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are appointed to try the accusation the indictment, always keeping in view should feel no difficulty in saying must that it is malicious intention which not, when it is dictated by our delibe- constitutes crime in law, as well as rate judgment?

in morals and common sense. I see that is our proper course-the True; and I am quite of opinion Jury, and the Jury only, are the per. that neither the Act quoted by the sons to decide the question of guilt, Judge, nor the punishment annexed and had we exercised our own judg- to the crime of manslaughter, can ment upon the evidence from the first, apply to this boy's case, which is one we should not have hesitated about of accident and not of crime. The acquitting him; but the Judge's charge indictment charges him with feloniconfounded us.

ously killing, to which the Act and The boy thought no more of doing the Indictment relate; now the evi. mischief, than as though his piece had dence proves that it was purely accibeen pointed against a rock. His friends dent, which I think you, Gentlemen, should not have entrusted fire-arins in will not call felony, however the lawthe hands of one with so little expe- yers may construe the word. rience; and I am persuaded, that if I agree with you, and I think it punishment is due any where, it is to would be doing an injustice to the boy them.

to convict him; he is a well-disposed I cannot help remarking, that if pre- boy now, but we all know he would meditation is necessary to crime, that get no good in prison. it was completely disproved in this But the law is answerable for that; instance by the witnesses themselves, and, as I said before, we have nothing who proved the fact; and the impres- to do with the consequences. sion upon my mind, when the evi. So unreasonable a construction of dence closed, was, that we must acquit the law and of the duties of Jurors, him ; but when the Judge laid it down cannot excuse us all for subjecting a as the law, and charged us 30 posi- well-disposed lad (which every witness tively to bring him in guilty, I thought allowed him to be) to the contaminawe could not do otherwise.

tion of a prison, satisfied as we are, Well, I confess my impression was that he is not deserving of punishthe same throughout the trial, and ment. the Judge's charge really surprised Well, as so many are for an acquitme; but being in possession of his ex- tal, I will consent to a verdict of Not position of the law, I am still not Guilty; but I am afraid the Judge will satisfied about acquitting him.

not approve of it. Then, Gentlemen, what is the use He may not; and it would be cerof our hearing evidence? If that is not tainly more pleasant if we could perto guide us, we may as well wait here form what we conceive to be our duty during the next trial, and let the Judge without differing in opinion with the send us directions for our verdict when Judge or any one, because his and it is over. I would really advise those our motives may be equally good; but who are so anxious to please the I cannot avoid expressing a hope, that Judge, to take their hats, tell him they this determination to think and act are content to leave all to him, and for ourselves will lead him to dispense are satisfied he can do quite as well with the word must in his future adwithout a Jury.

dresses to Juries, although the law But are we not to attend to the and the evidence may appear perfectly Judge's construction of the laws ? clear to him; because we are the per

When the Judge quotes an Act of sons to try, and there are generally inParliament which he considers appli- dividuals in every pannel who will concable to any class of crimes, he ad- sider such positive language from the dresses himself to the Jury for their bench as derogating from the true information; he being more conver- character of Juries, and interfering sant with the laws of course than we with their province. can be, but it is the Jury who are to Viewing the matter in this light, apply it practically and specifically, there appears to me an impropriety in and their verdict is to be founded upon the application of the term directions their own construction and applica- to a Jury. tion of the law to the charge laid in In my opinion there is. As the word Bristol.

SIR,

is generally understood, nothing is so rapidly becoming worse ; paying the degrading to a Jury as to have it sup- interest of the debt on their church posed they are acting under, or that became oppressive to them, and they They yield their conscientious judg. could offer nothing towards the supa ment to, any directions whatever. port of a new minister, when one

whose merits we can never too highly appreciate, was raised up from amongst

themselves. Mr. John Ashworth, a July 10, 1822.

