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In his own immediate neighbourhood, till the afternoon which terminated his his charity, which often amounted to mortal existence. munificence, could not always escape the Though he sedulously avoided company, detectiou of gratitude ; but, wherever it he well knew what was going on in the was practicable. his benefactions were busy world. His dress was always neat. anonymous; he seemed ereu ingenious but so plain that it might be mistaken in devising means of “ doing good by for that of a Quaker; and, in fact, stealth ;" and he literally “ blushed to though not one of the Society of Friends, find it fame.” In many instances he he occasionally attended their meetings. even made considerable transfers of stock His religious faith was that of a Protesto meritorious individuals whom he saw tant Dissenter. Having diligently made struggling with adversity; and who were the Holy Scriptures his habitual study, never informed of the source from which he was from principle and conviction a their timely accession of property was firm believer in the great and important derived. With the same shrinking mo- doctrines inculcated by the inspired wri. desty, he became an anonymous contri- ters. butor to many public institutions for the It is needless to say, that this model alleviation of pain and suffering, the in. of true Christian charity acted under the struction of the ignorant, or the reforma impulse of the strongest religious feeling; tion of the depraved. Naturally attached, but it was a feeling so destitute of all for 48 years together, to an institution prejudice, that he embraced in the large founded by his brother, and congenial circle of his beneficence his fellow-creawith his own generous sensibility, his tures of every religious persuasion, as liberal anuual donation to the Royal Hu. well as of every species of affliction ; and made Society was nevertheless contri. the records of testamentary bounty afford buted under the mere designation of “A few parallels to the following list of beLife Governor in 1774."
nefactions, which are to be made to va. But the great object which interested rious societies after the death of a near his philanthropic feelings through life and dear relation, a daughter of his eldest was ihe abolition of the Slave Trade. To brother, who had constantly contributed promote this measure of enlightened hu- to his health and comfort. manity, he in many different ways con
34 per cent. Stock. tributed large sums anonymously. Nay, Royal Humane Society . . . £1000 so indignant was he, on the close of the Refuge for the Destitute . . 1000 late war, at the treaties which tolerated Foreigners in Distress . . . . 1000 that abominable traffic, that in a letter Philanthropic Society . . . . 1000 which he had sketched to Mr. Wilber. St. Luke's Hospital . . . . 1000 force (whether he ever sent it we know Magdalen Hospital . .
1000 not) he offered to sacrifice several thou - Asylum . .
1000 sands a-year, if that sum could ensure Indigent Blind ..
1000 the adoption of means to compel all the Society for the Relief of Prisoners European powers to put an end to the for small Debts . . . . . 1000 Slare Trade entirely. Even in this princely Jews' Poor, Mile End . . . 1000 conception, however, ostentation had no City of London Truss Society . 1000 part : for he stipulated for the absolute General Penitentiary . . . . 1000 concealment of his name, and only iden. London Hibernian Society .. 1000 tifed himself in the letter as the indivi.
London Hospital, Whitechapel .. 1000 dual who, between 1780 and 1790, had The Missionary Society . . . 1000 inclosed to the then Treasurer in Lom
British and Foreign Bible Society 1000 bard Street, five Exchequer Bills, and
Religious Tract Society. . .
1000 about 1810 had sent an India Bond di
Quakers' Poor House . . . .
1000 rected to the Secretary of the African Methodist Preachers . . . . 1000 Institution.
Presbyterian Ditto . . . . . 1000 Mr. Hawes was habitually an early
Baptist Ditto . . . . . .
1000 riser, usually quitting his bed, in winter
Independent Ditto . . . . 1000 as well as summer, at four o'clock, or Roman Catholic Ditto . . . . 1000 earlier. One of his great delights was to Quakers' Ditto ......
1000 observe the rising sun. He considered exercise in the open air to be essen Mr. Hawes had no children ; but he tially conducive to health; and, by a had numerous relations, among whom he prudent arrangement of his time, even distributed the bulk of his ample property, when engaged in an extensive business, with strict attention to their just claims · he generally contrived to walk on an on his notice ; nor is there one of them
average about twenty miles a-day; and who has not reason to remember hina this practice he continued at Worthing with gratitude.
