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hitber to a land from which they were the divine light of the Christian religion. never to return. Hither they had brought, Happy auspices of a happy futurity! Who and here they were to fix, their hopes, would wish that his country's existence their attachments and their objects, had otherwise begun ?-Who would deSome natural tears they shed, as they sire the power of going back to the ages ieft the pleasant abodes of their fathers, of fable? Who would wish for an origin, and sonie emotions they suppressed, when obscured in the darkness of antiquity ? the white, cliffs of their native couutry, Who would wish for other emblazoning now seen for the last time, grew dim to of his country's heraldry, or other ornatheir sight. They were acting, however, ments of her genealogy, than to be able upon a resolution not to bc changed. to say, that her first existence was with With whatever stifled regrets, with what- intelligence ; her first breath the inspiraerer occasional hesitation, with whatever tions of liberty; her first principle the appalling apprehensious, which might truth of divine religion ? sometimes arise with force to shake the Local attachments and sympathies firmest purpose, they had yet committed would ere long spring up in the breasts themselves to Heaven and the elements; of our ancestors, endearing to them the and a thousand leagues of water soon place of their refuge. Whatever natural interposed to separate them for ever from objects are associated with interesting the region which gave them birth. A scenes and high efforts, obtain a hold on new existence awaited them here; and human feeling, and demand from the when they saw these shores, rough, cold, heart a sort of recognition and regard. barbarous and barren as then they were, This Rock soon became hallowed in the they beheld their country. That mixed esteem of the Pilgrims, and these hills and strong feeling which we call love of grateful to their sight. Neither they nor country, and which is, in general, never their children were again to till the soil extinguished in the heart of man, grasped of England, nor again to traverse the and embraced its proper object here. seas which surrounded her. But here Whatever constitutes country, except the was a new sea, now open to their enterearth and the sun, all the moral causes prise, and a new soil, which had not of affection and attachment which ope- failed to respond gratefully to their labo. rate upon the heart, they had brought rious industry, and which was already with them to their new abode. Here assuming a robe of verdure. Hardly had were now their families and friends, their they provided shelter for the living, ere homes and their property. Before they they were summoned to erect sepulchres reached the shore, they had established for the dead. The ground had become the elements of a social system, and at a sacred, by enclosiug the remains of some much earlier period had settled their of their companions and connexions. A forms of religious worship. At the mo. parent, a child, a husband or a wife, had ment of their landing, therefore, they gone the way of all flesh, and mingled possessed institutions of government and with the dust of New England. We nainstitutions of religion : and friends and turally look with strong emotions to the families, and social and religious institu- spot, though it be a wilderness, where tions, established by consent, founded on the ashes of those we have loved repose. choice and preference, how nearly do Where the heart has laid down wbat these fill up our whole idea of country! it loved most, it is desirous of laying

-The morning that beamed on the first itself down. No sculptured marble, no night of their repose, saw the Pilgrims enduring monument, no honourable inalready established in their country. scription, no ever-burning taper that There were political institutions, and would drive away the darkness of death, civil liberty and religious worship. Poecan soften our sense of the reality of try has fancied nothing, in the wanderings mortality, and hallow to our feelings the of heroes, so distinct and characteristic. ground which is to cover us, like the Here was mau, indeed, unprotected and consciousness that we shall sleep, dust to unprovided for, on the shore of a rude dust, with the objects of our affections. and fearful wilderness ; but it was poli- “In a short time other causes sprung tic, intelligent and educated man. Every up to bind the Pilgrims with new cords thing was civilized but the physical world to their chosen land. Children were born, Institutions containing in substance all and the hopes of future generations arose, that ages had done for human govern- in the spot of their new habitation. The ment, were established in a forest. Cul- second generation found this, the land of tivated mind was to act on uncultivated their nativity, and saw that they were nature ; aud, more than all, a govern- bound to its fortunes, They beheld their ment and a country were to commence fathers' graves around then, and while with the very first foundations laid under they read the memorials of their toils and labours, they rejoiced in the inheritance sion of this traffic; and I would call on which they found bequeathed to them." all the true sons of New England, to -Pp. 40-45.

co-operate with the laws of man and the Mr. Webster briefly traces the his. justice of Heaven. If there be, within tory of the United States on which,

the extent of our knowledge or influence, and especially on the great event of any participation in this traffic, let us the Revolution, he justly thinks that

pledge ourselves here, upon the Rock of the peculiar, original character of the

Plymouth, to extirpate and destroy it. the


It is not fit that the land of the Pilgrims New - England colonies has had a should bear the shame longer. I hear strong and decided influence. One the sound of the hammer, I see the fact is stated by him which does great smoke of the furnaces where manacles honour to those colonists, viz., that and fetters are still forged for human the Revolution which deposed James limbs. ( see the visages of those who, II. from the British throne, was actu- by stealth and at midnight, labour in ally begun in Massachusetts !

