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declare if there be any ambiguity in his which, admitting all denominations of expressions : “ How much I have been the poor to the above advantages, adds made an instance must needs be too no. that of greater promptitude and a torious to any that holds the least intelli

more lively attention, (perhaps from gence with common fame, that scarce the emulation induced by numbers ever book took more pains to make the

learning together, than can be well proverb good by proving himself a liar, than in my concern, who have been most

attained among a smaller number, egregiously slandered, reviled and de- even where the same plan is adopted,) famed, by pulpit, press and talk, terming as is generally observed by those who me a blasphemer, Socinian, denying the compare the National with the Con. divinity of Christ, the Saviour, and what grégational Schools. not, and all this about my late answer to l f, then, the Congregational Schools a disputation with some Presbyterians, have no further object than the simply but how unjustly, it is the business of instructing children in reading, writ. this short Apology to shew."

ing, arithmetic and needle-work, it Now I think it must be allowed that the publication of the “Sandy Founda

becomes a question why the societies tion Shaken,” by Unitarians, without

incur the expense of these establishtaking the least notice of William Peon's

ments, when there are others at least vindication, or of his open and unequivo- equally emcacious

equally efficacious of comparatively no cal avowal of a doctrine totally opposite, expense. or of his declaration of the injustice in Female education having most occuterming him a Socinian, and a denier of pied my attention, I shall confine my the divinity of Christ, is at once disinge- observations particularly to the degree nuous and unjust, and a departure from of instruction which girls now receive that principle which teaches us “ to do in these schools. I learn that the obas we would be done by."

ject in view is to inake good houseWe are averse to discussions of this

servants of thein. On visiting their nature, from a belief that they do not

school-rooms, with this impression, I generally promote vital religion ; yet in en

find that sitting at needle-work occupies tering into this subject, we trust we have not been influenced by any unchristian dis

most of their time, and that in knowposition, but with unfeigned good-will to

ledge they attain as much as just enawards thyself; and most sincerely do we bles them to read mechanically a wish that in this important point, as in chapter in the Bible, and some of every other, thou niayest be guided by them add to this a little of writing and the spirit of truth into all truth.

arithmetic. The girls also scour and clean their school-room, &c., and thus

acquire a little more activity than they On Congregational Schools, and Considerations to what extent the Minds sufficient to compensate for the seden

otherwise would ; yet, perhaps, not of the Labouring Classes may be tary mode in which they spend the rest advantageously cultivated.

of their time during the most imporSir, March 27, 1822. tant period of their lives, as relates to W H EN a religious society united health and habitual activity. The

Y formerly in a contribution for funds are frequently insufficient to educating that class of their coupmu- maintain the establishment without nity who might otherwise have re- considerable aid from the work done mained wholly untaught, the distinct in it, and in consequence it is often and specific objects were unquestion- observable that more vigilance is exably to instruct the boys in reading erted in getting work completed to be and writing, with a slight knowledge sent home, after being entrusted only of numbers, and the education of the to a few who are qualified for the girls was confined to needle-work and nicety it may require, than care in reading; and when their funds ena- instructing those who require immebled them to do so, the benefit to the diate superintendence. By degrees, children was increased by gifts of perhaps, a good knowledge of shirtclothing, and occasionally a dinner making is attained ; and at fourteen, a was provided for them.

girl whose last six or seven years have The same necessity for these schools been devoted to the purpose, quits the cannot now be deemed so immediate school able to execute plain work as they were before the general esta- promptly and neatly, but without havblishment of the national schools, ing been taught, what would most likely VOL. XVII.

2 x

be particularly required of her, a neat societies, their time could be suffimode of repairing linen and making ciently occupied to call out and keep her own clothes. She may be able to in exercise these qualities. It must, read her Bible; but unless she has donbtless, be according to the circummet with instruction from some other stances under which their still earlier source than her school, she will seldom education began; for if this earlier do so, because her mind has been so period was passed in the listlessness little cultivated ; and she may possibly of neglected helplessness, (owing to have the comfort of being able to the necessary avocations of the pacommunicate with her friends, by hav- rent,) or under the injudicious coning been taught to write. But in what troul of those who rather needed gnirespect does she possess any advantage dance than possessed the means of which the girls from the National guiding, the faculties of the mind Schools do not equally possess? And if would be necessarily much slower in not any, why should the societies con- their developement than under more tribute so much, and perhaps, also, favourable circumstances, especially as have given their wine and attention to the temper would also require more their little establishment ?

