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did the great Head of the Church era- truth of such representations may pospower them to deny Christian commu- sibly be raised in the minds of some, nion to any man, who seriously professes who might otherwise have goue on confaith in Jesus as the Christ, the Son of tentedly, in an unwavering and implicit God ? Much more, to denounce, with assent to whatever they hear from their every epithet which the copious vocabu- spiritual guides. Surely, their conviction lary of polernic wrath contains,mas men of the TRUTH of their own cause cannot deserving the scorn, and contempt, and be so tottering, as to lead them to suparersion, and abhorrence of all the world pose that the awful and magnificent ediwas blasphemers and Atheists - those fice, reared by prophets and apostles, whose only PROVED crime is, that they Jesus Christ himself being the chief differ from the majority of Christians in corner-stove,' can require the puny butunderstanding the records of their Mas- tresses of human censures, of misrepreter's will, the ternus of salvation there sentation and caluinny, of haughty dispropounded, and the history of their Sa- dain and bitter inrective. Can the anaviour's life therein contained ?

themas of councils and the damnatory “ Seriously to set about refuting such clauses of creeds give stability to the charges as the above, would, I trust, be foundation ; or can the lightnings of exconsidered quite unnecessary by the ma- communication reflect glory on the haljority of this audience. But, be that as lowed walls of the TEMPLE OF ETERNAL it may, I beg that it may be understood TRUTH? Vain thought ! by all, that we plead NOT GUILTY' to It stands, like the cerulian arch we see, them; that, upon the calmest reflection, MAJESTIC IN ITS OWN SIMPLICITY.” we believe ourselves as undeserving of

Pp. 13—16. them as any other denomination of professing Christians : and, appealing from Having cleared his way to the subthe fallible denunciations of our erring ject, the preacher proceeds to describe brethren, we most gladly commit the the right dispositions of a seeker of vindication of our character * unto HIM Christian truth, and to detail some of who judgeth righteously.' Still we cannot the arguments for the doctrines of the help feeling, and feeling deeply too, such unity and essential mercifulness of the unmerited attacks upon all that is valu. Supreme Being, and the delegated and able to us as Christians, as men and as ministerial authority and work of Britons. We are all of us,' says an Jesus Christ. In this course he is eminent writer,) * made to shun disgrace, led to answer popular objections, as we are made to shrink from pain, and poverty and disease. It is an instinct ;

• Throughout, he avails himself of the and. under the direction of reason in works of well-known Unitarian writers. stinct is always in the right.'

· In a note, p. 55, Mr. Fripp, who “How much were it to be wished that appears to be conversant with the certain defenders of orthodoxy would be German language, remarks that our less sparing of their anathemas, and deal Lord's phrase, “I and the Father are more in arguments ! Could my feeble one,” (Sy ouey,) is literally, “are one voice be heard, I would earnestly solicit thing," and is thus correctly rendered them to imitate-not this or that polemic in Luther's German translation, “ Ich of great fame, whose intention was to und der Vater sind eins.” i. e. "I crush where he could not persuade, to defame where he found refutation im.

and the Father are of one mind, or practicable-but the great Apostle of the unaniinous.” He adds, further, in Gentiles; who, when speaking of the

