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of the parties, whether they retain or chapel should be a matter of separate are excluded from immediate influ- agreeipent between the heads or deleence in their general concerns, I would gates of the congregation on the one ask, what can be more hostile to the hand, and the trustees or proprietors principles of dissent? What is it but of the building on the other. Where another version of the mode in which the building is private property, the clerical appointinents in the Establish- terms will require an annual rent for ed Church are filled ? In the latter, the chapel entire, or for pews sepaindeed, the power is often lodged in rately; ivhere it is held in trust for a the hands of individuals, or of bodies, particular class of worshipers, it may who have no other connexion with the be lent to people of that class in conpeople immediately interested; and sideration of their keeping the preperhaps some cases as extravagant mises in repair, or of their paying a may be found amongst ourselves; but sum equivalent to the repairs; and in as far as relates to those inembers of either case, other conditions may be the congregation, be their numbers prescribed as to the duration of the greater or less, who have no voice in occupancy ;-it may be for a year, for the election of their minister, the two years, or while certain doctrines principle is one and the same. To are taught therein. In short, this spethem it can make no difference by cies of arrangement is susceptible of whom the appointment was made every security that can be obtained by they had no share in it; and if they any other; and I am not aware of any deem it a duty to attend public wor- disadvantage which can possibly result ship, they are subject to precisely the from it. same inconvenience as the unpretend- It is true, difficulties may in some ing followers of the hierarchy. cases present themselves in the terms

But it is contended that this system in which certain clauses of old Trust is necessary to secure the property in Deeds are expressed; but I suspect the chapel for the use of Unitarian that, the spirit being willing, other difworshipers and from the invasion of ficulties of the same nature, and quite interlopers of every description. If equal in magoitude, have in many inno other means can be pointed out stances been surmounted; and I am by which this object may be fully ac- confident that a willing spirit would complished, and which are at the not fail to remove such as we now same time altogether free from the contemplate the possible or probable objections which so decidedly apply to existence of. But be this as it may; these, it may be admitted that there the argument has no force in relation is something in the argument. But to those chapels which are now buildif it can be shewn that other means ing, or which may hereafter be built. are within our reach, and only require I am fully aware, Sir, that the printo be called into operation, it must, on ciple which I contend for will meet the other hand, be acknowledged, that with objectors; for old habits and old among Dissenters, rational Dissenters, prejudices do not like to be disturbed ; who, claiming for themselves the ut- but I do not think it necessary to anmost freedom and independence of ticipate what may hereafter be adjudgment, owe it to their own consis- vanced; I am satisfied with this entency neither to withhold nor to in- deavour to place the subject in a clear terfere with the right of others to point of view, in the hope of leading exercise the like freedom and inde- to a further discussion. pendence,-it must, I say, be acknow

J. B. ledged, that every restraint on the individual rights of the members of a congregation, and more especially on Book-Worm. No. XXVIII. that most important right, a voice in the election of the pastor, ought in


June 8, 1822. stantly to be removed.

THEN I proposed, ten years ago, Let us then proceed in our inquiry. to become your occasional I have already said that the constitúe correspondent, I took the precaution tion of the Society and the tenure in of claiming for my lucubrations, the the chapel ought not to be confound- liberty which, I acknowledge, you ed. In fact, the occupation of the have always allowed me, to pass free



“ to

ly, as inclinatiou might lead, or the ingenious men,” at length procured occasion might require,

“a present of twenty guineas," in “ From grave to gay, from sportive to acknowledgment of the poet's comsevere."

pliment. In this Number I shall invite

In those days a poem was no sooner your

finished than policy was engaged to readers, not unseasonably, to the Summer of Thomson; offering to their select a patron Johnson relates that acceptance the result of a comparison

Thomson, having been some time which I made, when I had some lei- entertained in the family of Lord Binsure for such amusements, between ning, was desirous of testifying his Summer, in the edition of the Seasons gratitude by making him the patron which is in every one's hands, and of his Summer ; but the same kindthe first edition of the Poem, pub- Binning to encourage him, determined

ness which had first disposed Lord lished separately under the following him to refuse the Dedication, which Title: Summer. A Poem. By James

was by his advice addressed to Mr. Thomson.