regulation to prevent its impeding the If it is replied, that these schools progress of the inind. But why conwere founded before the National sider what pursuits would best befit Schools were thought of, and that, them, when the difficulty is solved by having subsisted so long, it would be the motives given for keeping up these a matter of regret to relinquish the establishments? The children are old custom; or if it is considered thought to rank somewhat higher in that the class of children who go to life than those of the other schools. them rank rather higher in society If so, give them, then, inore knowthan those who attend the larger esta- ledge; let them have more to raise blishments, and are therefore conve- them above mere objects of sense ; niently separated; or if it be observed and if you wish to retain them herethat the care of these schools link in after in your congregations, if you the most agreeable way the members wish them to have with yourselves the of the society together, giving to the same hopes, the same religious views, rich a common interest, and making teach them the reason of the faith rich and poor feel as one family when that is in them; and if you would have they assemble for public worship; or them join with you in your worship that they are desirous of keeping in here, that they may partake of blesstheir society those whom they can ings hereafter, then teach them, also, influence and guide to the adoption of every moral and religious duty, insuch views as these individual societies quire respecting them at their homes, believe to be the truth ; then every teach thein the law of kindness among motive which induces us to keep up each other, and everywhere lead these establishments, (except the sim- them to subipit their wills to the will ple one of continuing them because of their heavenly Father. Let the they are of long standing,) might sti- concern be to cultivate every social mulate us to a desire of greater moral and religious duty in sincerity: and good and usefulness in the mode of then, whether they have attained much conducting them.

knowledge, or little knowledge, so as It seems that the qualities and pow- they have in the cultivation of their ers of mind most desirable for the minds acquired habits of industrywell-being of the labouring classes, every apparent object in the Congreincluding house-servants, are those of gational Schools will be obtained, and a quick perception, present attention, it appears there will be reason to hope with ready menjory and discrimination. such education will help to fit them For the cultivation of these powers of for the purposes of life to which it the mind, it appears desirable that may please the great Father of all to their time should be so fully occupied destine'thein. as not to adınit of passive insensibility, nor of trifling and careless habits.

It is next to be considered how, during the six or seven years which they spend under the care of these

Belief of the Patriarchs and Israelites and emphatic: “If thou seest oppresin a Future State.

sion and violent perversion of judg(Continued from p. 144.)

ment, marvel not; for He that is

higher than the highest regardeth it, THETHER the history of Job and there he higher than they. Re

be a real or a fictitious one, the joice, O young man, in thy youth, &c., inoral philosophy to be derived from but forget not that for all these things” it is the same : some parts are evi- (if misapplied and abused) “ God will dently figurative or dramatic. We bring thee into judgment.” And he may have heard in Christian pulpits sums up the whole in these remarkaportions introduced from this book, ble words: “For God will bring every as indicative of the writer or the hero's work into judgment, with every secret disbelief of a future state. “There is thing, whether it be good or whether hope of a tree-but man goeth down it be evil.” to the grave, and where is he?” But But, in this view of the Old Testathis is "wresting the Scriptures,” and went writers, David appears with a not explaining them ; it is quoting peculiar lustre. Thus, in a serene and imperfectly, or by halves, without re- silent midnight sky, though every star gard to the connexion; and, there- shines with a distinct flame, yet some fore, such arguments are built only on emit a more vivid brightness, and irrethe sand. “Man,” says Job,“ lieth sistibly attract the cye of the beholder: down and riseth not again, till the hence the pious hyinns of the royal poet heavens be no inore;till then “ they will remain among the chief standards shall not awake nor be raised out of of a rational and sublime devotion to their sleep. If a man die, shall he live the end of time. “To the poet,” says a again?” No, certainly, not in this inodern lecturer,* _"To the poet ever world; but what follows? “ All the remain the lovely forms of animate and days of my appointed time will I wait, inanimate nature; all that is interesting till my change come !" But there are to humanity, to sympathy, to imaginaother passages still more explicit, tion. While there is a star in heaven, without alluding to that controverted it shall speak to the poet's eye of text, “I know that my Redeemer another and a better world. In poetry liveth.” Job had, upon the whole, is to be found a reservoir of the holier comfortable views of the Divine pro- feelings of our nature. It is as a robe vidence and government, which con- of light, spread over the face of things, vinced him that “the righteous should and investing them with super-huinan hold on his way, and he that had clean splendour. There is in poetry a sort hands should wax stronger and strong. of intrinsic rerelation, leading man to er ;” and induced him to cry out, in consider this existence as the wreck of the midst of his sufferings, “Though other systems, or the germ of a future he slay me, yet will I trust in hin !” being !" But the Psalmist of Israel This text alone is in itself “ an host.” was a prophet as well as a poet and a