Somerset and Dorset Unitarian Swansea on the 27th of June next, and Association,
at which Mr. J. Thomas, of Pant-y-deTue Half-Yearly Meeting of this Asso
faid, is to preach the Welsh seripon.
The ministers are to meet at Gelli-omen ciation was held at Taunton, on Tuesday,
on the 26th, where Mr. Thomas Evans, April 9th. The Rev. Mr. Bowen, of 11
of Aberdâr, is to preach at eleven o'clock. minster, delivered a discourse from John
J. JAMES. xvii. 5, on the analogy between Natural
April 13, 1822. and Revealed Religion.
In the evening, the Rev. W. Hincks, of Exeter, preached from 1 Jolin iv. I, Opening of Unitarian Place of Wor. with particular reference to the doctrine
ship in the Borough. of immediate Divine Influence.
Owing to the shutting up of the chapel Teu new members were added to the
in St. Thomas's, in the Borough of SouthAssociation, and nearly thirty of its friends dined together at the Bell Inn.
wark, and the removal of Dr. THOMAS The Rev. William Wilson, of Crew.
Rees's congregation to Stamford Street, kerne, is engaged to preach at the next
Blackfriars, the remaining members of Meeting, which will be held at Yeovil, in
the late Mr. Brown's congregation ar
Horselydown, who chiefly reside at a October
G. B. W.
distance, which renders their worshiping at Staniford Street inconvenient, and
sometimes impracticable, have, in conQuarterly Meeting of Unitarian Mi junction with a few other zealous indi
nisters in South Wales. viduals, engaged a large and commodious The Quarterly Meeting of Unitarian
room for Unitarian worship, in White Ministers in South Wales was held at
Horse Court, High Street, Borough. This Blaen-y-gwrach, on Thursday last. There
was opened on Sunday, April 14, when a was service at the Meeting House on the sermon was preached in the morning by
Mr. David EATON, from Psalm xcv. 6, preceding evening, when Mr. E. Lewis, a : student in his last year at the Caermarthen
to a congregation of about 130 persons, College, introduced, and Messrs. J. Jones,
and another in the evening, by the Rev. of Bridgend, and J. Thomas, of Pant-y-de
S. W. BROWNE, A. B., the minister of faid, preached; the former from Acts ii.
Monkwell Street, from John xiii. 7-9, 36; the latter from Eph. i. 7. On Thurs.
to a very crowded audience, Mr. Browne day morning, Mr. J. Griffiths, of Llan
has generously offered his gratuitous serdy-fan, conducted the introductory part
vices to the congregation for three months of the service; and J. James, of Gelli
on the Sunday evening. In this service onnen, preached from 1 Tim. iv. 8; and
the Essex-Street Liturgy is used, fifty Mr. D. Davies, of Neath, in English,
copies of which have been presented to from John ix. 3.' After concluding the
the Society by Mr. Agar, through the service with a prayer, an open conference
kind offices of the Rev. T. BELSUAN. took place, Mr. W. Williams, minister at
--As the individuals who have opened the place, in the Chair. The subjects
this chapel are, for the most part, in discussed were, Reason and Zeal in Mat
bumble circumstances, they respectfully ters of Religion; what they are, and how
solicit the aid of their Unitarian brethren, far useful. There were present about ten
and of the various Fellowship Funds, in preachers, and the audience, though not
discharging the necessary expenses. They very numerous, was respectable and at
have consulted rigid prudence in the tentive, and consisted of men of very
whole of their expenditure, and they condifferent and opposite sentiments.
scientiously believe, that, with the Divine
The friends of Unitarianism seemed to be
blessing, on which they rely, much good much pleased with what they had heard,
will result to the cause of Christian truth and its opponents were perhaps in an
and piety from their humble undertaking. equal degree dissatisfied; some of whom,
Auy further particulars may be learned the writer has been informed, expressed
of Mr. W. WOOD, Treasurer, 63, High (though not publicly in the Meeting) their
Street, Borough, disapprobation, if not in the mildest, yet in very significant terms. ..
