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of the course of instruction pursued, the Septuagint in connexion with the and of the spirit in which it is con- Hebrew, ducted, is by giving an extract or two Up to this time we have read the old from the account which has been Testament, partly in English and partly drawn up by the pupils themselves.
mselves in Hebrew, from the beginving of Genesis
to the end of the second book of Samuel. The first extract is taken from a
And we have read the four Gospels and letter, addressed to Dr. Spencer, writ
a part of the Acts of the Apostles in ten by one of the pupils of the first
Greek; also some of St. Paul's Epistles. class, and is dated Bristol, Nov, 14, 1816.
Account of the Progress of the
Second Class. MY DEAR SIR, As, you have requested from me some One of Dr. Spencer's pupils commenced account of what has been done by us in with four pupils at the beginning of the the prosecution of your excellent plan for year 1818. Up to the date of this paper, the diffusion of sacred knowledge, I pre- viz, October 31st, 1820, they have read sent you with the followiug, which is as nearly the whole of the book of Genesis, completę as my data have enabled me to some of the Psalms of David, and a little make it.
in the Prophecies, in the Hebrew. Part July, 1814. Commenced with the of the Gospels of Matthew and Luke in English and Hebrew Grammar. Read the Greek, Murray's English Grammar, Exercises in Reading. Soon after began Watts's Logic, Gibbon's Rhetoric, part of the Hebrew Scriptures, commencing with Paley's Theology and Kuckford's" ConGenesis. Read Paley's Natural Theology nexion, with a considerable portion of and Gibbon's Rhetoric.
the English Scriptures. Jan. 1815. Began the Greek Gram. On January 1, 1820, one of the pupils mar, and soon after to read the Greek of of the second class began with four pupils. the New Testament. Read also Watts's Up to the date of this paper, October Logic: after finishing which, read the 23rd of the same year, they have read first volume of Blackstone's Commenta. the Hebrew Grammar, the four last ries, for the sake of the style and com- chapters of Deuteronomy, and the thirtyposition; and afterwards Harris's Hermes, fourth chapter of Genesis, Murray's Enor Philosophical Grammar. In October, glish Grammar, Wates's Logic, one quarbegan to read Prideaux's Connexion of ter of it In Greek to the sixth chapter the History of the Old and New Testa- of Luke, and in the English Scriptures ment. In November, commenced reading to the tenth chapter of Joshua. Abstract of the Business done by the Fourth Class, from 1st of August to the
28th of October, 1820 : Of Watts's Logic,
To the third Part of fifth Section. Of Murray's English Grammar,
| Orthog. Etymol. and to Rule 9
of Syntax, of English Scriptures,
Shas been readTo the twenty-third chapter of
Exodus, Of Hebrew Grammar,
Twice throughout. Of Hebrew Bible,
Eight chapters parsed partially
and translated entirely. It has been stated that there was gesting the Sacred Scriptures, and in one of the pupils of the second class gaining the knowledge of the language who, in the year 1820, bad not taken in which they were originally written : any pupils. How that happened the that this pursuit has atforded him writer of this paper does not know: much profit and great pleasure; that but he has seen a letter from this it has brought him peace and quiet gentleman, addressed to Dr Spencer, ness of mind ; that it has produced a in which he speaks in the highest thirst for investigation which can be terms of the advantages he has re- satisfied only by the endeavour to acceived from the institution. He states quire accurate knowledge, and to arthat at the period at which he is ad- rive at a rational conviction of the dressing his instructor, the close of truth : that, but for this course of rethe six-and-twentieth year of his life, ligious instruction, he thinks it but he could say, what he never before too probable that he should never could say, that regular hours of the again have given himself any concern day had been spent in reading and di- respecting the Scriptures, or the subject of religion in general, and that it bued with the spirit of Jesus Christ is his earnest desire to shew, by a should be capable of engaging in war, uniform attention to the subject, how or of giving its sanction to the inflicsensible he is of the obligation which tion of death on an erring felloiphas been conferred upon him.
creature. From the preceding account the Perhaps it may not be improper to following conclusions will be admitted add, that there is an obvious and imto be just.
portant application of this plan which In the first place, that this plan is entitles it to the peculiar attention of well adapted to teach an accurate, the Unitarian body. Many Unitarian connected and critical knowledge of congregations are incapable of supthe Scriptures.
