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of duplicity when, in disseminating He thinks it highly probable that the our common version of the Bible, they latter may have corrected some erropretend that they circulate the Scrip- neous passages, but he dislikes the tures" without note or comment." strained and unnatural phraseology of “DUPLICITY” is a strong terin, Sir, some of its texts. They appear to and when I call to mind the conduct him to act as a “ note and comment" of one with whose name, I will ven- upon the sacred penman, rather than ture to say, the charge of “dupli- to flow easily from the nature of the city” was never for an instant cou- subject. Encompassed with difficulpled; one who, excellent in many ties, he finds no better refuge than in ways, was perhaps most conspicuous the belief that the Scriptures, howin abhorrence of every thing like de- ever varied in the hands of different ceit; (need I name the late venerated translators, are yet " profitable for Dr. Lindsay ?) I cannot suppress a doctrine, for reproof, for correction, rising emotion of keen regret at the for instruction in righteousness," and rashness of the judgment which would therefore, in the assurance that all who affix the stigma of “duplicity” on will, inay be by them “made wise those who tread where he has trod, unto salvation," he embraces every and fearlessly avowing in all compa- opportunity for promoting their cirnies, and on every proper occasion, culation among his fellow-creatures ; the grounds of the difference between believing, that were he to wait till he themselves and their Trinitarian bre- had secured a translation in which thren, esteemn it their duty to join there should not be an unsuspected them in the circulation of a version of chapter, verse or word, he might tarry the Scriptures, imperfect it is true, till the day were far spent indeed and liable to many objections, but To advert for a moment to the letfully competent, according to the con- ter of your former correspondent, fession of the most eminent among “A Berean:" it strikes me that both Unitarian writers, to lead the diligent himself and the writer of the letter in inquirer to the knowledge of the true your last Number, would do real serGod, and Jesus Christ whom he has vice to the cause of truth, if at public sent. Instead of “duplicity," your ineetings of the kind described, they correspondent will have no objection, I would take occasion to declare their trust, to read “forgetfulness ;" for if dissent from the opinions expressed a Unitarian has been betrayed into a on controverted points, and endeavour momentary assent to the notion that to impress on the minds of those with he is employed in circulating the whom they associate, the duty and Scriptures entirely without note or policy of keeping these subjects out comment, he will, I should think, be of sight on such occasions. I am far glad to correct himself the first op- from surprised that Trinitarians who portunity, and let his orthodox friends certainly began upon this plan, have know that such is not his deliberate now learned free language. No obopinion. Having made this point jection, as far as I have heard, has clear, he will next be led to inquire, ever been made to it. Unitarians have whether he is therefore bound to silently withdrawn from these meetwithhold his support from the Bible ings; but have they ever taken occaSociety. And here, I should think, sion publicly to testify the reasons of a difficulty will occur. If our inquirer their dissent? These reasons may be a zealous Christian, he must feel a have been stated in print; but Unitalonging desire to dispense the word rian books are not very saleable among of life as far as lies in his power. Trinitarians, and I should be glad to Looking abroad, he sees but two ver- feel assured that those Unitarians who sions of the Scriptures which he can are connected with the Bible Society, disseminate in his own country. These were taking the better course of calm are the received text and the Improved and immediate remonstrance whenVersion. To both of these, probably, ever the original rules of that Society he sees objections. He thinks there appear to them infringed. If such be may be interpolations in the first; he not their conduct, no wonder that the suspects there may be suppressions, most active party considers itself as or alterations, which have nearly the free from the obligation to respect the effect of suppressions, in the last. private and uncxpressed opinions of the few, very few individuals of our From a conversation I had with Mr. sect who ever appeared among them. Owen in Leeds, some few weeks since,