Eastern Unitarian Society. The summer's Quarterly Meeting is The Yearly Meeting of the Eastern united with the Annual Meeting of the Unitarian Society will be held at Diss, on Unitarian Society, which is to be held at Wednesday and Thursday, the 26th and
27th of Jme, when the vew chanel will dissolve the injunction which had been be opened. The Rev. Robert Aspland is granted in this case, to restrain the deexpected to preach.
fendant from printing, publishing and EDWARD TAYLOR, : disposing of a book under the above
Secretary title. He stated, that Mr. Lawrence
was a professor of surgery, and lecturer The Annual Meeting of the Southern
to the Royal College of Surgeous : the Unitarian Society will be held at New
defendant was a respectable bookseller in
the Strand. port, Isle of Wight, on Wednesday July
The injunction was granted 24, 1822, when the Rev. J. B. Bristowe,
on the ground of piracy, The Lectures of Ringwood, is expected to preach be
in contention were delivered by the plainfore the Society. Service to begiu at
tiff, at the College of Surgeons, and he twelve o'clock.
afterwards printed them ; the defendant THOs. COOKE, Jan.
had put them together, and published
them in one volume, and this was the Secretary.
piracy complained of. What he (the
learned counsel) had to contend for was, Managers of the Society for the Re- that the plaintiff had no copyright in the
lief of the Necessitous Widous and work, for it was a publication denying Children of Protestant Dissenting Christianity and revelation, which was Ministers, deceased, for the year
contrary to public policy and morality. 1822.
He would not have his Lordship take it
on his ipse dixit that they were so, but Ebenezer Maitland, Esq., Clapham those Lectures had undergone criticism Common, Treasurer, William Ashlin, by persons in the habit of performing Esq., Belton Street, Long acre ; the Rev. that duty; they were reprobated by the Joseph Barrett, Mecklenburgh Square; writers of the Edinburgh Medical Review, Joseph Bradley, Esq., Clapham Common; the Quarterly Review, by the Lecturer on Joseph Bunnell, Esq., Southampton Row, Christianity in the University of Oxford, Bloomsbury; the Rev. John Clayton, and by the Rev. Mr. Whitfield, of Bath, Sen., Shore Place, Hackney; William as being irreligious, and of such a tenBurls, Esq., Lothbury; James Collins, dency that public policy ought not to Esq., Spital Square; John Danford, Esq., tolerate them. The object of the publiAldgate; James Esdaile, Esq., Bunhill
cation was to send out to the world the Row; James Gibson, Esq., Lime Street, doctrine, that when man dies, his soul Fenchurch Street ; the Rev. Thomas dies with him ; denying the immortality Griffin, Mile End Green ; Joseph Gut of the soul. He would admit that the teridge, Esq., Camberwell; William Gill
Lectures were most ably and eloquently man, Esq., Bank Buildings, Cornhill; written, which only tended to give the George Hammond, Esq., Whitechapel;
poison they contained greater influence Samuel Jackson, Esq., Hackney ; William
over wcak minds. It was impossible that Marston, Esq., East-Street, Red Lion he could express his opinion of the misSquare; Joho Towill Rutt, Esq., Clap- chievous tendency of the Lectures better ton; John Rogers, Esq , Swithiu's Lape ; than it was expressed in the Edinburgh Thomas Rogers, Esq., Clapham; Josiah Medical Review-that they could not beRoberts, Esq., Terrace, Camberwell ; lieve that the plaintiff would have atRobert Sangster, Esq., Denmark Hill, tempted to have brought his pupils into a ditto ; Thomas Saville, Esq., Clapton; state of total darkness; for what was the Benjamin Shaw, Esq., London Bridge doctrine of the plaintif ?-that a man Foot; James Smith, Esq., Hamper Mill, had no more soul than an oyster, or any Watford, Herts.; Thomas Stiff, Esq., other fish or insect. The learned counsel New Street, Covent Garden ; William then quoted several passages from the 'Titford, Esq., Walworth; and Thomas
Lectures, to prove, that the death of the Wilson, Esq., Highbury Place, Islington. soul was announced to them in as strong
terms as it could be pronouuced; it was
wo accidental doubt that was expressed LAW REPORT.
iu them, but it was a positive assertion, Court of Chancery, Lincoln's Inn, and read at the Royal College of Sur
March 23. geons. He not only denied that the race Lawrence's Lectures on Physiology, of many
of man sprang from Adam and Eve, but
went so far as to say there was no truth Zoology, and the Natural Aistory
y in the deluge. Having called his Lordof Man.
