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forth their lots, and the lot fell upon was transferred, naturally cnough, Matthias, and he was numbered with into the New Testament. To speak the eleven apostles.”. The meaning of the name of a being, or of any class is, that he was added to them, and of beings, is not simply to use a form made the twelfth : nor can I doubt of of expression. On the principles of his having been duly elected to that sound criticism, it will appear, that office. What was the business of an there is no real difficulty, and still less apostle? What his essential qualifi- any mystery, in the term. They who cation? He was to proclaim and tes have doubts concerning its sense, either tify that Jesus, who died, had risen separately or in combination, may be from the grave: and he was to do this referred to Glassii Philolog. Sacr. p. on kis personal knowledge of the fact, 100, ed. Dath., to Hammond on 1 Cor. on his individual acquaintance with the i. 2, and to Schleusner, in verb.* identity of his Master. “Of these I Cor. xv. 24, “ when he shall men,” says Peter, (21, 22,)“who have delivered up the kingdom,” &c. have companied with us all the time Alexander + explains the clause in the that the Lord Jesus went in and out following manner : “then cometh the among us, beginning from the bap- end, when Christ shall deliver the tism of John unto that same day that kingdom, which hath so long been he was taken up from us, must one possessed by others, to God, even the be ordained to be a witness with us of Father.” To me, I own, there seems his resurrection.” The event proved an incongruity in supposing that the that Matthias was rightly constituted phrase the kingdom, which clsewhere an apostle. It is true, he was not in the New Testament means the kingliterally appointed one by our Savi- dom of Christ, has here another and our : but neither can it be shewn, that unusual signification, and that the such an appointment was indispensa- word kingdom in ver. 24, and the ble. Not more valid is the objection, word reign in the 25th, refer to two that we hear nothing afterwards of distinct and even opposite empires. Matthias ; since the same assertion The whole passage is evidently a demay be made concerning most of the scription of the mediatorial power of apostles.
the Saviour. In the number of the twelve, Paul, Heb. ii. 16, “ he taketh not assuredly, was not comprehended. He hold of [helpeth not] angels,” &c. himself " distinguishes between their See the marginal reading in the Eng. situation and his own, 1 Cor. xv. 5, Bib. I consider this passage as a de7, 8, where it is evident, that by the cisive proof that the inission of Jesus twelve we are to understand the col. Christ, and all the benefits ensuing lected body of the apostles ; though, from it, are limited to the human at the time referred to, a vacancy race, to the rational inhabitants of existed by the death of Judas of this part of God's creation. With Kerioth.*
what propriety then has Dr. Paley I Acts iii. 16," — his name, through said, “Great and inestimably benefaith in his name, hath made this man ficial effects may accrue from the misstrong." No judicious and candid sion of Christ, and especially from reader will suppose that any thing his death, which do not belong to like a charm is here intended. We are Christianity as a revelation” ? not to take the word name literally.
N. In the phraseology of the Scriptures, the name is sometimes equivalent to the person: sometimes, as in this
* The divisions, however, in that vaverse, it denotes authority. From the luable Lexicon are ton numerous atid Old (for it is a perfect Hebraism) it refined: the explanation of ovopa, No. 6,
falls properly under the preceding num
ber. For the nature of Paul's appoint
+ Paraphrase, &c., in loc. ment to the apostleship, sec Gal. i. 1,
Evidences of Christianity, &c. P. ii. Rom. i. 1,5; and a curious note in Mo- Ch. ii., Hotc. sheim de Rebus Christianis ante Constant., Sæcul. 1. $ 6.
Birmingham, to others of your readers besides iny
May 2, 1822. self, I shall be obliged to any of your N consequence of the friendly and correspondents who will produce what
gratifying suggestions of your cor- ever evidence he may think either farespondent Proselytus, (p. 151, Ivourable to the translation commonly have given directions to Mr. David given by Unitarians, or in any way Eaton, (187, High Holborn, London,) illustrative of the construction and for a new edition of the “ Sequel to meaning of the phrase, deriving his my " Vindication of Unitarianism.” remarks either from grammatical anaIt will therefore be ready for publica- logy, or from the actual use of this tion in a few months,‘at as low a and similar phrases in Greek authors. price as can be afforded without loss; I have seen no reason hitherto to and I shall be obliged if any Book retract the supposition, which many Societies, who wish to furnish them- have ridiculed, that this may, perhaps, selves with copies, will send notice be reckoned among “ the difficulties of their intention either to myself or left in revelation for the purpose of to Mr. Eaton.
