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lute, is never enjoyed by one man sition to some conclusions like these, without the participation of a few Moses introduced the term Jehovah, who carry on his administration and and intimates, by the use of it, that form his court. It is in reference to though the heavens and the earth bethis circumstance, that in most tongues, gan to exist, their great Author was a king, though numerically one, is then what he had been from all eterdescribed as if he were many; and in nity. our own country, the use of the pro- In the third chapter, Moses takes nouns we and our, in the sense of self, up the history of Cain and his descenis an exclusive prerogative of royalty. dants, and it is observable, that he Analogy is sufficiently clear to warrant dropped altogether the title of Elohim, its application to the Almighty, in the designating God by that of Jehovah. relation of a Sovereign. Jehovah The omission must have been the effect himself, indeed, is absolutely one, un- of design, because it is uniform from compounded in nature, indivisible into beginning to end, and the meaning of parts or persons ; but he is neverthe- Elohim as Sovereign or Governor, unless considered as 'surrounded with folds the intention of the historian. those spiritual beings called angels, Cain, by his wicked conduct, became who constitute his celestial court, and an alien from God, and Moses, by execute his will through boundless suppressing the term Elohim, intispace. The term Elohim, therefore, mates that God was no longer related is not improperly used to mean God; to Cain as Lawgiver and King. When but we should remember, that Moses again he resumes the narrative of uses it not to express his essence Adam, he resumes also the title of as an infinite being, but his sove- Elohim, shewing by this means that reignty, as the creator and governor of God and Adam sustained towards each the universe ; the term, therefore, other the relation of a monarch and which comes nearest to the original is his subject. Almighty."

These observations will throw some The term Elohim only is used in light upon various parts of the Jewish the first chapter, and if the above Scriptures, and among the number statement be just, the propriety of it upon the following: “And God spake consists in holding forth the Almighty, unto Moses, and said unto him, 'I am not only as the Creator, but as Sove- Jehovah, and I revealed myself unto reign of the world, presiding over it Abraham and unto Isaac and unto by his providence, and giving effect to Jacob as an Almighty Sovereign; but its stated laws by his power and au- my name, Jehovah, I did not make thority. When, in the next chapter, known to them."”Exod. iv. 3. The the heavens and the earth are said to patriarchs might well know Jehovah be finished, the historian calls God to be a title of God, and, indeed, must Jehovah Elohim. Now, Jehovah have known it, because they knew means a being that is self-existent, him to be an eternal, unchangeable eternal and immutable; a being that Being, and because he was so desigwill be to-morrow what he is to-day, nated in regard to Cain. The meaning and what he was yesterday. A reader of this passage then must be, that God of the Mosaic history, arguing from did not reveal, did not designate, himeffects to their causes, might suppose, self as their God under that denomithat the Creator then only began to nation. To them he revealed himself exist when he began to create, or, at as a sovereign, whose laws they obeyed, least, that some change took place in whose protection they enjoyed, and to his being and character, corresponding whose promise they looked forward to the change produced in the new with hope and joy. If we generalize order of things. When the world was the words, they imply, that the Aldestroyed by the deluge, the early mighty holds the relation of a moral Pagan philosophers seemed to have Governor only towards those who keep thought that the God who presided his commandments, while to the sinover it was himself involved in the ners who break his laws he is but universal ruin ; and this is the origin Jehovah : in other words, that he is of the fable, that Saturn was sup. related to such men merely as the planted by his son Jupiter in the go- Author of their being, the cause of yernment of the universe. In oppo- their existence; the very relation, and




that only which he bears to inert mat- the above remarks as a manifest reter; that as such he will suffer them, duetio-ad-absurdum of the Protestant as he did Cain and his posterity, to principle, with which, in its bearing end in destruction and mingle for ever upon the Unitarian, his evangelical with the mass of inanimate nature. opponents will readily acquiesce, yet,

BEN DAVID. upon the whole, the picture is not (To be continued.)

drawn with an unfriendly hand, nor

much caricatured : and it is a curious Manchester, circumstance, with which many of SIR, December 31, 1821. your readers may be unacquainted,

CONTROVERSY is now car- that not only in the Church of EnCatholics and orthodox Protestants, Roman Church, there are many diswhich was begun by the Catholic guised Unitarians. From a French Priest of one of our Catholic chapels, geographical work of merit, 1 extract in (as appears to me) a weak and the following passage: impolitic attack upon the Bible So- “The principal Christian sects are: ciety. My view in this communica- The Unitarians, Sociniuns, or Antition is not to give an account of the trinitarians, whose opinions are procombat or the combatants, but to di- tected in Transylvania and in Russian rect the notice of your readers to the Poland : a very great number of Cafollowing passage, extracted from the tholics, of Lutherans and Calvinists, priest's second piece in the contro- are secretly attached to this system." versy, concerning Unitarianism. Malte-Brun, Geography, I. 579.