Dodington, a man who had more

power to advance the reputation and «c Jam clarus occultum Andromedæ Pater fortune of a poet." Ostendit ignem. Jam Procyon furit

Thomson, though he declines “ Et stella vesani Leonis,

run into the common track of dedicaSole dies referente siccos.

tors, and attempt a panegyric,” and « « Jam pastor umbras cum grege languido, though he is aware of “a certain geRivumque fessus quærit, et horridi

nerous delicacy in men of the most Dumeta Sylvani; caretque

distinguished merit, disposing them to Ripa vagis taciturna ventis.

avoid those praises they so powerHor.'.

fully attract,” yet ventures to pub“London: Printed for J. Millan, lish the discovery he has made, that at Locke's-Head in New Street, near his patron possesses “a character, the upper End of the Haymarket. in which the Virtues, the GRACES MDCCXXVII."

and the Muses join their influence;" A Dedication follows, “to the and that his “ example has recomRight Hon. Mr. Dodington, one of mended Poetry, with the greatest the Lords of his Majesty's Treasury, grace-an art,

,he adds, “in whichi &c.” The poet, lately arrived from you are a master,-one of the finest, his native Scotland, at the great Bri: and consequently one of the most intish mart of talents, had dedicated dulgent, judges of the age ;” worthy Winter, in 1726, to Sir Spencer to * be transmitted to future times as Compton, from whom, according to the British MÆCENAS.Johnson, « some verses which cen

In 1730, on the publication of the sured the great for their neglect of Seasons, in a connected form, this

prose adulation was commuted, as it

has been in all succeeding editions, • Carm. L. iii. Od. xxix. thus trans. for eleven lines of flattery in verse, lated by Francis :

imputing to the patron, among other “ Andromeda's conspicuous sire

high qualities, Now darts his hidden beams from

“ Unblemish'd honour; and an active The Lion shews his madn'ing fire,

zeal And barks tierce Procyon's raging For Britain's glory, liberty and man."

star, While Phæbus, with revolving ray, Such was the Dodington of à Brings back the burnings of the thirsty grateful, or rather an expectant Bard, day.

who predicts in his Dedication, as to “ Fainting beneath the swelt'ring heat,

many virtues” of liis patron, To cooling streams and breezy shades that “posterity alone will do them The shepherd and his flocks retreat,

justice." Instructed by that invaluaWhile rustic sylvans seek the glades. ble dissection of a court, “The Diary Silent the brook its borders laves, of the late George Bubb Dodington, Nor curls one vagrant breath of wind Baron of Melcombe Regis," posterity the waves."

has done, and will continue to do him


the is

justice, not imputing to him, with his “Unresting, changeless,' matchless, in poet, "unblemished honour,” &c., but their Course; rather allowing his claim to that To Day, and Night, and the delightful “bad eminence" on which he has

Round placed himself, among the corrupt

Of Seasons, faithful ; not excentric once;

So pois'd and perfect is the vast Macourtiers and place-hunters of his

chine !" day. “The people,” says Dr. Knox,

For lines 112-140 were the follow(Spirit of Despotism, 1795, Sect. ing, in 1727, all, except the two first, xx. p. 170,) “have been called, not quite different from what now appear: only venal wretches,(as “the electors of Bridgewater" were described Parent of Seasons ! from whose rich

“ The vegetable World is also thine, by Lord Melcombe,) “but the swi

stain'd Rays, nish multitude. Long and tiresome Reflected various, various Colours rise : books have been written to run down The freshening Mantle of the youthful the people, as destitute of virtue,

Year; principle, of every thing honest and The wild Embroidery of the wat'ry Vale; honourable, and that can give them with all that chears the Eye, and charms any right to interfere with the grand the Heart. mysteries of a cabinet. But he who “ The branching Grove thy lusty Proreads and considers duly the very strik- duct stands, ing anecdotes and conversations in To quench the fury of thy Noov-Career ; Lord Melcombe's Diary, will see, And crowd a shade for the retreating that, in order to find venality in its

Swain, full growth, and survey sordidness in When on his russet Fields You look di

rect. its complete state of abomination, it will be necessary to turn from low to Fruit is thy Bounty too, with Juice high life. - This Bubb Dodington, replete, after selling himself, betraying the Acid, or mild; and from thy Ray re

ceives prince, and offering his six members to the best bidder, was made a Lord. A Flavour pleasing to the Taste of Man. He was created Baron of Melcombe By Thee concocted, blushes; and by