ship's attention to the passages, it would LAWRENCE v. SMITII.
be for him to decide whether the plaintiff Mr, Wetherell on Thursday moved to 'could have a copyright in such a work,
to send its poison out to the world. It the Court, to use the language of the was scarcely necessary for him to allude poet, refused to “set its seal on Cain," to the place in which the Lectures were and sent him forth a wanderer through delivered-it was a place licensed by the world. The pernicious principles royal charter ; but he would contend, it contained in these Lectures were not the such Lectures were allowed to be deli- native growth of this country, but were vered there, that the charter would be sought for in the doctrines of foreign as bad as the plaintiff's copyright : he, professors, and imported here from the however, understood that the plaintiff German and French schools. The learned was no longer Lecturer there. He had counsel then read a passage from the nothing, certainly, to do with the place Dedication, which he said was the first where the Lectures were delivered ; but passage complained of: the second was he would deal with him in his character in page 98, where the learned professor of an author, and he would dilate on the said, that the Mosaic account of the poison disseminating from him as a lec- origin of nankind, as contained in the turer to a school, the pupils of which book of Genesis, did not make it quite were afterwards to become practitioners clear that all the world had been peopled of surgery. Looking at it as the work by the descendants of Adam and Eve; of an author, it did not require criticism and treated the account of the circumto shew its evil tendency, for it was as stances of the deluge as a zoological imclear as the sun at noon. The learned possibility. Mr. Lawrence (Mr. Rose counsel was proceeding with his argu- continued) had subtilely condensed into ment, when he was interrupted by
one passage all the venom contained in a The Lord Chancellor, who stated that whole chapter of Gibbon. He then read he should stop there for the present, as an extract from page 422, in which Prohe was obliged to attend elsewhere. fessor Lawrence contended, from the
Mr. Wetherell this day resumed his peculiar organization of the brain, that argument. He had but little further to it was the seat of the sentient principle, add to what he had said on Thursday. which necessarily depended upon it for The article in The Quarterly Review existence, and that the annihilation of called the work in question an open the one must inevitably involve the antiavowal of the doctrine of Materialism. hilation of the other. He also read other It was also reprobated for the pernicious passages, in which it was stated that tendency of its principles by The Edin- many writers had doubted the inspiration burgh Medical Review, which said that it of the scriptural writers: and containing was calculated to lead the minds of his other observations, the tendency of which, pupils into darkness worse than the dark- the learned counsel argued, was subverness of the valley of death; and by the sive of our faith ; and they were the more vicar of Kensington, who was the Chris- dangerous, from the author's scholarlike tian Lecturer in Cambridge. The book, command of language, and his scientific he contended, had the same object as manner of treating his subject; which, the doctrine of the French Imperialists, acting upon undisciplined minds, was calnamely, to establish the belief that death culated to subdue and bring them under was an eternal sleep, and that, therefore, its controul, and thereby work the greater we were not hereafter to be accountable mischief. for our actions in this life. The learned Mr. Shadwell, on behalf of the plaintiff, counsel concluded, with expressing his suported the injunction. He was obliged regret that such great learning, taste and to his friend, Mr. Wetherell, for the talent, as this work evinced, should be manner in which he laid the question becombined with such dangerous principles; for the Court. He had condemned the which, being calculated to subvert the work on the ground of its professiog the doctrines of our religion, deprived the doctrine of Materialism. The docrine of work of all claim to protection on the Materialism was two-fold. One species of score of copyright; he therefore sub- Materialism limited the existence of man mitted that the injunction ought to be to this world only. That was a doctrine dissolved.