the Appendix, ' enemies of the cross of Christ, wielded “I take this opportunity of noticing the all-powerful eloquence of a bleeding the circumstance, (which to some of my heart; who disdained to employ threats readers may possibly bé new,) that Luand invective, or to call to his aid the ther's translation is, in some other imthunders and lightnings of Mount Sinai, portant cases, closer to the original than but rather used the mild and persuasive our public version. For instance, in that language of tears and expostulations and very interesting passage, (Exod. ii. 14,) benevolent prayers. Besides, it might where Moses asks by what name he is to not be unuseful were they to reflect, that, describe the GREAT ETERNAL to his counby bending the bow too far, it mav break; trymen, God said unto Moses, I AM that by representing a denomination of that I am.' Thus it is translated in our professed Christians as a hideous com- common version. Luther's is, more corpound of all that is vile and base, as rectly, as follows : 'I will be what I will even worse than the very worst · anti- be.' (Ich werde seyn der ich seyn werde.) religious' sect; as men irreversibly scaled i. e. The Eternal, Immutable. It so hapto everlasting perdition-doubts as to the pens, however, that our translators have rendered John viii. 58, thus : Before 'Him that is invisible.' He pre-existed. Abraham was, I AM. (Ey Ep.) From as the Lamb slain from the foundation this verbal parallelism, occasioned by the of the world :' 'fore-ordained then, though inaccurate translation of these two texts, manifest in these last times for us.' many a plausible argument has been con- “ The implacable enemies of our Lord structed in favour of the eternity and flew into a paroxysm of rage at his deimmutability of Christ Jesus our Lord. claration, and, armed with malice and That the mere English reader should religious hatred, strove to overwhelm draw such a conclusion, is not to be their meck and lowly Messiah in a whirlwondered at: but that grave and learned wind of stones. This was just what divines should have fought, vi et unguibus, might be expected from cold-hearted, in defence of an argument, which rests proud bigots of their stamp. Had they entirely on a mistranslation, is indeed not already stigmatized him as a Sabastonishing. To a reader of the Septua- bath-breaker, a Samaritan, (or heretic,) gint, as well as of Luther's version, the a dæmoniac, because Christ had performsupposed allusion of our Lord to the ed a miracle of mercy on the Sabbathwords in Exodus, must appear groundless. day? And could these stanch defenders (The LXX. translate Exodus ji. 14, thus: of the dignity of Abraham, brook any EVW Euro Dy: “ I am He that exists expression of the lowly Prophet of NazaThe Beng.) That John viii. 58 ought reth, which implied that a greater than to be rendered, “Before Abraham was Abraham is here'? No, surely. The (born] I am He,' or ' I was He,' is, I Messiah did not answer their proud, exthink, evident. For the expression syw

clusive, earthly expectations : hence their Elp, is the same that is thus rendered in

blind animosity and their vehement ae- . this very chapter twice: ver. 24 : If ye

cusations of blasphemy. But, is it at all believe not that I am HE, ye shall die in

probable that they understood Christ's your sins:' ver. 28: Then shall ye know

declaration aright ? Was there no wilful that I am He;' i. e. the Messiah : He

misunderstanding on their part? Did who was to come. (Compare also John

the turbulent passions with which their iv. 26, ix. 9, xvii. 5; Luke xxi, 8;

inalignant hearts were boiling, send ap Matt. xxiv. 5; Mark xiii, 6; Matt. xiv.

no intoxicating fumes to mantle their 27; Mark vi. 50 ; John vi. 20.)

cooler reason'? Shall we say that Christ, “To prove the utter impropriety of

who was so cautious in declaring his

Messiahship, even to his most intimate EYW Elut being rendered in the 50th friends and disciples, and who, nevertheverse) I am,' let us translate those very less, assured them that he spoke to them words, as they stand in the 24th verse,

plainly, though to others in parables, that in the same manner : 'When ye have

he revealed to these miscreants, (it is an lifted up the Son of man, then shall ye

orthodor expression, and the Bishop of know (ÓTI EYW Ele) that I AM, AND THAT

St. David's tracts will supply the proper I DO NOTHING OF MYSELF. What! He

meaning,) the great, astonishing, amaz, who is the self-existent Jehovah, doth

ing secret, that He, Jesus of Nazareth, HE, verily, do nothing of HIMSELF? u

was, under the guise of a man, no less than But Christ Jesus does incontestably as

the ineffable Jehovah
the?

the great Eternal, sert this of Himself, and not of his

who filleth heaven and carth with his human nature, as is erroneously affirmed);

immensity—to whom an 'atom is a and in the very same breath too with

world, and a world an atom'? Unbewhich he utters those words (eyw Elus) lieving Jews may so profess to understand "I AM,' which are supposed to assert his Christ's words, and look about for stones eternity and immutability. This expres- wherewithal to crush their Messiah ;sion must, therefore, refer to his Mes- for my part, I am content to be able to siahship, not to his supposed eternity and say, with honest Nathaniel, Rabbi ! Godhead. As God's Christ, he did no- Thou art the Son of God, thou art the thing of himself, nothing without the King of Israel!'"--Pp. 73–76. Father: as God Almighty, he could not but do all things of himself, else he were The pamphlet concludes with a ju. less than God. But he himself (ver. 40) dicious “summary view of the evi. assured the Jews that he was a man

dence for the truth of Unitarianism, who told them the truth which he had heard of God.' And is he not the true

from Scripture and Ecclesiastical Hisand faithful witness,' who was born that

tory," which we have seen with much he might bear witness unto the truth' ? pleasure extracted into a provincial