“For my own part, I have ever The number of adherents affords no considered Unitarians, if not the best, presumption in favour of a system. at least the most consistent Protes- Motives of interest will always sway tants ; and iny reason for considering a fearful proportion of mankind. The them so, is, because they adhere more great mass of the unlettered and ignoclosely than those of any other deno. rant are deluded by the arts of zealots mination to the principle of private and enthusiasts-many of them, no judgment. Rejecting the authority of doubt, hypocrites. And, perhaps, a catechisins and creeds, the Unitarian still greater proportion of men are takes the sacred volume into his hands, indifferent to all systems, and readily and, before he opens it, thus argues embrace, as far as they can be said to with himself: This book is given to embrace, that which is nearest at hand. me by the Almighty; from it, by the Numbers, therefore, are no criterion means of my own judgment and un- of truth. Yet, if there be an instance derstanding, I am to gather the truths in which a sect has risen and spread of salvation. Now I know and feel, on all sides, without much activity in that, unlike the animals of the brute its partisans, without much party creation, I possess within myself a ra- spirit, with scarcely any union and tional soul, which is the very principle co-operation among its adherents, the of judgment and understanding, and, members of which cannot possibly be consequently, I must practise nothing, actuated by interested motives, and I must believe nothing, that is not its chief promoters have been men completely conformable to the reason generally of a studious, retired and which my Creator has given me. He unobstrusive character, there exists, I then opens the sacred pages, and, read- imagine, a strong presumption in its ing them with the full persuasion that favour. Unitarianism has the advanthey contain nothing above the stand- tage of such a powerful presumption. ard of his reason, if he meet with any

CRITO. thing that wears the appearance of a mystery, he very justly reduces it to

Clapton, that standard, by adapting it to a sense Sir,

January 1, 1822. that is not at variance with his under- REQUEST your acceptance of the standing and his judgment. Such is following remarks which occurred the mode of reasoning which the Uni- to me on reading the last portion of tarian adopts; and such ought to be Mr. Fox's MSS. that of every consistent Protestant." Vol. XVI. p. 697, col. 2. Mr.

Though the Catholic Priest intends Chandler “just on the brink of matrimony.” Neither of his biographers, the Old Jewry, he appears to have whom I formerly mentioned, has re- resigned his trade; for, the “ Vindicaconied the family name of Chandler's tion of Daniel,” published with his wife. Three daughters by this mar- name, in 1728, is " printed for John riage survived their father. One be- Gray, at the Cross Keys in the Poulcaine the wife of Dr. Harwood, and try," probably his immediate succesanother died a few years since, laving, sor. with equal justice and gratitude, been P. 697, col. 2. “Dear King George supported in old age and under strait--that good and great man. He looked circumstances by an annuity specially well and smiled upon his people;" on voted, on the recommendation of the whom he could scarcely have been so venerable Dr. Rees, at the Annual ungrateful as to have frowned. On Meetings of the Society for the relief the same day, July 7, this “good and of Dissenting Ministers' Widows, great man," just before he smiled which had owed its origin, in 1748, upon his people,” had signed the almost entirely to Dr. Chandler, whose dead warrant against twenty-five of daughter thus happily proved how the Preston prisoners in Newgate."

Yet sedition was not then so severely “ The father's virtues shall befriend punished as we have seen, more rehis child.”

cently, in the annals of “ the illustriDr. Towers relates (B. Brit. III. ous House;" for a person “ convicted 430) that Dr. Chandler “ by the fatal of drinking the Pretender's health, and South-Sea scheme, in 1720, lost the calling King George a Turnip-houghwhole fortune which he had received er,” was only “sentenced to pay a fine with his wife.--His income as a mi- of forty marks, to be imprisoned for nister being inadequate to his ex- a year, and find sureties for his behapenses, he engaged in the trade of a viour for three years.” (Salmon's bookseller, still continuing to discharge Chron. Hist. II. 66.) the duties of the pastoral office.” I It is said, I think, by Young, that have now before me “ The True he“ knew a man who lived upon a Grounds and Reasons of the Christian smile, and well it fed him." "This Religion in opposition to the False “ dear King George" appears to have Ones set forth in a late Book, entitled now left his people to exist on the The Grounds and Reasons, &c. Lon- grateful recollection of a royal smile, don, printed for S. Chandler, at the without the personal presence of a Cross Keys in the Poultry, 1725.” King, during the next six months, The publication was anonymous, but while he was astonishing his Germans probably acknowledged by Chandler with the splendours of a British mowhen he presented a copy to Arch- narch, in all the gloss of novelty ; for bishop Wake. That Prelate, in a let- as we read (ibid. 69), it was not till ter from Lambeth Ilouse, Feb. 14, “ January 18” following, that “ King