porting a minister in comfort; but Secondly, that it is no less calculated there is not one of these, however to inbue the mind with the principles, poor, which does not possess too much and the heart with the affections, which knowledge and cultivation to be satisit is the great design of the Christian fied with the services of a religious religion to impart. The tendency of instructor who is not a person of eduthe business and the pleasures of life cation. It is obvious, that by this to weaken those principles, and to plan persons may be trained to fill counteract the influence of those af- such stations with perfect ease to fections, has been felt and lamented themselves, without at all interfering by every reflective and pious mind: with their ordinary occupations, and but it is scarcely possible that in the with exceeding satisfaction and adranearly period of life, and it is only by tage to the church. intelligent and ingenuous youth who And it is probable that nothing will have the wisdom to desire clearer and ever be devised better calculated to deeper information on the most im- train up missionaries, to give them portant subjects, and ardour sufficient the information, and to form them to to enable them to make some sacrifi- the habits which are necessary to enaces to accomplish the best and noblest ble them to perform the duties of wish of their heart, that this plan can their office with ability and zeal. be expected to be adopted, it is There are inany and great advanscarcely possible that in the early tages in the institution of a separate period of life, the mind should daily order of men for conducting the pubcontemplate, with seriousness, for the lic services of religion. It is on every long space of six years, the enlight- account highly proper that such perened and pure and benevolent princi- sons should have that regular and ples of Christianity without the hap- thorough education, that deep and piest effect. It is scarcely possible accurate learning, and that clearness, that a human being should grow up elegance and cloquence of style, which under an influence so truly benignant, will render their services attractive to without his heart becoming enamoured men of literature and science, and of whatever is really excellent; with qualify them to defend with success out his having a clear and strong and the cause of religion and truth, both instantaneous and unerring perception against those who disbelieve and who of whatever is great and good in feel- misbelieve. But so rare are these ing and conduct; without his having endowments, and so much time and an unconquerable aversion to every labour does it require to mature theni, thing that is base and selfish and ser. that, under institutions the best adaptvile. That such a man should always ed to develope the faculties, and with be found on the side of whatever is the dedication of the whole of life to humane in legislation, of whatever is their cultivation, there are comparafree in political institutions, of what. tively few who possess them in great ever is pure in religion, is no more perfection : it is, therefore, scarcely than that an effect should follow its reasonable to expect that they would cause. That he should ever be a slave, exist at all were that tiine and labour or a tyrant, or a bigot, or a persecutor, considerably abridged. is no more possible than that the But while the value of men thus beam of the sun should cease to give gifted, must be admitted, it is difficult forth light, or than that a mind im- either to understand the principle, or
to sympathize with the feeling which I know not what else "liis meaning would render them absolutely essen- could be than this,-Do not debase tial to the performance of the services religion by spreading it ostensibly over of religion, and exclude all others, in the ordinary concerns of life, and, by their absence, from the exercise of making it of trite occurrence, lessen their functions. It is surely as dis- the veneration which would be attached graceful as it is inconvenient, that to it, if less familiarly introduced and when a minister is prevented by sick- appealed to. As a man of real couness, or any unavoidable engagement, rage does not “ wear his dagger in from performing his stated duties, his mouth," neither is it, in my humthere should be in a Christian con- ble apprehension, requisite for a Chrisgregation, in the present day, no tian, -habitual as his sense may be of Christian man both able and willing the Divine presence, and of the necesto fill the office of his pastor with edi sity of conforming all his actions to fication to the church. And were the the will of that Being whose inspecexcellent plan which has been stated, tion of them he is conscious of, ---to to become at all general in our con- make that consciousness the burthen gregations, such a state of things could of his hourly song. Religion is a not possibly exist.