“ As the great appointed, promised newspaper, and which, with some adand expected Messiah, he doubtless pre- ditions and perhaps a few slight corexisted before Abraham was born and rections, would form a valuable tract Abraham saw him with the eye of faith, for our Unitarian Book Societies. which realizes things to come, and sees May we recominend to Mr. Fripp

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this easy labour on behalf of the we knew not that we should want to dig cause to which he has publicly and deep for water, and of course could not solemnly devoted himself?

provide for an exigency that was not known to exist. Dig deep,' I have said; but one hundred feet is thought, by a

western American to be a vast and danArt. II.-Letters from the Illinois, gerous enterprise; we have, however,

1820, 1821. Containing an Ac- with us Englishmen who have been far count of the English Settlement at into the bowels of the earth in England, Albion and its Vicinity, and a Re- and have no sort of fear of there not futation of various Misrepresenta- being abundance of water in Albion ; tions, those more particularly of already have we experienced the benefit Mr. Cobbett. By Richard Flower of these exertions; but while our dryWith a Letter from Mr. Birkbeck: weather traveller was reporting our inund Notes by Benjamin Flower.

conveniences, he should have stated it

was an unusual season which pervaded Svo. pp. 76. Ridgeway. 1822.

the whole of the western country: that 2s.6d.

Kentucky and Ohio were worse than the Two of these Letters were com- Illinois; and that in Indiana, in the best

municated by the Editor to our watered districts, springs, rivulets and Repository: (Vol. XV. Nos. for Au- wells were exhausted. Such an instance gust and October, 1820 ;) they are

has never before occurred during the here re-published as an introduction

memory of the oldest inhabitants. The

e same person (who I know would not to two others of considerable length,

engin, willingly give a false account) has stated, and of a more recent date from Mr. that so short was the water, that we were Richard Flower. To these are added obliged to send our cattle into Iudiana. a Letter from Mr. Birkbeck. And That our herds were in Indiana is very Mr. B. Flower has put a Preface and true, but that they were sent there on Notes to the publication, with a view account of want of water, is equally chiefly to refute the unwarrantable untrue. We have in Indiana, about and cruel charges of Mr. Cobbett. twelve miles distant, some high ground

The Illinois settlement has attracted in the midst of low land, subject to be considerable notice in England, and

ad overflowed ; on this low ground grows various reports of it have been pub the most luxuriant cane, springing to an lished by travellers, from ocular in

extraordinary height; the tender shoots spection or from rumours picked up

of which, affording excellent food for S picked up cattle, we send them in the winter sea

cattle in the vicinity. Some of these repre- son, with the exception of milch cows sentations give rather a gloomy picture and working oxen, to fatten. Our cusof this agricultural retreat; but Mr. tom is somewhat similar to that of the Richard Flower shews that they are farmers of the upland districts in Engencrally untrue and sometimes con- gland, who send their stock into the fens tradictory; and in naming this gentle of Lincolnshire, to fatten on coleseed man we feel ourselves intitled to say, and superabundant grass. So we dispose that the most unqualified confidence

of our herds when the winter draws to may be placed in all his statements

a close. To this may be added, that the and descriptions. Speaking of English

cane in the low river bottoms, growing visitors, he says,

naturally, is the most luxuriant pasturage

for summer feeding: and as we only pay “ One of these travellers visited us the expense of the herdsman, the food when the snows were melting, and the either there or in the cane costing norains descending; he reports us to be thing, and the herdsman living there, dwelling upon the swamps of the Wa. we leave our herds; so it was true that bash ; and our lands to be so wet that they were in the cane, but were not sent they are unfit for either cattle or sheep there on account of the want of water, to thrive on; and on that account un- When this person reported that there was suitable for the purposes of an English shortness of water amongst us, he should farmer.