inculcating humility and candour." I einbrace this opportunity of ad- To the observations of the British Reding a few lines in consequence of the viewer and Servetus upon this point, remarks which have lately appeared I beg to oppose the following remarks in your valuable work, upon my views of the able and learned Translators of the passages which, in the common of the Bible, in their Preface to the version of the New Testament, repre- Reader : sent Christians as “ calling upon the “ Though whatsoever things are name of Jesus Christ.”. Servetus, as necessary, are manifest,' as St. Chryquoted p. 106, thinks that the phrase sostom saith, and as St. Augustine, presents no difficulty whatever. Ne- ' In those things that are plainly set vertheless, it is not clear what his own down in the Scriptures, all such matview of the construction of it is : forters are found that concern faith, hope he gives no less than five different and charity ;' yet, for all that, it cantranslations; Ist.“ being called by not be dissembled, that partly to exthe name of the Lord" 2dly. "taking ercise and whet our wits, partly to his name upon them :" 3dly. " calling wean the curious from loathing of on his name :” 4thly. calling his them for their every where plainness, name upon them :" 5thly. being partly also to stir up our derotion to named by his name.” Before I can crave the assistance of God's spirit admit that any one of these is a cor- by prayer; and, lastly, that we might rect translation of the phrase, I must be forward to seek aid of our brethren see sufficient evidence of it. That by conference, and never scorn those the expression had the meaning now who be not in all respects so complete commonly attributed to it by Unita- as they should be, being to seek in rians, has been repeatedly asserted, many things ourselves, it hath pleasbut, as I think, never proved. Your cd God, in his divine providence, here author cites the authority of Wake- and there to scatter words and senfield. I ask, Where are Wakefield's tences of that difficulty and doubtfulPROOFS ? Wakefield evidently sup- ness, not in doctrinal points that conposed etiranoupas to be in the middle cer salvation, (for in such it hath voice; Hammond, who deduces from been vouched, that the Scriptures are it the same general sense, asserts that plain,) but in matters of less moment, it is in the passive. See his Note on that fearfulness would better beseem 1 Cor. i. 2. This, as it appears to us than confidence, and, if we will me, is a most material difference, but resolve, to resolve upon modesty." scarcely regarded by those who have
JÁMES YATES. written on the subject. The use of Etinaherapevos, in Acts xxii. 16, seems
Norfolk, to indicate, that in the disputed pas- Sir,
May 10, 1822. Upon this subject i beg leave still YOWR Chichester
who signs himself Non Con, to express my doubts ; and, as the (pp. 22-24,) desires to be informed, inquiry inay probably be interesting how Unitarians can acquit themselves of duplicity when, in disseminating He thinks it highly probable that the our common version of the Bible, they latter 'may have corrected some erropretend that they circulate the Scrip- neous passages, but he dislikes the tures "without note or comment.” strained and unnatural phraseology of “DUPLICITY” is a strong terin, Sir, some of its texts. They appear to and when I call to mind the condnct him to act as a “note and comment” of one with whose name, I will ven- upon the sacred penman, rather than ture to say, the charge of “dupli- to flow easily from the nature of the city” was never for an instant cou- subject. Encompassed with difficulpled; one who, excellent in many ties, he finds no better refuge than in ways, was perhaps most conspicuous the belief that the Scriptures, howin abhorrence of every thing like de- ever varied in the hands of different ceit ; (need I name the late venerated trauslators, are yet “profitable for Dr. Lindsay?) I cannot suppress a doctrine, for reproof, for correction, rising emotion of keen regret at the for instruction in righteousness," and rashness of the judgment which would therefore, in the assurance that all who affix the stigma of “duplicity" on will, inay be by them “made wise those who tread where he has trod, untó salvation," he embraces every and fearlessly avowing in all compa- opportunity for promoting their cirnies, and on every proper occasion, culation among his fellow-creatures ; the grounds of the difference between believing, that were he to wait till he themselves and their Trinitarian bre- had secured a translation in which thren, esteem it their duty to join there should not be an unsuspected them in the circulation of a version of chapter, verse or word, he might tarry the Scriptures, imperfect it is true, till the day were far spent indeed. and liable to many objections, but To advert for a moment to the let. fully competent, according to the con- ter of your former correspondent, fession of the most eminent among “A Berean :" it strikes me that both Unitarian writers, to lead the diligent himself and the writer of the letter in inquirer to the knowledge of the true your last Number, would do real serGod, and Jesus Christ whom he has vice to the cause of truth, if at public sent. Instead of “duplicity,” your meetings of the kind described, they correspondent will have no objection, I would take occasion to declare their trust, to read “ forgetfulness;" for if dissent from the opinions expressed a Unitarian has been betrayed into a on controverted points, and endeavour momentary assent to the notion that to impress on the minds of those with he is employed in circulating the whom they associate, the duty and Scriptures entirely without note or policy of keeping these subjects out comment, he will, I should think, be of sight on such occasions. "I am far glad to correct himself the first op- from surprised that Trinitarians who portunity, and let his orthodox friends certainly began upon this plan, have know that such is not his deliberate now learned free language. No obopinion. Having made this point jection, as far as I have heard, has clear, he will next be led to inquire, ever been made to it. Unitarians have whether he is therefore bound to silently withdrawn from these meetwithhold his support from the Bible ings; but have they ever taken occaSociety. And here, I should think, sion publicly to testify the reasons of a difficulty will occur. If our inquirer their dissent? These reasons may be a zealous Christian, he must feel a have been stated in print; but Unitalonging desire to dispense the word rian books are not very saleable among of life as far as lies in his power. Trinitarians, and I should be glad to Looking abroad, he sees but two ver- feel assured that those Unitarians who sions of the Scriptures which he can are connected with the Bible Society, disseminate in his own country. These were taking the better course of calm are the received text and the Improved and immediate remonstrance whenVersion. To both of these, probably, ever the original rules of that Society he sees objections. He thinks there appear to them infringed. If such be may be interpolations in the first; he not their conduct, no wonder that the suspects there may be suppressions, most active party considers itself as or alterations, which have nearly the free from the obligation to respect the effect of suppressions, in the last. private and uncxpressed opinions of the few, very few individuals of our From a conversation I had with Mr. sect who ever appeared among them. Owen in Leeds, some few weeks since,
Allow me, in conclusion, to express he gave me to understand that a great my hopes, that your Non Con cor- improvement has taken place in the respondent is not quite decided in his minds, learning and general deportopinion respecting the impropriety of inent of the children since my visit in uniting Dissenters and Churchmen 1819. in the good work of sending abroad Being deputed, along with Mr. the word of life. Many sterling prin- Oastler and Mr. Baines, by the Guarciples, much rectitude of heart, may dians of the Poor of the township of be lost and frittered away in those cir- Leeds, to visit the Establishment in cles of dissipation where the Dissen- New Lanark, we arrived there in the ter is daily shamed or invited into evening of the 28th of August, 1819. alliances which conscience forbids. On the next morning But I feel infinitely less suspicious of The three years' old children's the human heart where it is under a school was our first object; and a religious influence, and can hardly be- more pleasing sight to the philanthrolieve conformity to establishments is pist is not to be seen from Jobuny the necessary result of an awakened Groat's House to the Land's End. An attention to the duty of disseminating innocent glow of health, pleasure and the Scriptures. It is fair, in general, unabased childish freedom mantled on to conclude that the Christian who is their pretty countenances : this meltserious on one point is not careless ing sight gave me a pleasure which and conscienceless on any; he may, amply repaid the toils of the journey. doubtless, deceive us and himself too; « We then went into the upper but “to his own master he standeth school-a school, for cleanliness, utior falleth.” Meanwhile, though we lity and neatness, I should not supare forbidden to do “evil that good pose surpassed in the kingdom. This may come,” it is no where said that was Sunday; they were just comwe are to abstain from doing visible mencing, which was by singing a good because there is the possibility psalm, then the master went to prayer, that evil may ensue. Non Con cars and afterwards read a chapter. The ries his dislike to establishments far girls and boys, being placed on the indeed if he will not allow Churchmen opposite sides of the room, then read and Dissenters to join together in in the New Testainent; a boy read giving a Bible.
three verses, then a girl three, then a Q.