I cannot but own my. George arrived at Margate from Holself to be surprised, to see so much land;" the Parliament having been, good learning and just reasoning in a in the mean time, prorogued five times, person of your profession; and do seemingly to accommodate the royal think it a pity you should not rather pleasure. spend your time in writing books than P. 693. You have said all which in selling them.” (Ibid. 431.) The an editor could say to counteract an Archbishop was probably further sur- unavoidable impression to the prejuprised to find, at the end of the pam- dice of the letter-writer. The letter, phlet, among "books printed for, and indeed, singly considered, by no means sold by S. Chandler-Cassiodorii Se- involves his integrity, for it ought to natoris Complexiones-Editio altera. be conceded that a truly ingenuous Opera et cura Samuelis Chandleri.” It inquirer after truth might tind himself, was, however, while a bookseller, that during his progress, in the painful Chandler preached those Lectures, situation which Chandler has describfirst in concert with Lardner, and ed. Nor can it be fairly disputed, that afterwards alone, the substance of between September 13, the date of which formed the principal parts of his this letter, and December 19, the day pieces against the Deistical Writers. of his ordination according to Secker, About 1726, on becoming minister at (XVI. 572,) Chandler's religious in

1725," says,

quiries might have issued in reasona- which, he was understood to have ble satisfaction. But how one who, effected the Union. Mr. Addington, as it appears, (XVI. 570 compared since too well-known as Lordsid with 572,) had for some time accepted mouth, now feebly occupied the vathe office of a Christian minister, could cant seat of the premier, and could continue the regular exercise of that scarcely have entertained a hope of office while, respecting both the Jewish succeeding, where his more able patron and Chr an Revelations, and even had utterly failed. Nor, indeed, in what is called Natural Religion, he the political history of 1801, does had become a sceptic, on the utmost there appear to be the least hint of verge towards unbelief, or, as he ex- any movement towards Catholic Emanpresses himself, “in a perfect wan- cipation. dering and maze," scarcely knowing

J. T. RUTT. “what to believe or disbelieve,” is, I contess, to me, inexplicable. I wish any of your correspondents could do

Mountfield-House, more than I am able to effect, towards


March 12, 1801. rescuing the memory of such a man Your letter is so condescending, as Chandler, from the imputation kind and friendly, that I cannot refrain which this letter, connected with from expressing to you my sincere Secker's letters to Mr Fox, to which thanks. If I lived in Dorchester I I have referred, and Chandler's re- should request the favour of you to corded occupations at Peckham, ap- permit me to visit you at least two or pears to fix on him. I am, indeed, ready three times a week, and this I should to wonder that his friend and corres- esteem a greater honour, though withpondent, on a final arrangement of in the walls of a prison, than an invithese papers, had not committed this tation to court. I congratulate you letter to the protection of that purify- on the near approach of your release ing element which Sir Henry Wotton from confinement: I wish it could not unaptly entitles optimus secreta- with propriety be said, restoration to riorum.

perfect liberty. But if the same sysI hasten to a more agreeable sub- tem be pursued, on which our rulers ject, by sending you a letter, which I have acted for some years past, English know you will readily preserve. I liberty, prosperity and happiness are found it only a few days since, on exa- vox et præterea nihil. In the present mining some papers connected with melancholy state of the nation, howthe publication of Mr. Wakefield's 'ever, and under the apprehension of Memoirs, in 1804, or it would have greater calamities than we have yet been offered to the last volume, to experienced, it is consoling to look follow your notices of the excellent with the eye of Christian faith, to writer. The "two Sermons” which that gracious Providence, which is conaccompanied the Letter, Mr. Howe tinually bringing light out of darkness, entitled “ The Millenium.” (See order out of apparent confusion, and XV. 722.) My friend, whom he de- good out of evil. Inspired prophecy scribes as “of Billericay,” and with teaches us to hope for a better state whose arduous trial of Christian con- of things for mankind even in this sistency, in that situation, I became, world, and though it be the lot of the from local circumstances, intimately present generation to share in the acquainted, will, I trust, cxcuse me evils which are introductory to it, bethat I have gratified myself by not nevolence rejoices in the prospect of withholding his name.