Solomon, though not a prophet, philosopher; hence he became cmiwas endowed with extraordinary na. nently qualified for the most profound tural powers; and, in his bright and researches into the history of Provi. golden days, was furnished with the dence, the works and ways of the most copious stores of religious wis- Almighty; for magnifying his name dom. In his beautiful personification and celebrating his praises; and in of this divine quality, Prov. viji. &c., this delightful work, when loosed from he says, “Whoso findeth me, findeth the bondage of iniquity, and rejoicing life.” In ch. xxiii., denouncing those in a sense of the Divine favour and that “ remove the ancient land-marks, acceptance, he pours out his soal beand enter the fields of the fatherless," fore him in the most ecstatic transhe observes, “ Their Redeemer is ports, and calls upon universal nature mighty, he shall plead their cause with to unite with him in the great design. thee :') and in ch. xiv. 32, “The But the powers of language are exrighteous hath hope in his death!" hausted before him in the prosecution In the book of Ecclesiastes, generally supposed to have been written by him, and of which it bears the strongest Mr. Campbell, at the Royal Instituinternal testimony, he is more precise tion.


of the mighty theme! Yet what he tive church, and their successors, becan do he will endeavour to perform ; lieved in and expected a future state ; he will transfer, in immortal strains, and if the comparative silence on this from the table of his heart, to suc- important subject in the Jewish Scripceeding generations, the praises of the tures be objected, it may be replied, Most High ; and call upon “all flesh (besides observing, by the way, that to bless his holy name for ever and we are to find our religion, and not to

make it,) that we are not to reject Mr. Addison observes, that the pas- any doctrine or opinion, reasonable in sages in Psalm xvi., relating to the itself, and honourable to the Supreme Messiah, “had a present and personal Being, on account of a comparative, sense, as well as a future and pro- or even an absolute silence in the saphetic one:" for though David him- cred writings. We know little from self “ fell on sleep and saw corrup- the Bible of the state, the numbers tion," yet he could not consider this and the orders of angels; yet who can event as final and irreversible, for he doubt of their existence, and of their immediately adds, “ Thou wilt shew important services in the creation ? me the path of life: in thy presence is A scale of beings above us, supposing fulness of joy; at thy right hand there the use of our faculties, being almost are pleasures for evermore," therefore an intuitive proposition; as a scale “his flesh did rest in hope.” And if below us is a matter of fact and exall this should be referred to the Mes- perience. We know nothing, from siah alone, it would be strange, in- this source, of the plurality of worlds; deed, if the Psalmist, who had such but every Tyro in modern philosophy clear views of the Messiah's being can almost demonstrate the fact. And raised to an immortal life, should ne- who will say, it is not as reasonable vertheless conclude, that this great that there should be a future state, as future Prophet and Restorer, “the that there should be superior orders hope and consolation of Israel," so of intelligent beings, or a plurality of long waited for, should himself prove worlds in the regions of immeasurable only a single and solitary instance of space? Doubtless, there were scepthe Divine power and goodness in this tics in the primitive churches, as well respect.; and all the people of God as in our Saviour's time, “who said besides, from the beginning to the there was no resurrection, neither anend of time, should lie down for ever gel nor spirit;" and who, with the in the land of silence and forgetful rebellious Israelites, in the days of ness! The ideas are so absurd and the prophet Malachi, said, “ It is in incongruous, that they will not bear a vain to serve God; and what profit moment's discussion; especially when is it that we have kept his ordinance, in other psalms he is as precise and and walked mournfully before him?" determinate on this point as words But, in such evil times, “They that can well admit of.Depart from feared the Lord spake often one to evil and do good, and dwell for ever- another, and the Lord hearkened and more.-Whoin have I in heaven but heard, and a book of remembrance thee? And there is none upon earth I was written before him, for them that can desire besides thee! My flesh and feared the Lord, and that thought my heart shall fail, but thou art the upon his name; and they shall be strength of my heart and my portion mine, saith the Lord of hosts, in that for ever. Though I walk through the day when I make up my jewels, and I valley of the shadow of death, I will will spare them as a man spareth his fear no evil, for thou art with me; thy own son that serveth him. Then shall rod and thy staff they comfort me! ye discern between the righteous and Precious in the sight of the Lord is the wicked, between him that serveth the death of his saints I shall be God, and him that serveth him not.” satisfied, when I awake, with thy like. But the New Testament places this ness !"

