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to obtain emancipation." Really, Mr. few persons will be anxious to enjoy Editor, if your correspondents and the advantage of his friendship. What especially one who tells us “ the riew proof does he offer that Mr. Howe had in which I now wish to regard the no foundation for his suspicions ; or Monthly Ropository, is that of a correct what shadow of pretence has he for and impartial detail of historical facts, saying that Mr. Howe knew where to relating to Protestant Dissenters," and have applied for more correct informawho is anxions “to render the collec- tion? In the esteem of the many who tors of anecdotes more cautious," and were witnesses of Mr. Howe's public “ to prevent their imposing, under the life in this place for thirty years, if the sanction of your valuable Repository, warm affection of those (and they were on the credulity of any of your rea. not few) who mingled with him in the ders'') have not the ability to under. intercourse of private life, furnish any stand a couple of plain sentences on a ground on which those who had not the first reading, they might at least be- happiness of knowing him personally stow a second perusal on those parts may found their estimate of his worth, of your work which they undertake to we are warranted in maintaining that censure. The “ Old Dissenter” har charges like those recited above, are ing in his haste mistaken an imputa. unfounded aspersions. He was a Distion on some of the Dissenting body, senter; one who did not wish to claim of indifference to their own rights, for for Christianity, even under that form a charge of bigoted opposition to the which he himself approved, the pecurights of others, proceeds to comment niary aid of the civil power, but who ou the report and on its propagators. regarded such aid as inconsistent with His “much-esteemed friend” Dr. the principles of the Christian religion, Toulmin is treated with remarkable and injurious to its purity and preva. condescension. He, we are told, “was lence in the world. With such opinions, credulous, and, with regard to some and being aware too that intercourse other circumstances, not always very with ministers of state is not highly correct. But he never erred intention- favourable to the maintenance of indeally or wilfully." Having discussed pendent principle and manly feeling, be Dr. Toulmin's character, your corres. was naturally disposed, and many reapondent next favours us with his opi- ders of the Repository have, I believe, nion of Mr. Howe. “Mr. Howe, in- a similar bias, to look with jealousy on deed, was much less excusable; for the mysterious transactions betiveen he seems to intimate, that the distri- Government and some Dissenting Mibutors of his Majesty's bounty to the nisters, respecting the Regium Donum Protestant Dissenting Ministers, then grant. And when he received from called the “Regium Donum,' were Dr. Toulmin the report above recorded, in the secret; and that they moved not being aware of the little value which the springs of government in oppo- ought to be attached to information sition to the Catholics.” (“Moved from one so “ credulous,” he surely the springs of government!” How made no absurd conjecture in suppocorrect a version of the original state. sing these ministers to have been selectment!) “In this insinuation there is ed by the members of administration, a degree of illiberality which does no in order to feel the pulse of the Dishonour to the memory of a man whom senting body. Nor will any candid I always esteemed, and with whom I person be disposed to censure his conwas on terms of intimate acquaintance. duct, if in a letter to a friend (a letter He knew where to have applied, if he which he little anticipated rould ever had thought proper, for more correct come before the public) he mentioned information. Over this censurable part his suspicions, not in the tone of asserof his conduct I wish to throw a veil,” tion, but as a mere supposition. It &c. It is my purpose to defend, ra, appears froin Mr. Ruti's brief notice ther than to attack; yet I cannot sup- of the “Old Dissenter,” (p. 215,) that press my conviction, that if the “ Old as to Mr. Marten, at least, the "insinuDissenter be accustomed, in this way, ation” of Mr. Howe was highly proto exhibit his esteein for his “intimate bable, and quite accordant with comacquaintance," and to throw a reil over mon opinion respecting his character. the censurable parts of their conduct, I regret much the necessity which has arisen for thus occupying the froin the quarters of Lutheranism and pages of the Repository, which ought of Dissenting Calvinism, not from to be devoted to other subjects than Irish Presbyterianism. The writer the attack and defence of personal cha- was not called to account by any Synod racter. Should the “ Old Dissenter” for not having submitted the composi. again appear before the public through tion to inspection before publication, the medium of your work, I hope he nor for the theological doctrines which will not think it beneath him to follow it set forth. Nor did the author sufthe advice of a wise man of old,“ Un- fer any pecuniary privation inflicted derstand first, and then rebuke.” by the Synod to which he belonged. G. B. WAWNE. The ground upon which I rested my