Thee Regis, as a reward for such prostitu- Fully maturd, into the verdant Lap tion of principles as ought to have of industry, the mellow Plenty falls. caused him to be branded in the fore

“ Extensive Harvests wave at thy Comhead with a mark of indelible infa

mand, my. “Such men,” concludes Dr. Knox, Bends unwithholding, to the Reaper's

And the bright Ear, consolidate by Thee, “ hate the people. They love no- Hand, thing but themselves, the emoluments

“ Even Winter speaks thy Power, of places, the distinction of titles, and

whose every Blast, the pomp and vanity of the courts in O'ercast with Tempest, or severely sharp which they flatter and are flattered. With breathing Frost, is eloquent of They will ever wish for a military go- Thee, vernment to awe the saucy crowd, And makes us languish for thy vernal and keep them from intruding on Gleams. their own sacred privileges and per- « Shot to the Bowels of the teeming sons. The Herculean hand of a vir

Earth, tuous people can alone cleanse the The ripening Ore confesses all thy Augean stable of a corrupted court Flame." formed of miscreant toad-eaters like Lord Melcombe.”

Instead of the paragraph, lines 185 In this first publication of Summer, 191, the following appears in 1727, it extended only to 1148 lines. In and in the edition of the Seasons, 1730 it was increased to 1205; and in 1730: the later editions it has reached to 1804 lines. I shall proceed to notice

every faultering

Tongue of Man, the principal variations and additions.

ALMIGHTY POET ! silent in thy Praise, Instead of the lines now read, 38 Thy matchless Works, in each exalted –42, the Planets were described in Line, 1727 and 1730 as

And all the full, harmonic Universe,

« And yet


sisted eye

Would, tuneful, or expressive, Thee at- And keen Reflection pain. Burnt to the test,

Heart The Cause, the Glory, and the End of Are the refreshless Fields; their arid All!"


Adds a new Fever to the sickening Soul : Thomson, introducing “the reptile

And, o'er their slippery Surface, wary, young” when they come wing'd

treads abroad,” describes them in the later The Foot of thirsty Pilgrim, often dipt editions (line 247) as

In a cross Rill, presenting to his wish “ of all the vary'd hues A living Draught, He feels before He Their beauty-beaming parent can dis

drinks ! close."

No more the Woods return the sandy

Sound For these lines the judgment of the

Of sharpening Sithe." poet had discarded the following minute enumeration which appeared in

After line 457, in 1727 and 1730, 1727 and 1730:

were the following :

« Who shall endure !—The too resplen. “green, speckled, yellow,

deut Scene
Black, azure, brown, inore than th' as-

Already darkens on the dizzy Eye ;
And double Objects dance : unreal

Of poring Virtuoso can discerp."

Sing round the Ears: a Weight of sultry The lines 287–317, on microsco

Dew pic discoveries, are not in the editions Hangs, deathful, on the Limbs : shirer of 1727 or 1730. They were trans

the Nerves : ferred into the later editions of Sum- The supple Sinews sink; and on the mer, from the early edition of Spring, Heart, where they thus followed line 136 of Misgiving, Horror lays his heavy hand." that poem :

These were afterwards omitted, “ These are not idle philosophic dreams, “perhaps," as a critic on the Seasons Full Nature swarms with life. Th' un- conjectures, because “they reprefaithful fen

sented the distress felt under the sulIn putrid steams," &c.

try heat of summer in colours ridicuInstead of the lines 324–328, the lously aggravated.” following appeared in 1727 and 1730:

Instead of lines 556—560, were

these in 1727, and, with a slight varia“So on the concave of a sounding tion, in 1730 :

On swelling Columns heav'd, the Pride

“ And, frequent, at the middle Waste of of Art!

Night, Wauders a critic Fly; his feeble Ray Or, all Day long, in Desarts still, are Extends an Inch around; yet, blindly

heard, bold,

Now here, now there, now wheeling in He dares dislike the Structure of the mid-sky, Whole."