this work of hell, foul and dark, as may The eloquent speaker is raised into become the artificers of such instruments high and swelling language by the re- 0

are bythere of misery and torture. Let that spot be view of the improvements that have

purified, or let it cease to be of New

England. Let it be purified, or let it be taken place in America, and of the nature and constitution of society and

the set aside from the Christian world; let

it be put out of the circle of human symgovernment in that interesting coun- pathies and human regards, and let civitry. There is scarcely an hyperbole, lized man henceforth have no communion however, in his loftiest descriptions. with it. He glories, like a wise and good man, I would invoke those who fill the seats in the provision which is made in the of justice, and all who minister at her constitutions of all the United States altar, that they execute the wholesome for universal education, but does not and necessary severity of the law. I seem inclined to overrate the degree invoke the ministers of our religion, that of intelligence or literature actuall.. they proclaim its denunciation of these attained by his countrymen. On one

crimes, and add its solemn sanctions to topic he dilates with a feeling and

the authority of human laws. If the

pulpit be silent, whenever, or wherever, power which are honourable to him.

there may be a sinner, bloody with this self, to his auditory, and may we not guilt, within the hearing of its voice, say to the land which gave him birth ? the pulpit is false to its trust. I call

“ I deem it my duty on this occasion on the fair merchant, who has reaped to suggest that the land is not yet wholly his harvest upon the seas, that he asfree from the contamination of a traffic, sist in scourging from those seas the at which every feeling of humanity must worst pirates which ever infested them. for ever revolt-I mean the African Slave That ocean, which seems to wave with Trade. Neither public sentiment nor a gentle magnificence to waft the burthe law, has hitherto been able entirely dens of an houest commerce, and to to put an end to this odious and abomi. roll along its treasures with a couscious nable trade. At the moment when God, pride ; that ocean, which hardy industry in his mercy, has blessed the Christian regards, even when the winds have rutfled world with an universal peace, there is its surface, as a field of grateful toil; reason to fear, that, to the disgrace of what is it to the victim of this oppression, the Christian name and character, new when he is brought to its shores, and efforts are making for the extension of looks forth upon it, for the first time, this trade, by subjects and citizens of from beneath chains, and bleeding with Christian states, in whose hearts no stripes? What is it to him, but a videsentiment of humanity or justice inha. spread prospect of suffering, anguish and bits, and over whom neither the fear death? Nor do the skies smile longer, of God nor the fear of man exercises nor is the air longer fragrant to him. a controul. In the sight of our law, the The sun is cast down from heaven. An African slave-trader is a pirate and a inhuman and accursed traffic has cut him felon; and in the sight of Heaven, an off in his manhood, or in his youth, from offender far beyond the ordinary depth of every enjoyment belonging to his being, human guilt. There is no brighter part and every blessing which his Creator of our history than that which records intended for him. the measures which have been adopted “ The Christian communities send by the government, at an early day, and forth their emissaries of religion and letat different times since, for the suppress ters, who stop, here and there, along the coast of the vast continent of Africa, and at least, that we possessed affections, with painful and tedious efforts, make which, running backward, and warming some almost imperceptible progress in with gratitude for what our ancestors the communication of knowledge, and in have done for our happiness, ruu forward the general improvement of the natives also to our posterity, and meet them who are immediately about them. Not with cordial salutation, ere yet they have thus slow and imperceptible is the trans- arrived on the shore of being. mission of the vices and bad passions “Advance, then, ye future generations ! which the subjects of Christian states We would hail you, as you rise in your carry to the land. The Slave Trade long succession, to fill the places which having touched the coast, its influence we now fill, and to taste the blessings and its evils spread, like a pestilence, of existence, where we are passing, and over the whole continent, making savage soon shall have passed, our own human wars more savage and more frequent, duration. We bid you welcome to this and adding new and fierce passions to pleasant land of the fathers. We bid the contests of barbarians..