assertion, “that Presbyterian Synods Sir, Cork, May 26, 1822. in Ireland assume no authority over L"ROM what authority your core conscience," I could not but believe T respondent “ Junior," in the to be firm, since it was composed of Monthly Repository for April, has the assurances of Irish Presbyterian been led to believe, “that” in op- ministers, individually, and in Synod position to what “ Senior" has ad. assembled. The first time I was prevanced (p. 167) on the subject of sent at the meeting of a Synod, upon Irish Presbyterianism) “ Presbyterian ny putting questions with respect to Synods assume the power of putting what powers it claimed, I was informdown religious discussion whenever ed by the Moderator, that it claimed they please, inasmuch as by their no right of dictating religious senti. laws no book or tract involving theo- ments to ministers, nor forms of wor. logical opinions can be published, ship to congregations. The Synod of unless the manuscript first undergoes Ulster did, no doubt, at one time, rethe inspection of the Presbytery, who quire subscription to the Westininster can withhold certain pecuniary bene. Confession, on which account a num. fits from those who are bardy enough ber of ministers and congregations to resist their mandates," I cannot separated from its coinmunion, and imagine ; but this I know, that his formed the Presbytery of Antrim. authority cannot be good and just, Awakened, probably by that defection, and that he is entirely misinformed to the consideration of Christian liin that respect. Were it so, I should berty, that Synod, long since, put heartily join in his censure on such a away from the midst of it the odious law, and adınit it as being authority test. But, Sir, to put the matter be. exercised over conscience. What re- yond all doubt, I will give you an gulations may have prevailed in Irish abstract of principles on this point, Presbyterian Synods, when they made from an official printed document issubscription to the Westminster Con- sued by the Synod of Ulster, which is fession of Faith a necessary condition by far the most numerous and the of adinittance, and guarded what ap. most orthodox of the Irish communipeared to them to be orthodoxy, by ties, entitled “A Brief Outline and tests and creeds, as did almost all En Illustration of the chief, distinguishing glish congregations, even of the Inde Principles of the Presbyterian Church, pendent denomination, I really cannot under the Care of the General Synod tell. Upon inquiry, made at the of Ulster:" fountain head, I find that no such re. “The kingdom of the Redeemer is striction now exists.' Indeed, five or not of this world. six years ago, a case occurred within “The Lord Jesus Christ is the only my personal observation, which, if the King or Head of his Church. law stated by Junior had existed, "God alone is the Lord of conwould certainly have called it into science. action. A young minister preached “The right of private judgment, in before a number of his brethren and a all matters that respect religion, is Jarge mixed assembly, a sermon con- universal and unalienable ; and it is troverting all the favoured and gene- the duty, as it is the right, of all to rally-received doctrines. · At the desire read, to examine and to interpret the of soine who heard it, the discourse Holy Scriptures for themselves. was printed. It raised the storin of “The Holy Scriptures are the only opposition and bigotry; but it blew rule of faith and practice, and contain
all things necessary to direct Chris- tionable, and when the inquiries of the tians in the path of salvation
Transatlantic antiquaries will be faci" There is no infallibility in any litated and amply rewarded by the man, or body of men on earth; and pious and patriotic labours of their as it is the business of church-officers fathers now existing merely to declare the counsel of God, Amongst other American associaas set forth in the Scriptures, and tions for cultivating the knowledge of to enforce the law of the Gospel by American History, is The Pilgrim spiritual sanctions, so the Lord Jesus Society, who are accustomed yearly Christ has not empowered any man, to visit Plymouth, in New England, or body of men, to decree rites and the landing - place of the first Enceremonies, to exercise authority in glish Puritan Emigrants, on the annimatters of faith, or to inflict temporal versary of the day of the landing, viz. penalties for offences against the order Dec. 22. This celebration was began and discipline of the Church.
in the year 1769, and has been kept " Though it be the duty of all to up with some intermissions to the contend earnestly for the faith once present time; consisting sometimes delivered to the saints, yet Christians of a religious service, and sometimes are not permitted to judge, condemn, of an oration by a layman. There is or persecute one another, on account now lying before us, “A Discourse of doctrines, or modes of worship and delivered at Plymouth, Dec. 22, 1820, church government.”
in Commemoration of the First SettleThese propositions I quote from the ment of New England : by (the Hon.) work open before me, and I should Daniel Webster.” This was a great conceive that they must satisfy “Juni- day for the occasion, being the comor.” “No Presbyterian," and every im- pletion of the second century from partial person, that what I have stated the emigration. The orator was with respect to Irish Presbyterianism, wisely selected. We have seldom is just and true; “ that its Synods are read a more admirable discourse. bonds of union and Christian associa. The style of the speaker, indeed, is tion; tribunals for the preservation of not always perspicuous, and betrays the temporal funds and property of occasionally, that want of pure taste the Presbyterian congregations, and and of the genuine English idiom for the settlement of any disputes which is commonly found in orators which may possibly arise between mi- declaiming in English out of England, nisters and people, and by no means, and not unfrequently in England : hoards of controul over religious opi- but the speech contains passages of nions and worship.”