which he (Mr. Shadwell) would be the Mr. Rose followed on the same side, last person in existence to say oue word and referred to Dr. Priestley's case, where in defence of. But there was another it was determined that, although a work species of Materialism, which says, that might contain much valuable information, the sentient principle of man depends yet if it was directed against the institu- upon the organic structure of the body, tions of the country, the law would afford and therefore cannot have a separate exit no support. He also referred to the istence; but does not deny that both may * case of Mr. Southey's book, and the work exist hereafter, when the resurrection of of Lord Byron the other day, in which the body takes place. That was perfectly consistent, Mr. Shadwell contended, with ring to the second volume of Locke, the doctrine of the Christian religion, as where he held it to be iinpossible for hutaid down in the Holy Scriptures; while, man reason to discover these points withon the contrary, the doctrine of the in- out the assistance of the inspired writings, « mortality of the soul, as a distinct and spoke of the wisdom of our church in independent principle, was quite foreign laying down no doctrine which might not from our church. There was not a single be simply reconciled with what was stated passage in Scripture recognizing the ex. in Scripture, excluding all metaphysical istence of the soul in the intermediate positions ; and therefore nowhere setperiod from the death of the body to its ting forth that the soul was immortal, or resurrection ; while there were many had a separate existence from the body. which went to confirm the belief in the There might be some passages found, total suspension of the sentient principle which would seem to imply its existence during that interval. The words of the in the intermediate period, between the Apostles' Creed,“ to judge the quick and death of the natural body, and its resurthe dead," implied this notion, as did rection; but there was not one which those of the Nicene Creed, “ both the asserted it. The learned counsel then living and the dead;" they, however, left quoted passages from the works of seveit doubtful; but the Creed of Athana- ral eminent divines in support of his arsius left it wholly unambiguous, for it gument. Bishop Law said that no man said, “at whose coming all men shall could quote passages from Scripture to rise again with their bodies, and shall prove that the soul existed unconnected give account for their own works." Mr. with the body. Mr. Taylor asserted, Shadwell then quoted several passages that all natural arguments to prove the from the New Testament in support of existence of the soul separate from the his position. In the first book of Jose- body were vain : experience shewed the phus' Antiquities, he alludes to the story contrary; and as to the faculties of a of Abraham sacrificing his son Isaac, and dying man retaining their vigour to the saying that “the soul of the son would latest moment of life, when the body was hover round the father and protect him ;” nearly powerless, it was only beause the from which it appeared that he believed brain was the last part of the system in the inmortality of the soul; but St. which was attacked by death. Bishop Paul, in his Epistles, shewed that he was Butler had endeavoured to give metaphywrong. Our Saviour was described as sical reasons for a separate existence of having risen “ in body;" and the bodies the soul, from the strength of a dying of the saints who had been dead to have man's faculties when his body had nearly appeared to many in the Holy City. In failed; but Mr. Pitt declared that that the 15th chapter of Corinthians, 3t. Paul, doctrine of the learned Bishop raised talking of our Saviour being seen of 500 more difficulties than it solved. Dr. of the brethren at once, says, “ of whom Bayly's doctrine went still further than the greater part remain unto this present, that of Mr. Lawrence; for the latter conbut some are fallen asleep;" and again, fined himself to the formation of man as “ of them which are fallen asleep.” From a zoological creature. Archdeacon Blackwhich one must infer a state of non-ex- burne said that the New Testament always istence before their resurrection. The spoke of the interval between death and resurrection of the dead is talked of, but the resurrection as a state of sleep. He there is not a single passage in revelation (Mr. Shadwell) did not believe it was mentioning a distinct spirit, independent so: but St. Paul, in alluding to it, conof the body; and, indeed, the Book of stantly used the word “ slept.” It would Genesis applies the term “ soul" to the be useless to waste the time of the Court brutes and fishes. In our English trans- in quoting passages from Drs. Watson lations that terın is not used; the pas- and Warburton's works. He had done sage is, “ And God said, let the waters sufficient to shew that great and eminent bring forth the moving creature that hath men in the church had entertained, if not life, &c.; but in the original Hebrew the avowed, the doctrine which had been deword is nephesh; and in the Septuagint nominated the poison of the present work. psuche, each of which signifies soul; and It was a work containing 600 pages, on it was therefore impossible to make out physiological and scientific subjects ; lhe that the soul was separate from the living readers of which were more likely to have principle : so that it was perfectly con- their attention attracted by its learning sistent with Scripture to say that the and science, than by an abstract point of sentient principle of man cannot be sepa- doctrine contained in an insulated pasrated from his body: nor did that deny sage. It was not like a work of a light the doctrine of his accountability hereaf. nature, easily read, and therefore extenter, when the resurrection of the body sively circulated, like the one which came took place. Mr. Shadwell, after refer- before his Lordship the other day: hc