you welcome to the healthful skies and « I pursue this topic no further ; ex- the verdant fields of New England. We cept again to say, that all Christendom greet your accession to the great inheri. being now blessed with peace, is bound tance which we have enjoyed. We wel. by every thing which belongs to its cha come you to the blessings of good governracter, and to the character of the pre ment and religious liberty. We welcome sent age, to put a stop to this ivhuman you to the treasures of science and the aud disgraceful traffic.”—Pp. 91–95. delights of learning. We welcome you The peroration to this Discourse is

to the transcendent sweets of domestic

life, to the happiness of kindred and pain a high strain of patriotism, morality rents and children. We welcome you to and piety :

the immeasurable blessings of rational « The hours of this day are rapidly

existence, the immortal hope of Chrisflying, and this occasion will soon be

tianity, and the light of everlasting passed. Neither we nor our children

Truth!”—Pp. 99–102. can expect to behold its return. They

From this account of Mr. Webster's are in the distant regions of futurity,

Discourse, and froin the few extracts they exist only in the all-creating power

that our limits have allowed us to of God, who shall stand here, a hundred make, the reader will, we think, feel a years hence, to trace, through us, their strong desire to see the whole of it; descent from the Pilgrims, and to survey, and we cannot help suggesting that as we have now surveyed, the progress the English bookseller would probably of their country during the lapse of a benefit himself, and largely serve the century. We would anticipate their con

public, who should regularly reprint currence with us in our sentiments of

such American publications as, like deep regard for our common ancestors.

this, are valuable contributions to the We would anticipate and partake the pleasure with which they will then re

history and the vindication of truth count the steps of New England's ad and liberty, although, perhaps, from vancement. On the morning of that day,

their very excellence, they are not although it will not disturb us in our wont to fall into the channel of trade repose, the voice of acclamation and gra between the booksellers of the two titude, commencing on the Rock of Ply- countries. * mouth, shall be transmitted through millions of the sons of the Pilgrims, till it lose itself in the murturs of the Pacific

Bristol, seas,


June 5, 1822. "We would leave for the consideration THE decisive tone of C'hronos, in of those who shall then occupy our places,

your last Number, (pp. 257, &c.,) some proof that we hold the blessings

renders it desirable, perhaps, to shew transmitted from our fathers in just

that I am not mistaken in imagining, estimation; some proof of our attachment to the cause of good government,

that, “ independently of the Introduce and of civil and religious liberty; some

tion to St. Matthew, there is no chroproof of a sincere and ardent desire to promote every thing which may enlarge the understandings and improve the * The regular supply of American pehearts of men. And when, from the riodical works (a desideratum) would be long distance of an hundred years, they naturally united with the plan here reshall look back upon us, they shall know, VOL. XVII.

2 y


nological difficulty whatever in St. Herod died some time before a Luke's Introduction." #

Passover either in A. U. 750, or in I am the more desirous to explain A.U. 751. In the statement to which the grounds of my assertion, (which I Chronos refers, I assumed the former, made, and now repeat, with full con- which I now think (for a reason which viction, because in the two last edi- I shall state hereafter) to be less protions of the Improved Version, after a bable than the latter ; but I will purreference made to my hypothesis re- sue the calculation on A. U. 750, as specting the passage in Luke which the less favourable to my argument. is usually considered as teaching the If we suppose the birth of Christ to miraculous conception, I find it stated, have occurred about a year after the that "at any rate the chronological death of Herod, this brings us to the difficulty remains the same.".

spring of A. U. 751. In that case he The only points of chronological was thirty years old in the spring of difficulty are the following :

A.U. 781. 1. That St. Luke's statement of the The fifteenth year of Tiberius, recktime when the Baptist began his mi. oning from the death of Augustus, nistry, compared with our Lord's age began Aug. 19, A.U. 78). The bapat his baptism, assigns a period for tism of Christ may be placed in the his birth which is inconsistent, it is latter part of January or in February, supposed, with the Introductory Nar. A.U. 782, when he would not have rative.

completed his 31st year. II. That the Census spoken of in St. Luke's words in iii. 23, are not Luke ii. 1, did not take place till se at all inconsistent with this : they are, veral years after the birth of Christ. Kai autos ny o Inorous WO EI ETWY TPIAKOTA

The latter I think quite clear; and apXOVEYOG. The literal rendering of it is virtually declared by the histo. the clause is, “And Jesus himself rian, as I shall state afterwards. was about thirty years old when

1. The first difficulty solely arises beginning :” and on considering from combining the chronology of the the connexion, and observing the lanIntroduction to St. Matthew's Gospel, guage of the Evangelist in ch. i. 2, with that of St. Luke's. In our pre- and Acts i. 22, I have no difficulty in sent inquiry we have nothing to do supplying the ellipsis. I would, therewith the former. The communica- fore, translate the clause thus : “And tion made to Zacharias in the temple, Jesus himself was about thirty years is 'fixed by the historian (ch, i, 5) to old when he began his ministry;" and the reign of Herod ; but nothing that so it is translated by Newcome, and occurs afterwards requires us to place by the Geneva Version of 1805, and any other fact recorded in the Intro- probably by others also. duction before his death. Chronos Hence it appears that even taking asserts the contrary; and I must no- the more unfavourable supposition retice his assertion; but in the first in- specting the time of Herod's death, stance I will pursue my own train of there is no discrepancy between the calculation.