have added, that fine wells were no rarity ..." Another passed through our country in the vicinity of Albion ; that he drank in an unparalleled drought ; and reported as fine water from our well as he ever us to be in a sad situation for want of tasted in his life ; and that from the water. There was some degree of truth grounds of Richard and George Flower, in this, but a very partial degree, owing Albion, and even a part of Wanborough to his not stating the circumstances of were supplied. the case. Our town is situated very high, “It will, therefore, appear that this and till we had experienced some drought person, as well as many others, told the truth, but very partially, and not the We have public worship, and ample supwhole truth, and on that account are not plies of sermons from pious, practical to be depended on. At the very time he preachers, from the Catholic to the Sociwas visiting us, a person from Kentucky nian Creed, which are read on the Sabassured us that we were better off than bath. But, above all, we have the incorthey were at Kentucky and Ohio."-Pp. ruptible seed of the word of God which 32-35.

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liveth and abideth for ever; and it is with The moral portraits of the whole pleasure I can assure my readers, that American people, drawn by travellers,

there is an increasing congregation, and, are very inconsistent. We really fear

I trust, increasing religion amongst us.

But if it was otherwise, surely this should that there are some dark skades in the

be rather an argument for persons of character of our Transatlantic kins- religion

ns- religious zeal to join us, who have emimen. Boston, in New England, is gration in view ; to come over to Macelikely from various causes to present donia and help us, rather than shrink from the most favourable specimen of Ame- such a task. At least it is not apostolic rican manners and morals; but this or evangelic feeling that would draw a northern metropolis of the union would different conclusion. seem to prove that these young states . “When I was at Philadelphia, a lady have already attained the maturity of of the Society of Friends addressed me social depravity, if we may rely upon

most emphatically on the subject :the following statement in a recent

• Wilt thou, friend Flower, take thy number of the North American Re

family to that infidel and wicked settle

ment in the Minois ? Thou appearest to view, the first without dispute of the

be a Christian ; how wilt thou answer American Journals, published too in

to thy God for endangering the precious Boston itself:

souls of thy dear children?" "Madam,' “ In the town of Boston, which is answered I, my destiny appears to be in as well-governed and as sharply watch the Illinois settlement: and rather than ed as any city in the Union, it is sup- turn from thence on the account you posed there are tro thousand men and have mentioned, you have furnished me women who live by profligacy, fraud with a forcible argument to proceed. I and felony ; and that they obtain in trust I am, as you have supposed, a sincere one way or another, at least one dollar Christian, and as it is my special duty to per day each, making in the whole the go

go where reforination is so necessary, I

will endeavour to perform it, and hope enormous sum of 730,000 dollars per

e for the blessing of the Most High. It is annum.”

for us to use the means. We know who If such be the laxness of morals at it is to command success in our present Boston, we cannot expect any extra. state and future prospects.'”—Pp.42-44, ordinary purity in the back settlements where the restraints of law must be in a note on this passage, Mr. B. very lightly felt. Mr. Richard Flower Flower makes some just and important exhibits the true Christian temper, in remarks upon the absurdity of infidebeing more disposed to combat the lity and the improbability of its preimmoral habits of some of his neigh. vailing to any great extent, except bours than to deny or disguise thein. where “the alliance between Church

“ The reports of the wickedness and aud State" supplies it with arguments irreligion of our settlement, with a view and motives. He quotes in a sub-note to prevent individuals from joining us, Dr. Gaskin's description of the Church have been industriously spread far and of England, extracted into one of our near. That there is a diversity of cha- early Volumes, (II. 102,) in which “the racter in every part of the globe, will not governors of this society" are said to be denied ; that this diversity exists here

* form a kind of aristocracy respectis equally true; and that a portion of

i ing the community at large, but each its inhabitants is of an immoral cast, will be as readily admitted: that we have particular governor in his proper disnot left human nature with its infirmities Crict is a sort of monarchi, exercising and propensities behind us is equally a his function both towards the inferior fact ; and even if it should be admitted ministers and laity, according to the that, unlappily, a larger portion of the will of the supreme head of the church," dissipated, the idle and the dissolute are and to this curious text adds the folto be met with in new countries than is lowing no less curious commentary : usually to be found in old ones, yet we have the same antidote for these mis- • " How any man, with the New Testa: chiefs the light shining in a dark place. ment before him, could possibly call such VOL. XVII.