Allow me, in conclusion, to express he gave me to understand that a great my hopes, that your Non Con cor- improvement has taken place in the respondent is not quite decided in his minds, learning and general deportopinion respecting the impropriety of ment of the children since my visit in uniting Dissenters and Churchmen 1819. in the good work of sending abroad Being deputed, along with Mr. the word of life. Many sterling prin- Oastler and Mr. Baines, by the Guarciples, much rectitude of heart, may dians of the Poor of the township of be lost and frittered away in those cir- Leeds, to visit the Establishment in cles of dissipation where the Dissen- New Lanark, we arrived there in the ter is daily shamed or invited into evening of the 28th of August, 1819. alliances which conscience forbids. On the next morning But I feel infinitely less suspicious of “ The three years' old children's the human heart where it is under a school was our first object'; and a religious influence, and can hardly be- more pleasing sight to the philanthrolieve conformity to establishments is pist is not to be seen from Jobuny the necessary result of an awakened Groat's House to the Land's End. An attention to the duty of disseminating innocent glow of health, pleasure and the Scriptures. It is fair, in general, unabased childish freedom mantled on to conclude that the Christian who is their pretty countenances : this meltserious on one point is not careless ing sight gave me a pleasure which and conscienceless on any; he may, amply repaid the toils of the journey. doubtless, deceive us and himself too; We then went into the upper but “to his own master he standeth school-a school, for cleanliness, utior falleth.” Meanwhile, though we lity and neatness, I should not supare forbidden to do “evil that good pose surpassed in the kingdom. This may come,” it is no where said that was Sunday; they were just comwe are to abstain from doing visible mencing, which was by singing a good because there is the possibility psalm, then the master went to prayer, that evil may ensue. Non Con car and afterwards read a chapter. The ries his dislike to establishments far girls and boys, being placed on the indeed if he will not allow Churchmen opposite sides of the room, then read and Dissenters to join together in in the New Testainent; a boy read giving a Bible.

three verses, then a girl three, then a different boy other three, then a girl,

&c. alternately. In another part of Leeds,

the room a person was hearing the

May 7, 1822. boys and girls the Assembly's CateV OUR publication for January chism. Old Lanark is improving in

1 last has just been put into iny morals, as any child who is willing to hands, and Dr. Morell's letter on Mr. walk down from the Old Town to the Owen's System of Education (pp. 6-8) New may have instruction gratis.” pointed out to my notice. Without entering into any discussion on the doctrine of hereditary depravity in Next morning, the human species, or any specula. “After calling upon Mr. Owen at tions upon divine revelation, I cheer- Braxfield-House, we walked down to fully communicate, through the me- the village, and entered the small dium of your Repository, the substance children's play-ground. God bless of what particularly struck me in that their little faces, I see them now; branch of Mr. Owen's Establishment, there were some bowling hoops, some which is employed in the education of drumming on two sticks, all engaged the children; and perhaps I cannot do in some infantine amusement or other; this in a better manner than by mak- not a tenr, not a wrangle-innocent ing extracts from the letters which I peace ran through the group. As transmitted from Lanark to Leeds, soon as they sawns, curtseys and when the scenes were fresh in my bows teemed about us. Mr. Owen sight. It will be recollected that seemed here to be among his own these observations were made in 1819, imaginary improved state of society.

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You know that his creed supposes lines in the centre of the square. They that all human beings are the crea- then sang, When first this humble tures of circumstances; hence he con- roof I knew,' accompanied by a clatends, that if he had a colony of in- rionet; then · The Banks of Aberfants, by suppressing all erroneous feldy ;' then. The Banks and Braes reasoning and conclusions upon all of bonny Doon;' then « Auld Lang subjects, and by substituting truth, Syne. There were fifty singers. After which is, that of being taught to make this, they then again forined a square ; no conclusion but what is thoroughly and the word of command was given understood, he could make man to for the dancers, who immediately came set at naught the things upon which into the centre as the singers had done. he now places the most value, and Two or three dances were then given unite in a cominunity of interests that in a style which would not have diswould have the effect of producing graced some of our assemblies. After brotherly love and unity throughout dancing they marched again once or the world. Nay, he carries this idea twice : six fifers then led them down 80 far, that he supposes the highest stairs, the other six remained playing, ranks in society will find it the great- and all kept beating time until the est source of recreation to visit the whole deployed out of the room. establishments of their neighbours, and These interesting beings were all bareperform a few hours' labour at some- foot, but gracefulness was in their thing that will pay for their enter- steps. tainment. These results, and many others, which I have not time to men “ Next we entered the large school tion, Mr. 0. will have that he can on the same floor, capable of holding bring about in society, by means of 400 writers and accompters. There children. Then, is it to be wondered is a pulpit at one end, and it is neatly at, that his character assumes the galleried, and will hold a congregation highest traits of benevolent and over- of 1200. There were boys and girls flowing pleasure, when he mixes among from four to twelve years old busily these germs of future men and women employed in reading, writing and ac