subject in the most convincing point Thus it appears, as it should seem, of view, so that “he may run that that there are sufficient evidences in readeth.” Our Saviour, alluding to the Old Testament to prove, to the the prophecies concerning himself, resatisfaction of any reasonable inquirer, fers the unbelieving Jews to their own that the ancient fathers of the primi. Scriptures, in which also they pro

fessed to find“ eternal life," and he that God made the Old Testament does not deny the inference: on the saints fellow-heirs with the New-Tescontrary, concerning a resurrection, tament believers, and that it is sensehe observes to the Sadducees, that Mo less and wicked to set the two dispenses himself “shewed it at the bush, sations at variance. Jesus Christ, far in calling the Lord the God of Abra- superior to all human glory, was ham, of Isaac and of Jacob; for he is known and celebrated long before he not the God of the (finally) dead, but came into the world. His magnifiof the living, for all live to him." cence is of all ages. The foundations These passages need no comment: of his religion were laid with those of and in the eleventh chapter of the the world, and though not born till Epistle to the Hebrews, the writer, four thousand years from the creation, enumerating the triumphs of faith in yet his history begins with that of the the ancient world, represents the Old. world. He was first preached in PaTestament saints as looking through radise, the subject was continued down the present transitory scene, “ for a to Moses, and revealed still more frebetter country, that is, a heavenly;" quently and more clearly during the and he emphatically declares, that the reign of the law and the prophets. only faith which can please God is Behold, before his birth; the titles of that which leads not only to a belief his grandeur! Jesus, above all Jesus in his existence, but also in his cha- crucified, throws the brightest light racter and government, as “ a re- upon the Old Testament. Without warder of those that diligently seek him the law would be a sealed book ; him; and he insists that the primitive and Judaism a confused heap of prebelievers possessed this divine princi- cepts and ceremonies, piled up without ple; that they “all died in faith;' not, meaning. On the contrary, how beauindeed, having received the promises, tiful is the history of the people of but seeing them afar off, and were God, and all their worship, when the persuaded of them, and embraced cross is the key! It is one whole, the them, confessing themselves to be different parts of which relate to the strangers and pilgrims on the earth.” same end. It is a long allegory of

The notion which we have here en- Divine wisdom. It is an edifice which deavoured to disprove, hath called God himself hath founded and insenforth the animadversions of many emi. sibly raised, with a design of placing nent divines. Mr. Robinson, in his upon the top the cross of his Son!” Notes on Claude, (ed. 1779, p. 132,) Let us not, therefore, represent the says, “The present times have scarcely God of grace, “the God and Father produced a more absurd and dangerous of our Lord Jesus Christ," as in operror than that of Bishop Warburton; position to the God of nature, or to who affirms, that the doctrine of a “ the God of Abrahain, of Isaac and future state of rewards and punish- of Jacob;" for these “ are not three ments is not to be found in, nor did Gods, but one God,"--one in name, make a part of, the Mosaic dispensa- one in nature, one in person, one in tion.'After citing some of the texts power and glory! Who, though he above-named, and making a few re- varies his dispensations to his rational marks, not very creditable to the sin- offspring, according to their different cerity of the learned prelate, he gives situations and circumstances, talents some extracts from eminent foreign and capacities, which are ordered “afwriters, in favour of the contrary opi- ter the counsel of his own will;" is nion ; namely, “That the patriarchal himself “ without variableness or shareligion included the doctrine of a fu- dow of turning !” Who “ hateth ture state : that the Mosaic economy nothing which he hath made;" nor included the patriarchal religion: that expects “ to reap where he hath not the apostles preached in what was sown, or to gather where he hath not written in the law and the prophets,' strewed ;" with whom is " no respect and was believed by the bulk of the of persons,” but who “ judgeth" acJewish people (Acts. xxiv. 14, 15): cording to every man's work ;” and that the promise of the Messiah alone who, with regard to the leading and included all spiritual blessings, and essential principles of all true religion, that the Israelites understood it so: “ hath never left himself without wit

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