true eloquence, and breathes through· I beg pardon, Sir, for having again out the mind of a scholar, the heart obtruded myself upon you and the of a philanthropist and the spirit of readers of your very valuable work. an enlightened Christian. My sole end in so doing, is to remove, Warmed and possessed by his subby fair representation, what seems to ject, Mr. Webster says finely, in one ine to be misconception.
of the opening passages of his DisHeartily wishing the wider diffusion course, of the Monthly Repository, I remain,
“ There is a local feeling, connected Sir, your obedient Servant,
with this occasion, too strong to be reSENIOR. sisted; a sort of genius of the place,
which inspires and awes us. We feel
that we are on the spot where the first Commemoration of the First Settle
scene of our history was laid ; where the ment of New England. hearths and altars of New England were THE history of the United States first placed ; where Christianity and civi
I of America will be better known lization and letters made their first lodgto posterity than that of any country,
country ment, in a vast extent of country, covered ancient or nodern. Already, the
with a wilderness and peopled by roving Americans are studious and careful of
barbarians. We are here, at the season
of the year at which the event took their Antiquitics. If the European
place. The imagination irresistibly and smile at this word, thus applied, let rapidly draws around us the principal birn remember that the time will come features and the leading characters in when its use will be no longer ques. the original scene. We cast our eyes abroad on the ocean, and we see where contend for, can hardly fail to be attained. the little bark, with the interesting Conscience, in the cause of religion and group upon its deck, made its slow pro- the worship of the Deity, prepares the gress to the shore. We look around us, mind to act and to suffer beyond almost and bebold the hills and promontories all other causes. It sometimes gives an where the anxious cyes of our fathers impulse so irresistible, that no fetters of first saw the places of habitation and of power or of opinion can withstand it. rest. We feel the cold which benumbed, History instructs us that this love of reliand listen to the winds which pierced gious liberty, a compound sentiment in them. Beneath us is the Rock on which the breast of man, made up of the clear. New England received the feet of the est sense of right and the highest conPilgrims. We seem eveu to behold them, viction of duty, is able to look the sternest as they struggle with the elements, and, despotism in the face, and, with means with toilsome efforts, gain the shore. We apparently most inadequate, to shake listen to the chiefs in council ; we see principalities and powers. There is a the unexampled exhibition of female for- boldness, a spirit of daring, in religious titude and resignation ; we hear the whis- Reformers, not to be measured by the perings of youthful impatience, and we general rules which controul men's pursee, what a painter of our own has also poses and actions. If the hand of power represented by his pencil, chilled and be laid upon it, this only seems to augshivering childhood, houseless but for a ment its force and its elasticity, and to mother's arms, couchless but for a mo- cause its action to be more formidable ther's breast, till our own blood almost and terrible. Human invention has defreezes. The mild digoity of Carver vised nothing, human power has comand of BRADFORD; the decisive and sol- passed nothing that can forcibly restrain dier-like air and manner of STANDISH; it, when it breaks forth. Nothing can the devout BREWSTER; the enterprising stop it, but to give way to it; nothing ALLERTON ; the general firmness and can check it, but indulgence. It loses thoughtfulness of the whole band ; their its power only when it has gained its conscious joy for dangers escaped ; their object. The principle of toleration, to deep solicitude about dangers to come; which the world has come so slowly, is their trust in Heaven ; their high religious at once the most just and the most wise faith, full of confidence and anticipation : of all principles. Even when religious
all these seem to belong to this place, feeling takes a character of extravagance and to be present upon this occasion, to and enthusiasm, and seems to threaten fill us with reverence and admiration.”- the order of society, and shake the coPp. 11, 12.