“ From the play-ground we entered counts, plain sewing, marking, &c. a large room for the purpose of play The greatest regularity and decorum and amusement when the weather prevailed. Heard children of four will not permit them to be out of years old read well in the Testament; doors. Here the most unrestrained others of five read, and that well, hisliberty is given for noise or amuse- torical pieces from various authors. ment. On each side of this room are The writers and accompters industrischools for this class, which runs from ous ; the writing a good style. The latwo years old to six. Some are taken dies who were with us, said the sewing to the upper school at four, having and marking was very good. We next attained the learning necessary for went and stood in a gallery in the their advancement.

room where the singers, &c. had been, “ From these schools we went up and saw below us a professional man into the large room for dancing, from Edinburgb, teaching four baremarching, &c., when soon the shrill footed girls and four boys the different fife echoed up the broad staircase. steps, bows and curtsies and dancing. Six boys, in Highland plaids and caps, It was delighful to see the graceful. entered, playing a quick march until ness and ease with which these rustic all the boys and girls (for girls march sons and daughters of the working here) entered the room: they were fol- classes made the obeisant compliment, lowed by other six fifers; the whole as or tripped on the light fantastic toe. they entered formed a square. After They have two violin players, who are this, the word of command was given, also professional men. right face, left face, &e. They then passed in review, quarching round the “ After tea we went down to the room in slow and quick time. After village, and found the large schoolmarching, the boys and girls destined room (which is capable of holding to sing, at the word of command, ran 1200 persons) about two-thirds full: in a kind of dance, and formed two it was concert night. Concert night! concert! what, for the amusement of well-regulated family united together the labourers in a cotton factory! by ties of the closest affection. We Yes; it was truly concert night, and heard no quarrels from the youngest they are blessed with one once a week. to the eldest, and so strongly impressHow drivelling dost thou look, world ed are they with the conviction that in which I have been accustomed to their interest and duty are the same, live, when placed in comparison with and that to be happy themselves it is this community! Here, the labourer necessary to make those happy by of two shillings per week can go to whom they they are surrounded; that concert every week, and the fastidious they had no strife but in offices of souls of a town like Leeds, wallowing kindness. With such dispositions, and in unenjoyed wealth, can scarcely raise with their young ininds well stored one, once in half a year. But here with useful knowledge, it appeared to too they are taught music, and, of con- us that if it should be their destiny to sequence, enjoy the captivating sweets go out to service or to be apprenticed, of sound. The band was military, the families in which they were fixed although they have violins, and con- would find them an acquisition instead sisted of two horns, one trumpet, of a burthen; and we could not avoid three bassoons, one serpent, five cla- the expression of a wish, that the rionets, flutes and fifes.

orphan children in our workhouses

had the same advantage of moral and “ Whilst standing in the buildings religious instruction, and the same appropriated for the schools and prospect of being happy themselves amusements, with the magical sight and useful to the families in which before me, (for at this place almost they may be placed all is wonderous and astonishing,) and On the return of the deputation to contemplating the enormous expense Leeds, the committee of the Leeds which must have been incurred to pro. Workhouse entered fully into the devide these buildings, teachers and every sires of the delegates upon this subother thing to move this comparativelyject, and a new code of regulations vast machine, produced from the fluc- was adopted for the management of tuating sources of manufacture,-my the children, which, I ain happy to ideas were enchanted with anticipation say, has already proved of essential in the prospect of that pleasure and service to these sons and daughters of profit which might be produced from poverty; which code I subjoin to these the combined powers of a number of remarks. villages united in a community of in- .