the happiness which awaits future geTo the information contained in a nerations. I sometimes direct the “Letter from London,” and which views of my people to the age of Dr. Toulmin communicated, no doubt truth, peace, liberty and righteousmost correctly, to Mr. Howe, it is not ness, as a motive for animation to very easy to give credence. January duty, and support under any afflictive 11, 1801, Mr. Pitt resigned his ap- scenes to which Christian integrity pointments, chiefly because the inve- may expose us. This I did on the 5th terate prejudices of the crown inter- of November and the beginning of fered with his project of Catholic this year. The candour of my kind Emancipation, by the assurance of and affectionate friends dietated the request, which has produced the pub- well. Mr. Fawcett joins in kind relication of these two sermons. The sub- membrance to you and them, with jects of them are certainly important

Dear Sir, and interesting, and I have only to re- Yours most

respectfully, gret my not having done more justice

THOS. HOWE. to them.

The Rev. G. Wakefield. You know the character of Mr. Fry of Billericay, and the noble sacrifice SIR,

of T.

WHERE has just fallen into my tian truth. He made us a visit in hands, “The Book of Common October last, and preached at Brid- Prayer, &c., by the Hon. Sir John port two or three times with great Bayley, Knight, one of the Judges of acceptance. Some of my friends re- his Majesty's Court of King's Bench,” quested him to publish the sermon a handsome 8vo. volume, printed in which I have inclosed, a parcel of the year 1816; and I have been much which I did not receive till yesterday. pleased at the piety which the learned You will perceive that he understands Judge displays, but astonished at the the subject of religious liberty; and I ultra-orthodox doctrines which he lays wish every one who may be disposed down, as if from the Bench. His to censure him for the change of his comment upon the first verse of the sentiments from Calvinism to Unita. Book of Genesis, is as follows, p. 483: rianism, and his open avowal of this “The word here and in other parts change, would read this discourse with of this chapter translated . God is a attention. He would have done him- plural noun and yet is followed by a self the pleasure of paying his per. verb singular; so that Moses probasonal respects to you, had he returned bly understood, that under the term through Dorchester.

• God, more than one Existence or It seems as if there was a scheme Being was included, and yet that those in agitation among our great men, to Existences or Beings were so united, emancipate the Catholics, without that they might properly be considered granting any relief to the Protestant as only One. God is a Spirit, John Dissenters. This I conclude from a iv. 24, without flesh, or blood, or letter I received last week from our body, or any thing tangible (see Ist good friend Dr. Toulmin. The fol- of 39 articles), of infinite wisdom and lowing is an extract:

goodness, always knowing what is best A letter from London this week and always willing what is best. And informs me, that endeavours are using as men only disagree when, from the by those in power, to prevail with imperfection of their nature, they are British Dissenters to let the Catholic not wise enough to know what is best, emancipation take place, without put- or not good enough to will it; so, ting in their claims to equal freedom from the perfection of the Divine nafrom the disabilities they are under, ture, the Beings or Existences which by the Corporation and Test Acts. partake of it, from always knowing Some classes who have been applied what is best and always willing it, to, are said to have promised to be as must necessarily in all instances be quiet as government wishes them to unanimous, or of one mind. Though be.”

each is capable of thinking for himself, Who these tame Dissenters are, judging for himself, and acting for the Rer. Mr. Marten I suppose, and himself, yet each must, from the conthe other receivers and distributers of summate perfection of their natures, the regium donum money, could in- come to the same conclusion with the form us.

Surely they can be none others; and upon every point on which who have any thing of the spirit of there can be deliberation or judgment, the Old Noncons. What shall we live they must inevitably be one in mind. to see in this age of wonders !

The doctrine, then, of our church, I beg your pardon for intruding so that the Father is God, the Son God, much on your time. I intended to and the Holy Ghost God, and yet that have written but a few lines when I they are not three Gods but one God,' begun, but have been carried on insen- may easily be understood. Each is a sibly from one thing to another. Mrs. distinct Existence or Being; cach caWakefield and the family are I hope pable of thinking, judging and acting

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