subject that no man ought to shrink - In the last place, this plan is obvi- from, but, when superinduced upon ously capable of being applied to the all others, and as it were mechaniacquisition of any kind of knowledge cally, it is apt to become a lambent whatever. Literature, science and flame, neither lighting nor warming. philosophy might be cultivated in this A talkative piety, in what differs it manner with the greatest success, and from that of the Pharisees? A deep without any material inconvenience by and settled piety will be more felt those who are actively engaged in the than expressed. Religion is a concern business of life. In a word, the more chiefly between man and his Makerit is examined, the more it will pro- I had almost said a confidential onebably appear to be one of the most and though a Christian should not be simple and effectual means of un- slow to avow the intimacy which he learning what is erroneous, of acquir- humbly cultivates in that quarter, when ing what is true, and of diffusing the required by any serious occasion for blessings of knowledge over the face it, I do not think those the best Chrisof the whole earth, which the wise tians, who are in the habit of professhave yet projected, or the benevolenting to do all and every thing to the attempted to carry into execution. glory of God, which (whatever be
S. S. meant by it) can have no connexion
with a great majority of the transacBrief Notes on the Bible. tions of life, and can only be impliNo. XX.
cated in such as involve morality of
conduct.” “ Be not righteous overmuch.” I HAVE been favoured with the
July 8, 1822. perusal of “ Influence, a Moral Tale," the production of a very amia
TT is a practice to which I have long ble lady. It is from the school of
I adhered, to search for knowledge sanctity; and, on returning the work, wherever it is to be found; and if I I took the liberty of appending to it can discern any chance of meeting the following note, which perhaps may
with a satisfactory answer to my inbe honoured, as of general application,
quiries, I would consult the pages of by a place in your Repository..
the Unitarian Repository, or of the BREVIS.
Evangelical Magazine, with as much
readiness as the more imposing tomes “ Religion is incomparably the
of orthodox theology. Locke's Essay greatest of man's earthly comforts,
on the Understanding, you may probut, when Solomon delivered the injunction,
bably know, is one of our standard
books of examination at Cambridge, * Be not righteous overmuch,' and hence the members of this Uni
versity are sometimes found to indulge * Eccles. vii. 16.
in metaphysical speculations which VOL. XVII.
would probably be discountenanced in creature must be ascribed to the will any other seat of learning on this side of the Omnipotent; as I apprehend of the Tweed.
that the inference will remain unal- It is an opinion which prevails among tered, whether the present course of a numerous class of Christians, and things is simply permitted, or exmore particularly, I believe, among pressly ordained. The doctrine of those of the Unitarian persuasion, that final annihilation is, I am aware, maina future state cannot be satisfactorily tained by some persons, but though proved except by revelation. I con- preferable to the notion of never-endfess tu never could concur in this ing punishment, it is by no means sentiment; for, without having recourse sufficient to satisfy the mind on this to any arguments which have been momentous question. deduced from the immateriality of the Of the benevolence of the great soul, I conceive that this most impor. Parent of the universe, who that has tant doctrine is capable of convincing ever contemplated the beauties of naproof from an attentive consideration ture or the structure of the human of the Divine character. This is not frame, can entertain a moment's the place for entering into the ques. doubt? But if benevolent at all, it tion with the minuteness which it de- follows, as a necessary consequence, serves, and I must, therefore, content that he must be so in an infinite demyself with merely suggesting a few gree. Limit the extent of this, or any hints. It appears to me to be utterly other of the Divine attributes, and you impossible to establish the equity of destroy the fundamental proof of an the Deity without recurring to a fu- uncaused, self-existent Deity. How ture state of existence, and to the then can the infinite goodness of the altimate happiness of the whole hu- Supreme Intelligence remain unimman race. A preponderance of evil peached, if any of his creatures be allotted to any sentient, and much compelled to endure physical and mo more to any rational being, taking the ral evils which do not terminate in whole of his existence into considera- good? And how is it possible that tion, appears to be totally inconsistent these evils should thus terminate, unwith all our ideas respecting justice less we admit the truth of an existence and equity. The case of a single in hereafter, and of the final restitution dividual in these circumstances is of the whole rational creation? I equally strong with that of a multitude, would ask, therefore, first, wby a fu. and, in my apprehension, equally mi. ture state cannot be as satisfactorily bitates against the benevolence or the proved to the mind of the philosopher power of the Creator. Now it cannot by necessary inferences from the be denied, that if death is to be the known attributes and character of the final termination of our existence, Deity, as to the inlettered Christian many human beings will be found to by