Around, or underneath, aerial sounds, In 1727 and 1730, for line 337 were

Sent from angelic Harps, and Voices

join'd.” the following:

The address to Miss Stanley, lines “Recoiling giddy Thought: or with 564—584, was not added till after sharp Glance,

1738. On the same subject, Thomson Such as remotely-wafting Spirits use, has an epitaph, which appears among Surrey'd the Glories of the little World ?” his miscellaneous poetry. The 80 lines which follow line 35!; following appear in 1727, and, except

In the place of lines 590—606, the on Haymaking and Sheepshearing, did the two first lines, in 1730: not appear in 1727. The lines on Haymaking are in the edition 1730. “ Like one who flows in Joy, when,

For lines 437–444 were originally, and in 1730, the following:

Misfortune hurls Him down the Hill of

Life, “ Down to the dusty Earth the Sight, Smooth, to the giddy Brink a lucid o'er-power'd,

Stream Stoops for Relief; but thence ascending Rolls, upsuspecting, till, surpris’d, 'tis Steams,


all at once,

In loose Meanders, thro' the trackless England justly claims the honour Air;

of having first established a Free Press, Now a blue wat’ry Sheet, anon, dispers’d, In the reign of Charles I., the liberty A hoary Mist, then, gather'd in agaiu, of the press, as well as religious toleA darted Stream, aslant the hollow rock, ration, was generally deemed of danThis Way, and that torinented, dashing thick,

gerous tendency, and therefore inFrom Steep to Steep, with wild, infract. compatible with good government. ed Course,

Experience, however, has taught us And restless, roaring to the humble that they are the harbingers of peace vale.

and happiness. To freedom of writ“With the rough Prospect tir'd, I turning may be traced the improved con

dition of society. The establishment my eyes Where, in long Visto, the soft murmur. of toleration, the abolition of the Slave ing Main

Trade, the diffusion of education, and Darts a green Lustre, trembling, thro' the extension of representative governthe Trees;

ment, all emanated from an advanced Or to yon Silver-streaming Threads of and cultivated state of the human Light,

mind, which was chiefly promoted by À showery Beauty beaming thro' the a Free Press. The advantages derived Boughs."

from liberty of conscience are conspiAn account of the variations and cuous in every country where it preadditions in the remainder of this vails—in England, in America, even poem, I must reserve for the next in Indostan. Compare, for example, number,

the conduct of the famous Mogul VERMICULUS. Emperors Akbar and Aurungzebe.

Akbar, influenced by a philosophic A Letter to a Deputy of the Portu- spirit, encouraged the most perfect

religious freedom, He called into the

presence a Portuguese priest, and the. [The subjoined letter contains a

ologians of various other persuasions, concise view of the probable effects of for the purpose of freely discussing a Free Press on the superstition, the the great question of religion. The laws and manners of the Hindoos and consequence was, that, during his long the surrounding world. It is signed reign, religious rancour having never “ Leicester Stanhope ;” but whether been excited, there was no holy war. this be the real or the assumed name Far different was the conduct of Auof the writer, is a matter of no con- rungzebe. For nearly half a century quence.]

he kept the sword of Mahomed reek

London, ing in the blood of the unfortunate Sir,

March 2, 1822. Hindoos. But on his death-bed his AVING witnessed in British conscience smote him, and he ex

guese Cortes.

Press under a Censor, and the bene- admonition to his sons :—" If in our ficial effects of a Free Press, I am prosperity,” says Aurungzebe,“ we anxious to call the attention of your ever forget our duties, sooner or later enlightened mind to the great benefit the day of repentance must come-it which the latter policy, exercised at is inevitable.” These words are reGoa, would confer on Asia-Asia, markable, as proceeding from a mohitherto debased and demoralized by narch who knew no limit to his ages of impious priestcraft and dark power but the will of God. “On despotism.

whatever side I turn my thoughts,” It may naturally be expected that continued he, “ I behold nothing but the patriot Senators of the Portuguese evidences of the Divinity.” Cortes, who have emancipated their I shall now briefly notice to you native country, will next take into certain great evils that prevail under consideration the reformation of their the theocracy of Indostan, and shall colonies; and I have ventured to ad- endeavour to prove that they can be dress myself to you, of whom fame removed only by means of education, speaks as eminently entitled to a lead- and a Free Press. The Hindoos are ing influence in that august Assembly. divided into castes, all under the do,

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