lumns of the social edifice, its principal
danger is in its restraint. If it be allowed The causes of the Puritan emigra- indulgence and expansion, like the eletion are well described, its hazards mental fires it only agitates and, perhaps, are sketched with a glowing pencil, purifies the atmosphere, while its efforts and the folly of bigotry and the value to throw off restraint would burst the and force of religious liberty are as- world asuuder. serted in terms becoming the mouth
“ It is certain, that although many of of a member of one of the freest
them were Republicans in principle, we Christian States that has ever existed
have no evidence that our New-England
ancestors would have emigrated, as they in the world :
did, from their own native country, be11 « Of the motives which influenced the come wanderers in Europe, and finally first settlers to a voluntary exile, induced undertaken the establishment of a colony them to relinquish their native country, here, merely from their dislike of the and to seek an asylum in this then political systems of Europe. They fed unexplored wilderness, the first and prin. not so much from the civil government, as cipal, no doubt, were connected with from the Hierarchy and the laws which religion. They sought to enjoy a higher enforced conforunity to the Church Estadegree of religious freedom, and what blishment. Mr. Robinson had left England they esteemed a piirer form of religious as early as 1608, on account of the proseworship 'than was allowed to their choice cutions for Nonconformity, and had retired or presented to their imitation in the to Holland. He left England from no disold world. The love of religious liberty appointed ambition in affairs of state, from is a stronger sentiment, when fully ex- no regrets at the want of preferment in cited, than an attachment to civil or the Church, nor from any motive of dispolitical freedom. That freedom which tinction or of gain. Uniformity in matthe conscience demands, and which men ters of religion was pressed with such feel bound by their hopes of salvation to extreme rigour, that a voluntary exile seemed the most eligible mode of escaping and on account of the appearance of the from the penalties of poncompliance. horsemen, the boat never returned for The accession of Elizabeth had, it is true, the residue. Those who had got away, quenched the fires of Smithfield, and put and those who had not, were in equal an end to the easy acquisition of the distress. A storm, of great violence and crown of martyrdom. Her long reign long duration, arose at sea, which not had established the Reformation, but only protracted the voyage, rendered distoleration was a virtue beyond her con- tressing by the want of all those accomception and beyond the age. She left no modations which the interruption of the example of it to her successor; and he embarkation had occasioned, but also was not of a character which rendered it forced the vessel out of her course, and probable that a sentiment either so wise menaced immediatc shipwreck ; while or so liberal should originate with him. those on shore, when they were dismissed At the present period it seems incredible, from the custody of the officers of justice, that the learned, accomplished, unas having no longer homes or houses to suming and inoffensive Robinsou should retire to, and their friends and protectors neither be tolerated in his own peaceable being already gone, became objects of inode of worship, in his own country, necessary charity as well as of deep comnor suffered quietly to depart from it. miseration. Yet such was the fact. He left his “ As this scene passes before us, we country by stealth, that he might else- can hardly forbear asking, whether this where enjoy those rights which ought to be a band of malefactors and felons flying belong to men in all countries. The from justice? What are their crimes, embarkation of the Pilgrims for Holland that they hide themselves in darkness? is deeply interesting, from its circum- --To what punishment are they exposed, stances, and also as it marks the charac- that, to avoid it, men and women and ter of the times ; independently of its children thus encounter the surf of the connexion with names now incorporated North Sea and the terrors of a nightwith the history of empire. The em. storm? What induces this armed parbarkation was intended to be in the night, suit, and this arrest of fugitives, of all that it might escape the notice of the ages and both sexes ?-Truth does not otticers of government. Great pains had allow us to answer these inquiries in a been taken to secure boats, which should manner that does credit to the wisdom come undiscorered to the shore, and or the justice of the times. This was receive the fugitives ; and frequent dis- uot the flight of guilt, but of virtue. It appoiutments had been experienced in was an humble and peaceable religion, this respect. At length the appointed flying from causeless oppression. It was time came, bringiog with it unusual seve- conscience, attempting to escape from rity of cold and rain. An unfrequented the arbitrary rule of the Stuarts. It was and barrep heath, on the shores of Lin. Robinson and Brewster leading off their coloshire, was the selected spot, where little band from their native soil, at first the feet of the Pilgrims were to tread, to find shelter on the shores of the neighfor the last time, the land of their fa- bouring continent, but ultimately to come thers.
hither; and having surinounted all difti“ The vessel which was to receive culties, and brared a thousand dangers, them did not come until the next day, to find here a place of refuge and of rest. and in the mean time the little band was Thanks be to God, that this spot was hocollected, and men and women and chil. noured as the asylum of religious liberty. dren and baggage were crowded together, May its standard, reared here, remain in melancholy and distressed confusion. for ever!-May it rise up as high as The sea was rough, and the women and heaven, till its banyer shall fan the air children already sick, from their passage of both continents, and ware as a glorious down the river to the place of embarka- ensign of peace and security to the nation. At length the wished-for boat si- tions !"-Pp. 18-25. lently and fearfully approaches the shore, Having looked with the eye of a and men and women and children, shaking with fear and with cold, as many as
philosopher at the design and the the small vessel could bear, venture off
effect of colonies, ancient and modern, ou a dangerous sea. Immediately the
the orator proceeds : advance of horses is heard from behind, “ Different, indeed, most widely dif armed men appear, and those not yet ferent, from all these instances of emiembarked are seized, and taken into cus. gration, and plantation, were the condi. tody. In the hurry of the moment, there tion, the purposes and the prospects of had been po regard to the keepiug toge- our fathers, when they established their ther of families, in the first embarkation, infant colony upou this spot. They came