the declarations of Scripture? In have undergone a much larger share the one case, the proof consists in the of misery than of pleasure, and will, legitimate deductions of the reasoning therefore, present a formidable diffi- faculty; and in the other, in the testiculty in our views of the Divine ad- mony of competent and unbiassed ininistration. And this difficulty no. witnesses. For the multitude, the thing, in my opinion, will reinove, de modos, (as we Cambridge men are but a future state of retribution. On in the habit of saying,) the latter I the other hand, admitting the truth of admit to be the only effective means a world to coine, the common belief of producing a salutary conviction ; of an eternity of punishment will en- but for the intellectual and speculahance instead of diminishing the ob- tive part of the species, I should jection ; for it is clear, even froni the wish to know why the former mode language of Scripture, that by far the of proof is not to be considered as greater portion of the human race adequate to the production of the will unhappily incur the sentence of same effect? condemnation. And the case will I would likewise ask, secondly, whe. appear in a still stronger light when ther the strictest impartiality does not we consider, that, both on the Liber- form a part, and a very material part, tarian hypothesis as well as on that of of the Divine character; and if so, Necessity, the situation of every moral how we are to reconcile with this
On a Translation of Eichhorn's Opinions respecting the Book of Genesis. 427 attribute the striking fact, that a com. Indeed, I am decidedly averse to the paratively small portion of mankind practice of introducing theological are conducted in the path of virtue points of an abstruse nature to the through this life, to the possession of notice of persons of little leisure, and eternal happiness in that which is to of as little requisite information. With follow, while the great mass of human the great bulk of Christian believers, beings are ordained (for it will not be the tendency of these discussions is denied that external circumstances are rather to unsettle the principles than the true efficient causes of moral cha- to enlighten the mind, and to engender racter) to pass through those scenes a love of disputation rather than a of vice and misery by which they are genuine desire of discovering the truth. inevitably corrupted in the present But among the thinking few, among world, to the endurance of the bitter- men of learned education and of enest pains and torments reserved for larged views, I conceive that these them in the next? The only answer objections do not exist to the same that can be given to this question, I extent; and if our inquiries are at should imagine, must be, the final length baffled, and our strenuous ef. restitution of the iniquitous to virtue forts totally fail, we desist froin the and happiness. But even on this sup- pursuit with a deeper conviction of the position, how widely different will have follies resulting from human pride, been the treatment of these two dis- and of the contracted powers of the proportionate divisions of mankind, human intellect. which in the Calvinistic system are Should the subject of this commu. emphatically termed the elect and the nication call forth the reinarks of any reprobate. To the one is granted of your correspondents, inore converthe substantial enjoyments of both sant with these topics than myself, states of existence, with no other alloy I have only to observe, that I shall than the transitory evils “ that flesh read them with pleasure, and consider is heir to;" while the countless myri. them with attention. ads who constitute the other class, CANTABRIGIENSIS (II.) are doomed to experience, not only the horrors of sin and wretchedness in the first stage of their being, but all
July 13, 1822. the unspeakable and protracted mise.
1 HAVE to apologize to your corries of the next, though, we will be respondent R. W. [p. 284,] for lieve, they are finally to be restored not baving replied earlier to his letter, to participate in the felicity of their calling upon me (or some one more more fortūnate brethren. It will pro. qualified) to forward to your Miscelbably be said, in mitigation of this lany, a translation of Professor Eich: strong statement, that the eternal du- horn's opinions respecting the book of ration of that happiness will infinitely
to Genesis. more than compensate for the expe
If none other of your various cori rience of former pain, and that the respondents (one or two of whom 1 very recollection of suffering will be recognize by their signatures as being come gradually evanescent; but still
fully competent to the task) anticipate it is impossible not to observe a mani
me, I shall feel most happy to accept fest and marked difference in the con- R. W.'s invitation, and furnish the duet of the Creator, whom we must
materials after which he inquires, in believe to be all-just, benevolent, wise
the course of a month or two, leaving and powerful, towards these two dis
it to your superior judgment to insert tinct classes of his moral creatures.
them or not, as may be found most This question may probably be as suitable to your views, and the desigu
of solution as that of the of your Magazine. origin of evil; and any attempts to
1. 1. ; dissipate the clouds which encircle the -one, may be followed with as little This signature being pre-occupied success as the hypotheses which have we have subjoined the numeral for the been framed for elucidating the other. sake of distinction. ED.