few C. about the Supreme Being, humour- particulars respecting the being and ously replied that her mother had perfections of the Deity. They lisbeen christened, and, therefore, she tened to me with more attention than left such matters to her, and did not I expected; yet they could not forego trouble her head about them. Before the temptation of, every now and then, they left us, they generally took care stopping me to ask some question, or to drop a number of complaints, with to make some observation on what respect to their temporal affairs, and was said. Those of them who had to insinuate that they had a very hard been baptized, or, as they always term overseer. But in all this there was it, christened, appeared to take a great art and much hypocrisy. We deeper interest in the service than the soon discovered, that on subjects of rest : they were observed to kneel this description they endeavoured to during the time of prayer, and they mislead us, in order that it might evidently felt their imagined superioafterwards be in their power to make rity to the uninitiated. The whole tools of us. They tried us, in every company, indeed, expressed a willingpossible manner, and although we had ness to attend on my instructions in a been forewarned of their arts and in- regular manner; and much anxiety tentions, I must own that they did to obtain information on a subject of succeed in getting us to believe, for such vital importance as that of relia considerable time, that they were gion : but they declared, in the most really exposed to a number of unne- positive and clamorous manner, that cessary hardships and much wanton their master (meaning the agent for cruelty. We, however, clearly saw, the estate) must allow them time for long before we returned to this coun- these things. They begged me to intry, that their testimony against per- tercede for them, alleging that it was sons employed to superintend them not, and never would be, in their at their work is not to be relied on in power to attend in what is termed ninety-nine cases out of a hundred; their own time. I did what I could and that nothing short of the strictest to pacify them, and gave them to undiscipline can ever keep them within derstand that I wished them to depart, any thing like due bounds. At the and reflect on what they had heard ; same time, it is not to be denied that but before they went out, they could their case is an extremely hard one; not forbear uttering a variety of comperhaps much more so than is gene- plaints against individuals, and seemed rally imagined. Where there is sla- strongly inclined to insist on the invery there inust be fear and force, in dispensable necessity of a redress of spite of a thousand laws and regula- grievances. At length the house was tions to the contrary; or even the cleared, but immediately filled again, most ardent wishes of the best mas- with a second congregation of preters and overseers. This will be more cisely the same description with the apparent in the sequel.
first. I repeated the service I had just performed, and the requests and constitute the subject of my letter for complaints, stated above, were again your next Number. urged upon my attention, with great
T. COOPER. emphasis and apparent sincerity; and here ended my labours for this day. The scene was novel and tumultuous;
Norvich, yet I could not help thinking that it
March 22, 1822. porfended well.cout of so many who I AM indebted for the inclosed 19 thonght I might reasonably hope to in this city. It is a copy of an adfind a few sincere; but I was disap- ditional letter froin Mr. Fox to pointed. For even those who laid Secker, (then Bishop of Bristol,) which claim to the Christian name were after completes the correspondence with wards found to be persons totally void them at that period. of religious feelings, and absolutely From Mr. Fox to the Bishop of Bristol. given up to the practice of the grossest
Plymouth, vices. Discoveries of this sort were MY LORD,
May 4, 1736. inexpressibly painful; yet they could
I am very sensible that an address of only be regarded as so many reasons for persevering in our experiment. As tion, ought to be attended with some
this kind to one in your Lordship's situato the unbaptized, they turned out, reasonable apology; especially as it comes as your readers will see hereafter, to from a person of low rank in life, probabe equally depraved, and, to a slave, bly not thought of for many years past, wholly destitute of what might be and perhaps not suspected to be in the termed a steady desire to attend to land of the living. All I can say for this things of a spiritual nature. They liberty with your Lordship is, that I bewere all perfectly aware that I held lieve the same goodness and generosity myself in readiness to serve them at which I kuew to hare guided your all times, and that nothing was ex
thoughts and actions eighteen or twenty peeted, or would be received of them, years ago, do still prevail; and that í but their attendance; their mastered with me, who had once the honour to
cannot think your Lordship will be offendhaving undertaken to bear all the ex
be called your friend, for doing that now, penses of the mission : yet they never which I had the pleasure of doing then came to me in their own time, for very often. many months together, with that de- Providence hath continued me in the gree of regularity which was abso- same solitude and obscurity in which I lutely requisite to ensure their per- was when your Lordship left England: inanent improvement. At one period suffer me to assure you, my Lord, and in a few of them did, indeed, appear to
the sincerity of my heart I say it, that take real pleasure in hearing me read the different dispositions of it in your and illustrate, in a familiar manner,
favour hath given me unspeakable satissome of the most striking parts of the faction. The same sentiments of friendhistorical Scriptures. But what took ship which you have often kindled in me
are alive and warm; and I rejoice to see their attention above all things, was
once in my life a lover of virtue and of the sight of some of those large plates mankind called forth to a station in which which are bound up in Goadby's Bible. he can so well promote the interests of Upon these I have seen them gaze both. with delight and astonishment, and I I have long intended to indulge myself doubt not that in some instances in making your Lordship some humble they afforded them a degree of infor- but sincere congratulations of this sort ; mation.