42. woollen-inanufacturer, undertook the W ILL yon allow me room in office without a prospect of pecuniary

Y your valuable publication, to recompence. How well qualified he bring to the recollection of your was for the undertaking, the gencrab readers, the very praiseworthy and good conduct, the increase, and the interesting congregation who assem- regular attendance of the congregable to worship one God in one Person, tion, together with the high estima. at Newchurch, Rossendale, in Lan- tion in which he is held wherever cashire, and to set before them some known, will best testify. When he particulars of their present situation and his people became known to the

It must be fresh in the remembrance late excellent Dr. Thomson of Leeds, of many, that within the last twenty an annual stipend of 121, was by that years they were all Wesleian Metho. gentleman obtained for him, from dists; but, under the guidance of their what is termed “Lady Hewley's honest and inquiring minister Mr. Fund;" but with a disinterested libeCooke, were step by step, without be- rality not often equalled, he declared ing themselves aware of it, led on to his determination regularly to appromore rational, and, as we esteem them, priate the money to the necessary exmore scriptural doctrines. Though penses of the chapel, or the gradual dependent upon his profession for a extinction of the debt. maintenance, this lover of truth per. When this “little flock” of worsevered in a careful examination of shipers of Him who is One and his the sacred writings ; and zealously in. Name One, was made known through structing his hearers according to his the medium of the Repository to the own convictions, was far on his way Unitarian public, much interest was towards Unitarianism, though he had excited, and a subscription raised not reached it, when called to a severe which reduced their debt to less than account, and dismissed from the Me 1001. Had the times been less unfuthodist connexion.

vourable, it would, no doubt, ere now A large number of his flock were have been done away. But, notwithattached to him, and to the doctrines standing the good management of they had heard him deliver, and these, their pastor, the necessary repairs and separating themselves from the rest, regular expenses attendant upon car.' chiefly with borrowed money, erected rying on worship, and providing for the chapel at Newchurch.

the early instruction of the young, has The painful struggle which he had hitherto prevented its being brought gone through, and the harsh usage he under half the above-mentioned sum. had received, was more than the ten- The case of this exemplary congreder frame of Mr. Cooke could sustain, gation was, in the course of the last

-he fell into a decline, and died soon year, laid before the members of the after; bearing witness to the last, in Bristol Fellowship Fund, and in addithe cause for which he had sacrificed tion to the particulars just related, his little share of this world's goods, they were informed that a Sundaybelieving it to be the cause of Chris- school, consisting of 200 children, who tian truth; and in full confidence were taught reading, writing and accommitting his widow and helpless counts, was carried on in the body of infants to the Almighty Protector, the chapel; that not only all things who never forsaketh those who trust necessary for this were furnished free in him.

of expense to the parents, but a liThe congregation then, as it now brary of well-selected tracts, &c., was does, consisted entirely of persons added for the use of the scholars, getting their living by hard labour. many of whom took great delight in Trade, in consequence of the war, was reading. Some of the oldest of these

it was mentioned, were growing up, solved to take down one end, inclose had taken sittings in the gallery, and a bit of ground, which is their own, by their conduct did credit to the in- adjoining it, and gallery it across. struction which had been bestowed The expense of doing this (not less upon them.

than 2001.) he owns is large, when Considering that all this was done compared with their very small means; by persons who gain their daily bread but he feels convinced that it ought to by the labour of their hands, and who, be incurred,—that the objects in view till within a few past months, could call upon them to encounter it,-and with difficulty procure a sufficiency of though disposed most thankfully to the necessaries of life, such exertions accept of assistance, he does not wait could not but be deemed most worthy for the assurance of it, but has actuof encouragement and assistance, and ally begun the work, trusting in the the sum of 101. was unanimously liberality of his brethren, and still voted towards the liquidation of their more in the blessing of that Great debt.

Being, to promote whose holy wor• A short time before the ineeting of ship, and more widely to diffuse a our Fellowship Fund in May last, Mr. knowledge of whose righteous laws, Ashworth, in a private communication this exertion is made. to a friend here, mentioned that the · This statement was most favourably Sunday-school had so much increased, received, and not only unanimously, that there was not room sufficient for but I may almost say by acclamation, teaching in the bottom of the chapel, the sum of 201. was voted to the Rosand himself and his friends being con- sendale congregation

: vinced that money could not be better Should other Funds in proportion bestowed, had come to a resolution of to their means, and individuals also, removing this difficulty, though in so “do likewise," these highly meritoridoing they must considerably increase ous people will be happily relieved · their debt. He added, that it was no from a heavy load of debt, which must small proof of the estimation in which otherwise lie on them, and cripple the people held the religious instruc- their praiseworthy and most useful tion of their children, that they had efforts in the noblest of all causes. raised more than 301. amongst them. Few of your readers I am persuaded selves, towards defraying the expense will hesitate to say with me, that of the proposed alterations.