21

an aristocratical and monarchical church, quiry into the nature and amount of our one “ formed according to the will of the church revenues'? Would Christianity Supreme Head,' when he well knew that suffer if a Bishop of Winchester, or a it was diametrically opposite to the letter Bishop of Durham, had not £30,000 or and spirit of the most solemn, particular £40,000 a year! or if our over-grown and repeated directions of the great Head church revenues in England, and more of the Church on this subject- Call especially in that still more oppressed no man your master on earth ; one is your country, Ireland, where the bishoprics master, even Christ, and all ye are bre are in general richer, and many thousands thren, &c.'-I shall not stay to inquire; are wrung from a long-oppressed and but it nray amuse the reader just to ob- impoverished people, not unfrequently in serve how this clerical pluralist exercises places where little or no duty is par

his function torcards the laity,' and more formed, were inquired into? Let Britain especially as it relates to tithes-that look at the church reformation which has species of property which was first volun- taken place in France, and is now going tarily given by the people for various forward in Spain and Portugal, the abobenevolent purposes, but of which they lition of tithes, and the resumption of were afterwards robbed by the clergy, the useless and hurtful revenues of the who appropriated them to their own sole church, and blush at her bat and moleuse. How they are sometimes raised, like stupidity!"-Pp. 63, 64. even in the present enlightened age, 1 M B. Flower hits some hard blows lately discovered in a catalogue, at a sale

at Mr. Cobbett in the concluding note, of a pawnbroker's unredeemed pledges, where, amongst other pames and descrid which we observe that this practised tions of property, I read as follows: literary pugilist endeavours in a late

" Lots sold under a distress for tithes Register to evade by dexterous bydue to the Rev. Dr. Gaskin, Rector of play. the United Parishes of St. Benet, Gracechurch Street, of St. Leonard, Eastcheap sand of St. Mary, Newington]

Art. III.- A Help to Scriptural “ Then follow eight lots of writing

Worship, containing the Principal paper, silver table and tea spoons, &c. Services of the Church of England,

« The following sold under a distress in some things altered, according to for tithes due to the Rev. Mr. Parker, the Plan of Dr. Samuel Clarke : (son-in-law of Dr. Gaskin,) Rector of St. short Family Prayers : and a SelecEthelburga.'

tion of Psalms and Hymns : with “ Then follow fire lots of yellow and an Appendix, exhibiting various mottled soap!

Readings of the Text of the New “I cannot help expressing my surprise

Testument. 12mo. pp. 332. Exethat my countrymen will not, on this sub

ter, printed and sold by Hedgeland; ject, take a hiut from that great and liberal-minded statesman, the late Lord

sold also by Hunter, London. 48. Chatham, at the commencement of the

6d. 1821. American war, when our debt and taxes THE plan of this work is explained were not one-fifth of what they are at 1 in the Title. It is a reformed present. His Lordship, in a speech in Christian Common Prayer Book, and the House of Lords, turning to the Right also a manual of private and family Reverend Bench, exclaimed, - Let the

devotion. The anonymous compiler bishops beware of war; for, should the people be pressed for money, they know

seems to have wished to prepare pious where to look for it! It is a pity that offices for members of the Church of amidst so much nonsense with which England, dissenting from their own the nation is pestered at our agricultural church on the doctrine of the Trinity, meetings and in agricultural reports, and but carrying their dissent no farther so much injustice as is proposed for re- than simple Unitarianism implies. lieving the public, by Mr. Webb Hall on Hence this compilation differs from the one side, Mr. Cobbett and others on the Essex-Street liturgy chiefly in a the other, such as new corn laws, and closer adherence to the book of Combreaking public faith, &c., ruining thousands by the reduction of interest of the national debt, our real resources should

still more particularly, we would say not even be hinted at. Is there no

that it is adapted to such as embrace patriot to be found in either House of the Arian hypothesis, and, generally, the Legislature, following the excellent to such as are not scrupulous in the example of Mr. Humne respecting state use of commonly-received theological abuses, who will recommend, An in, language. The editor has preserved

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