JOHN CAWOOD. terests. Who can say with how little Jabour their wants might be supplied;

Education and Employment of the and who can tell the happiness which

Children. would accrue from the want of temp. 1. That the boys and girls be kept tation to covetousness, and all the in a state of separation from the other deadly evils attendant upon man adult part of the inhabitants of the suffering from want? The temptation House. to do evil would be removed, and bro. 2. That a separate room be devoted therly love be the bond of union. No solely to the girls, and fitted up for one with half the senses of a man, but their school-room and sitting-room. what can see this, in walking through 3. Every day in the week (Sunday the precincts of New Lanark. There excepted) the girls shall be employed is not a nobleman in England that is in learning to read and write, from giving so much comfort to so many half-past eight o'clock in the morning human beings as Mr. Owen is, and till twelve o'clock at poon, under the the very proudest of them would be superintendence and instruction of a astonished and confounded were they proper master; that froin twelve to to spend one evening in this place.” half-past one they shall have dinner,

In the education of the children, with the remaining time for recreathe thing that is most remarkable, is tion. And that from half-past one to the general spirit of kindness and six o'clock, they shall be employed in affection which is shewn towards knitting, sewing, &c., under the suthem. In this they appear like one perintendence and instruction of a

suitable mistress. And that, in order a place of worship large enough to to accustom them to domestic service, accommodate all the slaves belonging two of the senior girls, in rotation, to the property; but this design was shall be kept in the kitchen for one abandoned, on its being found that month at a time, and be then em- the overseer could permit us to employed in such work as the mistress ploy the boiling-house (the house in of the house shall direct.

which the cane juice is boiled into 4. The boys shall be employed in syrup) during that part of the year in the card-room from eight o'clock in which alone we had any opportunity the morning until twelve at noon; of meeting for religious purposes. that, from twelve to half-past one, they This edifice answered our purpose shall have their dinners, with the re- sufficiently well, as long as the undermaining time for recreation; and from taking was regarded simply in the half-past one until six in the evening, light of an experiment: but had it they shall be instructed in a room been determined to render it permasolely appropriated for that purpose) nent, a more convenient place would in reading and writing by the schools have been found necessary. master.

The Negroes usually quit the field, 5. In these arrangements the great. for dinner, about one o'clock, to which est frugality should be united to the they never return till the end of two most persevering endeavours, to ren- hours; but it was understood, between der these orphan children useful mem- the overseer and myself, that on the bers of society. This cannot be more days on which they should have liberty effectually accomplished than by re- to attend me in the boiling-house, moving from their observation every they should not retire till nearly two, thing that is likely to give them bad so that the estate might be put to as habits, and placing before them every little inconvenience as possible. This thing which is calculated to inspire being the case, they were never ready thein with good ones. These recom- . for me before four, and sometimes not mendations duly followed, will in time even till five in the afternoon; a cirmake these children of poverty rather cumstance which, however, I never sought after as apprentices in the regretted, not deeming it necessary, town, than despised and considered a or even desirable, to detain them above tax; and instead of rising into man- two hours at a time. But had they hood and relying upon a parish all the been disposed to submit to a little days of their future life for a portion extra exertion, they most certainly of their support, they will feel an am- might, notwithstanding this, have been bition and a capacity to maintain with me by three, or very soon after; themselves.

but they had no idea of devoting the sinallest portion of their own time to

the work of spiritual improvement. Mr. Cooper on the Disposition of the So far, indeed, from this, it was found Negroes to embrace Christianity.

to be a matter of some little difficulty Letter II.

to secure their attendance, even in Newcastle-under-Lyme,

their master's time. And, before the Sir, May 10, 1822.

attempt was made, some individuals, A T the close of my last communi

well acquainted with the Negro characA cation, (pp. 217--219.) I stated ter, appeared to be very apprehensive that the slaves on Mr. Hibbert's that it would be found necessary to estate were allowed half-a-day in a employ coercive measures with them fortnight, out of crop, * for the sole in this as well as in other cases : yet purpose of attending on me. I now the inhuman and unchristian idea of proceed to explain the manner in driving the poor creatures to a place which that time was spent.

of worship by force, could not be enIt was the original intention to build dured for a moment. It was, there

fore, determined, without hesitation,

- not to resort to it, but to meet them l'hat is, the Jamaica harvest, which on the following terms; which, it will commonly commences in Hanover early be perceived, reduced the business, in in December, or about the first week in a great measure, to a matter of their January, and ends some time in May. own free choice.

VOL. XVII.

20

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