“'Tis a consummation devoutly to be This letter was read at the meeting, wished.” Should it be effected, it and a very general wish to give some will be a cause of heartfelt satisfaction further assistance warmly manifested. to,

Sir, A sum was mentioned by one of the

Yours respectfully, committee, when another member

MARY HUGHES. proposed that the business should be suspended till further particulars were Sir,

May 20, 1822. obtained, and that if these were such M HE following letter was put into as we anticipated, we might then, by 1 my hands for perusal, by a very setting a liberal example, and stating respectable member of the Society of their case to our brethren at larye, Friends, from whom I afterwards obhope to induce other Fellowship Funds tained leave to copy it, and satisfactory and individuals who are able and wil- evidence of its authenticity. I withling to help in so good a work, to hold the name and residence of the come forward and do something effec- writer, that I might not be the means tual for their relief. This plan was of exposing him to the inquisitorial agreed upon, Mr. Ashworth applied visits of busy and injudicious disciplito, and his answer laid before the narians. The Society of Friends is, I next meeting. It informed us that trust, nevertheless, gradually learning the Sunday scholars then amounted to to estimate more justly the vast imnearly 300, and that, to make the ne- portance and real value of those great cessary room for their accommoda- principles of Revealed Religion which tion, and also to increase the nuinber are plainly laid down in the Scripof sittings in the chapel, which was tures, and on which all Christians are likewise highly desirable, they had re- agreed, when compared with the proVOL, XVII.

30

portionate insignificance of those nice terfuges, such a perversion of common and minor points on which they sepa. sense, derogatory alike to reason and to rate, and actually or seemingly differ. revelation. And it is in this light that I • Your readers should be informed. view the reply to thine, which, however that C. E.'s letter and the reply to it

plausible it may appear to superficial were reviewed in the Monthly Repo.

minds, is as deficient in sound argument sitory. XVI. 46; but that I have rea- mandatory advice.

epo. as it is in scriptural authority for its son to believe few of either have got That the grand and simple doctrines into circulation, such Friends as are of genuine Christianity will ultimately booksellers in London having, I am triumph over the distorted, inferential informed, thought fit to decline selling and unscriptural creed of Trinitarianism, both the one and the other.

" is my firm belief, and I entirely acquiesce Should you insert this communica- with thee in the opinion that truth must tion, I hope Mr. Alexander of Yar- finally conquer. mouth, the printer of the first letter. In conclusion, I request thy acceptwill soon send some copies to Hun ance of my sincere acknowledgments for ter's or Eaton's for sale, in order to

thy endeavour to promote (what I coo. counteract almost as effectual a mode

ceive to be) the true interests of our of suppressing inquiry within the pale

Society, by thy attempt “ to ronse the

spirit of inquiry where it is dorinant, of a small Society, as was ever adopt.

and to counteract the support wbich the ed by the Church of Rome in the sanction of a grave assembly might give plenitude of her power, and in the io error." darkest period of her priestly domi.

I am, nation. It was with great pleasure I. With sentiments of sincere esteem, heard Wm. Allen, a minister amongst

Thy Friend,
Friends, at the Annual Meeting of the
British and Foreign School Society

4 Mo. 1822. on the 16th inst., eloquently and im

To Charles Elcock, Yarmouth. pressively advocate far different and truly liberal principles.

Evesham, BEREUS.

June 25, 1822.

T BEG leave to offer a few remarks EsteeMED FRIEND,

1 in reply to a letter in your last Having lately had an opportunity of Repository, [p. 271,] intended to pero perusing thy « Letter to the Young Men suade your readers “ that the publicaand Women of the Society of Friends, on tion of Penn's Sandy Foundation Shathe Yearly Meeting Epistle for 1820," I ken by Unitarians, without taking the conceive that I could not better discharge least notice of his Vindication," as if my duty as a junior member of the So- such were the fact, “is at once disiaciety of Friends, than by thus addressing genuous and unjust." The writer thee. And though personally unac- also with equal truth asserts, that quainted with thee, a coincidence of opi- « there are in the Unitarian Prenion will, I trust, be deemed a sufficient facer to that work. "two instances apology for this intrusion upon thy attention. The perusal of thy dispassionate,