dates in the third chapter of Luke, The historian (ch. i. 26) places the and the Introduction. Annunciation to the Virgin Mary, in What I have thought the decisive the sixth month after the heavenly argument for the earlier date of Hemessage to Zacharias. If the birth of rod's death, viz., A.U. 750, is the reChrist occurred nine months after markable eclipse of the moon which that period, (on which supposition, occurred not long before, on the night to simplify the question, we may pro- when the Jewish Rabbies were burnt eeed,) still it might have been fourteen at Jericho by Herod's order. This is months after the death of Herod. Of assumed to have been on the 13th of course it might have been less. March, A.U. 750. But it appears

from Playfair's Tables, that there was • Chronos makes his quotation from a total eclipse of the moon at Jericho an extract given by the Reviewer of my on the 11th of January, A. U. 751. Reply to Bishop (now probably 'Arch- This far better accords with the -bishop) Magee. The reader' may be re- events narrated by Josephus, between ferred to the whole Note in p. 299. the death of the Rabbies and the Pas


sover, (for which the earlier date al- If Luke's 15th year of Tiberius lows barely a month,) and it gives the really began in A.U. 778 or 779, the other arguments for the later date a baptism of Christ might be placed at preponderating influence.

the latest in February 780. In that Taking the spring of A. U. 751 for case he might have been born in the the death of Herod, we need not place summer or autumn of 749, eighteen the birth of Christ before the spring or twenty months before the death of of A. U. 752; and he would not then Herod, in the spring of 751; and this have completed his thirtieth year till is the shortest period which the Introafter his baptism, supposing that to duction to Matthew will allow. But have occurred as above-stated.

if the baptism of Christ be placed in Once inore, I see nothing in the In- February 782, (and reckoning the troductory Narrative to fix the time of reign of Tiberius from the death of Christ's birth to nine months after the Augustus it cannot be earlier,) followAnnunciation. Upon the hypothesis ing the Introduction to Matthew, he which I have advanced in the Appen- must have been considerably above dix to the 2d Edition of Unitarianism thirty-two years old at his baptism. the Doctrine of the Gospel, respecting Following what I cannot but regard the interpretation of ch. i. 26–33, it is as the only legitimate reckoning of the clear from ch. i. 39, 56, that the birth of reign of Tiberius, the ministry of the Christ could not have taken place till at Baptist might have begun any time least twelve months after the Annunci- between August 19, A.U. 781 and ation; and even on the common inter- August 19, 782. If it were in the pretation, it is in no way necessary to spring or summer of 782, then we fix upon an earlier period. So that if must refer the baptism of Christ to Herod died so early as March, A.U. February 783. This would increase 750, we need not place the birth of the discrepancy between the IntroducChrist before August in A. U. 751, in tion to Matthew, and the dates of which case he would be about thirty Luke; but it would not invalidate the years and a half old at his baptism. Introduction of his own Gospel. Tak

When I wrote the Appendix above- ing the later date of Herod, we need mentioned, and the article in the not place the birth of Christ before Monthly Repository (Jan. 1811) to the middle of 752; and still he would which it refers, I adopted Lardoer's be less than thirty-one at his baptism. opinion that St. Luke reckoned from (See Table, col. 5.) the time when Tiberius assumed the The following table exhibits the proconsular government, in connexion leading modifications of the principal with Augustus, A.U. 764 or 765. dates, according as we fix upon 750 The supposition that such a mode of or 751 for the death of Herod; each reckoning the commencement of his of which is sufficiently accordant with reign was at all in use, rests, however, the dates of Luke's Gospel, and vindion very uncertain data ; that it was cates the Introduction from this chronot prevalent is certain; and that nological difficulty: Luke employed it, is therefore highly improbable.

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(3) Herod's Death Mar. 750 ibid. Mar. 1, 751 Birth of Christ Mar. 751 Aug. 751 Feb. 25, 751 Christ 30 years old Mar. 781 Aug. 781 Feb. 25, 781 | 15th of Tiberius - | Aug. 781 | ibid.

Baptist's ministry Sept. 781 ibid. 1. ibid.
Baptism of Christ Feb. 7821 ibid. Jan. 25, 782
Christ's age · 31


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Hence I think it clear, that the II. The question of the Census is statements of Luke iii, 1, 23, present more simple, and alike satisfactory. no chronological objection whatever W hat the historian tells us in ch.ü. to the authenticity of the introductory 1-3 is, that Augustus issued a decree chapters of his Gospel.

for the enrolment of the whole land,

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