different boy other three, then a girl,
&c. alternately. In another part of Leeds,
the room a person was hearing the Sir,
May 7, 1822. boys and girls the Assembly's CateTOUR publication for Januury chism. Old Lanark is improving in hands, and Dr. Morell's letter on Mr. walk down from the Old Town to the Owen's System of Education (pp. 6–8) New may have instruction gratis." pointed out to my notice. Without entering into any discussion on the doctrine of hereditary depravity in Next morning, the human species, or any specula- “ After calling upon Mr. Owen at tions upon divine revelation, I cheer- Braxfield-House, we walked down to fully communicate, through the me- the village, and entered the small dium of your Repository, the substance children's play-ground. God bless of what particularly struck me in that their little faces, I see them now; branch of Mr. Owen’s Establishment, there were some bowling hoops, some which is employed in the education of drumming on two sticks, all engaged the children; and perhaps I cannot do in some infantine amusement or other ; this in a better manner than by mak- not a tenr, not a wrangle-innocent ing extracts from the letters which I peace ran through the group. As transmitted from Lanark to Leeds, soon as they saw ns, curtseys and when the scenes were fresh in my bows teemed about us. Mr. Owen sight. It will be recollected that seemed here to be among his own these observations were made in 1819. imaginary improved state of society. You know that his creed supposes lines in the centre of the square. They that all human beings are the crea- then sang, 'When first this humble tures of circumstances; hence he con- roof I knew,' accompanied by a clatends, that if he had a colony of in- rionet; then The Banks of Aberfants, by suppressing all erroneous feldy; then “ The Banks and Braes reasoning and conclusions upon all of bonny Doon;" then 'Auld Lang subjects, and by substituting truth, Syne. There were fifty singers. After which is, that of being taught to make this, they then again formed a square ; no conclusion but what is thoroughly and the word of command was given understood, he could make man to for the dancers, who immediately came set at naught the things upon which into the centre as the singers had done. he now places the most value, and Two or three dances were then given unite in a community of interests that in a style which would not have diswould have the effect of producing graced some of our assemblies. After brotherly love and unity throughout dancing they marched again once or the world. Nay, he carries this idea twice: six tfers then led them down so far, that he supposes the highest stairs, the other six remained playing, rauks in society will find it the great- and all kept beating time until the est source of recreation to visit the whole deployed out of the room. establishments of their neighbours, and These interesting beings were all bareperform a few hours' labour at some foot, but gracefulness was in their thing that will pay for their enter- steps. tainment. These results, and many others, which I have not time to men- “ Next we entered the large school tion, Mr. O. will have that he can on the same floor, capable of holding bring about in society, by means of 400 writers and accompters. There children. Then, is it to be wondered is a pulpit at one end, and it is neatly at, that his character assumes the galleried, and will hold a congregation highest traits of benevolent and over- of 1200. There were boys and girls flowing pleasure, when he mixes among from four to twelve years old busily these germs of future men and women? employed in reading, writing and ac
“ From the play-ground we entered counts, plain sewing, marking, &c. a large room for the purpose of play The greatest regularity and decorum and amusement when the weather prevailed. Heard children of four will not permit them to be out of years old read well in the Testament ; doors. Here the most unrestrained others of five read, and that well, hisliberty is given for noise or amuse- torical pieces from various authors. ment. On each side of this room are The writers and aecompters industrischools for this class, which runs from ous ; the writing a good style. The latwo years old to six. Some are taken dies who were with us, said the sewing to the upper school at four, having and marking was very good. We next attained the learning necessary for went and stood in a gallery in the their advancement.
room where the singers, &c. had been, “ From these schools we went up and saw below us a professional man into the large room for dancing, from Edinburgh, teaching four baremarching, &c., when soon the shrill footed girls and four boys the different fife echoed up the broad staircase. steps, bows and curtsies and dancing. Six boys, in Highland plaids and caps, It was delighful to see the graceful. entered, playing a quick march until ness and ease with which these rustic all the boys and girls" (for girls march sons and daughters of the working here) entered the room: they were fol- classes made the obeisant compliment, lowed by other six fifers; the whole as or tripped on the light fantastic toe. they entered formed a square. After They have two violin players, who are this, the word of command was given, also professional men. right face, left face, &e. They then passed in review, warching round the “ After tea- we went down to the room in slow and quick time. After village, and found the large schoolmarching, the boys and girls destined room (which is capable of holding to sing, at the word of command, ran 1200 persons) about two-thirds full : in a kind of dance, and formed two it was concert night. Concert night!