- of an entire want of candour in the firm and intelligent address, has been

author." These severe charges, couthe source of the most pleasurable anti- fidently as they are advanced, may be cipations. It has convinced me that the easily refuted. The first is, that the spirit of inquiry is diffusing its genial in- author does not notice Penn's letter fluence, and dispelling the crude, un- to Lord Arlington; by whose warrant scriptural and unconstitutional doctrines he was imprisoned, and of which let of modern orthodoxy, as adopted by ter the Editor certainly cannot say be many of the active members of our So- was “ignorant.” And he might hare ciety. To discourage investigation, to insist

conclusively proved from it, that Penn upon the limited uature of our faculties,

was as indisposed to recant, and to and to hold up implicit faith and blind

avow doctrines “totally opposite obedience, as “honourable prudence," when he wrote that letter, though at is only what might be expected from the that time a close prisoner in the Tourer advocate of a weak cause. And weak of London, for publishing the balle! indeed must that cause be, that for its Foundation Shaken, as when he sea defence has recourse to such futile sub word about the same time to his ***

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cuser, the Bishop of London, that he rate persons in the unity of essence," never would recant, “though his prin or of some other plurality of persons son should be his grave.”

in the Deity, neither of which can I The other alleged instance of “an find that Penn, since he became a Dis. entire want of candour,is a charge senter, ever acknowledged. Sabellius not only unfounded, but it also com- and his followers, in the third century, pletely disproves the writer's other ascribed “eternal Deity” to Christ, accusation, of " disingenuous and un- as expressly as William Penn ever did, justconduct, by testifying to your and yet they were always justly deemed readers, that the said Apology is ex- Unitarians. pressly noticed in that preface. The In the page preceding that from editor has even described it, p. vii., as which the extract supposed to be so obviously favourable “to the Sabel. unequivocalwas selected, Penn lian hypothesis ;" which constitutes challenges his Trinitarian opponent to its nearest approach to reputedly or adduce®“one scripture that has dithodox doctrines. He has also noticed rected him to such a phrase as disPenn's eulogy on Socinus, in reply to tinct person, or that says, I and my a charge of “ being a Socinian." 'l'his Father are two, instead of 'I and my could not be designed for “a recan- Father are one. 2ndly. If he will tation;" and five years after this, Penn but bring me one piece of antiquity declared that Thomas Firmin, who for the first two hundred years, that said he had retracted, was “shame- used any such expression. 3rdly. fully mistaken.” See the Sequel to And if he can deny that the Popish my Appeal, pp. 47-52; or Penn's schoolmen--were the grandfathers and Works, II. 453. Whence, then, these promoters of such like monstrous groundless, injurious and contradicterms and uncouth phrases, I will be tory accusations ? It cannot be amiss contented to take the shame upon me for the “intelligent” writer calmly of denying proper, apt and significant to inquire.

phrases. “In this very Apology,” adds the “But till then I will tell him, that if writer," are to be found these une- the Son of God did purchase our salquivocal expressions.” They follow vation distinctly from the Father, the p. 272, but are taken not from that Father was not concerned in our sal. scork, but from “an Apology," pub- vation, but Christ only. And if he lished several years after, for the did so purchase it as God the Son, Principles and Practices of the Qua- (distinct from the Father,) then God kers," yet not quite correctly. And the Son (by his principles) cannot be though the Editor truly declared in the same with God the Father; and his preface, that he was “not ac- all the earth, with all their idle so. quainted with a more manly and able phisms and metaphysical quiddities, vindication in that pecnliarly fanatical shall never be able to withstand the age, of the pure Unitarian doctrine, conclusion to be two Gods ; otherwise, than the Sandy Foundation Shaken," if the purchase was by God the Son, the writer is much mistaken in con- then God the Father was concerned cluding, that “then it necessarily fol- as well as God the Son, because the lows that the Apology is a recanta. same God. If not, then either Christ's tion ;" or that it is “ in direct opposi. Godhead was not concerned in the tion to the principles which constitute purchase, or there must be tro Gods; Unitarianism.” To prove these posi- 30 that which he calls a personality tions it is necessary to shew, which distinct from the essence, could not the writer has not even attempted, do it, and if the divine essence did that Penn's Apology for his former it, then the Father and Spirit did it work contains a “disavowal of his as well as the Son, because the same former sentiments," and that this very individual, eternal essence.” Penn's Apology asserts principles which are Works, II. 65. “in direct opposition to the doc- About two years after this “Apotrine of one only true and living God, logy for the Principles of the Qua. who is described in the Scriptures as kers" was published, Penn addressed " the God and Father of our Lord a letter to Dr. Collenges, a clergyman Jesus Christ ;" such as the doctrine who had attempted “to shew, what of “the Trinity of distinct and sepas ignorance puts man under the state of

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