but the belief that your Lordship's time By these methods alone we endea- and thoughts being employed in things of youred to turn their thoughts to sub. consequence hath made nie afraid of bejects of a spiritual kind for the first ing troublesome. I hope, my Lord, you six or seven months we were in Ja- will accept this as it is meant, and not immaica, when it was resolved to allow pute it to the low vanity of making my
self known ; with which (if any thing them half a day in a fortnight, out of can be remembered of me) you never Crop, for the purpose of attending on knew me tainted. me. The manner in which this time I heartily wish your Lordship a long was employed, together with the rela- and happy coutinuance in your station ; tion of soine other particulars, will and beg leave, with all becoming deference and respect, to conclude this in your own In the other passage he keenly rewords to me in 1717, that I am, and bukes Mr. Clayton for having intihope ever shall be,
mated to his congregation that the Yours and virtue's Friend,
Birmingham Riots were a judgment, JOHN FOX.
and advises him not to suffer this itch Then follows his Lordship’s answer, for interpreting the counsels of HeaMay 8th, 1736. *
ven to grow upon him, and concludes Mr. Clifford has in his possession thus : some other memoirs by Mr. Fox, of the times in which he lived.
“ The best use he could make of his G. SOTHERN. mantle would be to bequeath it to the
use of posterity, as for the want of it I
Leicester, am afraid they will be in danger of fallSIR, April 3, 1822. ing into some very unhappy mistakes.
To their unenlightened eyes it will appear THE angry feeling which your cor
a reproach, that in the eighteenth centowards Mr. Hall in your last Reposi- improvement, the first philosopher in Eu
tury, an age that boasts its science and tory, (p. 168,) appears to me to be rope, of a character unblemished, and of entirely groundless, for I cannot find manners the most mild and gentle, should a single word in the original edition of be torn from his family, and obliged to the "Apology” concerning Dr. Priest- flee, an outcast and a fugitive, from the ley, that is omitted in the last edition. murderous hands of a frantic rabble ; but I think he must have had in his me- when they learn that there were not mory two passages contained in Mr. wanting teachers of religion who secretly Hall's publication entitled “Christia- triumphed in these barbarities, they wiń nity consistent with a Love of Free- pause for a moment, and imagine they dom,” I and have forgotten the work are reading the history of Goths or of in which they appeared. The first of must appear in the eyes of Mr. Clayton,
Vandals. Erroneous as such a judgment the passages I refer to runs thus :
nothing but a ray of his supernatural : “The religious tenets of Dr. Priestley light could enable us to form a juster deappear to me erroneous in the extreme, cision. Dr. Priestley and his friends are but I should be sorry to suffer any differ- not the first that have suffered in a pubence of sentiment to diminish my sensi- lic cause ; and when we recollect, that bility to virtue, or my admiration of ge- those who have sustained similar disasnius. From him the poisoned arrow will
ters have been generally conspicuous for fall pointless. His enlightened and ac
a superior sanctity of character, what but tive mind, his unwearied assiduity, the
an acquaintance with the counsels of extent of his researches, the light he has Heaven can enable us to distinguish bepoured into almost every department of tween these two classes of sufferers, and science, will be the admiration of that whilst one are the favourites of God, period when the greater part of those
to discern in the other the objects of his who have favoured, or those who have vengeance. When we contemplate this opposed him, will be alike forgotten. extraordinary endowment, we Distinguished merit will ever rise supe- longer surprised at the superiority he asrior to oppression, and will draw lustre sumes through the whole of his discourse, from reproach. The vapours which
nor at that air of confusion and disorder gather round the rising sun, and follow which appears in it, both of which we it in its course, seldom fail at the close impute to his dwelling so much in the of it to form a maguificent theatre for insufferable light, and amidst the corrusits reception, and to invest with varie- cations and flashes of the divine glory; gated tints and with a softened efful- a sublime but perilous situation, described gence the luminary which they cannot with great force and beauty by Mr. hide.”
“ 'He pass'd the flaming bounds of place . For which see Vol. XVI. p. 634. and time : ED.
The living throne, the sapphire blaze, to We should be still further obliged Where angels tremble, while they gaze, to our correspondent could he procure He saw; but, blasted with excess of for us a sight of these Memoirs, with the light, liberty of using any part of them which Closed his eyes in endless night."" may suit onr purpose. ED.
On occasion of a Serinon published To these glowing eulogies on the by the Rev. John Clayton, 1791. ED. illustrious Priestley, way be added