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In a few days will be published, a new Lord DACRÉ observed that he had anoedition of thé « Rudiments of Chemis- ther petition to the same effect from a try," in one small neat pocket volume, gentleman of the name of Knight, but it with Eight highly-finished Copperplate was not then necessary to present it, as Engravings, a Vocabulary of Chemical the question would be determined by the Terms, and a Copious Index. By Sa- fate of the petition pow read. The noble MUEL PARRES, P.L.S., &c. This little Lord professed himself to be a very unvolume, which has been much enlarged, learned man on subjects of this kind, and is printed on fine paper, the whole care. would therefore have hesitated to enter fully corrected, and adapted to the pre- the lists with one of the first controversent state of Chemical Science.
sialists of the age, had not the grievance complained of appeared to him so un
questionably severe. The subject of comPARLIAMENTARY.
plaint was briefly this—that persons who Peterborough Questions. had received holy orders were compelled HOUSE of LORDS, JUNE 7.
to submit to an examination of a very
extraordinary nature before they could Lord Dacre rose with reluctance to be licensed to curacies in the diocese of present a petitiou to their Lordships, as Peterborough. The questions of the Reit was directed against a person (the Bi. verend Prelate were delivered to the canshop of Peterborough) whose character didates printed. The candidate was ex. for piety and learning was eminent. But pected to annex his answer to each qurshe should not do his duty if he did not tion, and then sign the paper ; but the bring it under the consideration of the questions were printed in so contracted House, because it appeared to him that a manner, that they could only be replied the conduct of which the petitioner com, to in the most brief manner possible. plained savoured strongly of severity. His On Mr. Thurtell's appointment, the ques. present motion was for presenting the tions were sent to him, enclosed in a petition. After it should be read by the letter, from the Bishop, dated the 3rd of elerk, he would move that it be laid on August last. On the 11th, Mr. Thurtell the table. If their Lordships agreed to wrote to the Reverend Prelate, stating that motion, he would follow it up by that he had complied with his Lordship's moving an address to the Crown, framed request as speedily as possible ; that he in a manner wbich the case appeared to had considered the questions attentively, him to require. Their Lordships were and answered them, he trusted, consciennot ignorant of the nature of this case, tiously; but that some of the questions as it had been before the House in the involved points of so difficult and delicate course of the last session. He must here a nature, that he felt it impossible to observe, that if the Right Reverend Pre- answer them in a satisfactory manner in late had thought fit to act consistently the column appropriated for that pur. either with the statute law or the canon pose; and that he had therefore deemed law, he would not have given occasion it expedient to add av appendix, wherein to the present complaint. But he saw he inserted some of the authorities upon with regret that the Right Reverend Pre- which the answers were founded. The late, not satisfied with the eighty-seven Reverend Prelate, in return, wrote a letquestions, answers to which he originally ter to Mr. Thurtell, dated the 17th of required from all persons before he li. August, in which he says, “ The object censed them, had since added thirty-six of my examination questions is to ascermore, making one hundred and twenty- tain the religious opinions of the person three intricate questions on points of doc- examined, that I may know whether they trine propounded to the petitioner. The accord with the doctrines of the Church. petitioner complained of this demand, For this purpose I want nothing more considering himself only bound to declare than short, plain and positive answers : his belief in the Thirty-nine Articles. He such are the answers which have been should now beg leave to present the peti. hitherto given to my questions, and such tion of the Rev. Thomas Shuttleworth I expect from every one. But instead of Grimshaw, Rector of Burton, Northamp- giving plain answers to plain questions, tonshire ; and Vicar of Biddenham, Bed. you have sent me a mass of dissertation, fordshire,
containing such restrictions and modifiThe petition was then read. It stated cations as prevent your real opinions from that the petitioner bad appointed the appearing so plainly as they ought to do." Rev. Edward Thurtell, Curate of Burton, He would not here enter into any discus. and complained that the Bishop had re- sion on the facility with which answers fused to license him on the ground of his might be given, farther than to remark, not giving satisfactory answers to his that what the Bishop called plain quesquestions.
tions involved some of the most intricate
and controverted points in theology. But in addition to the Thirty-nine Articles, the Right Reverend Prelate proceeded in which were the only lawful tests. In his letter to insist on his mode of exa- proof of the latitude of interpretation mination, which, he observed, depended allowed for the Thirty-nine Articles, he entirely upon his own discretion ; and he should now quote some of the highest concluded with saying, “ I think it right authorities of the Church. Bishop Burto inform you beforehand, that if you do net, in his History of the Reformation, not choose to conform exactly to the Book i, Part ii., speaking of the form in mode prescribed to you, you cannot be which the Articles of the Church had licensed." His Lordship was ready to been drawn up by those who framed admit that the mode of examination was them, states, that they cut off the errors left to the discretion of the Bishop; but of Popery and Anabaptism—" avoiding then he must contend that the Reverend the niceties of schoolmen, or the perempPrelate was, both by the statute and toriness of the writers of controversy canon law, bound to confine his mode of leaving, in matters that are more justly examination within certain limits. He controvertible, a liberty to divines to folwould not dispute the right of even exa- low their private opinions, without theremining persons removing from one parish by disturbing the peace of the Church." to another ; but as this sort of examina. Fuller, in his Church History, observes, tion had not before been practised in the that the present Articles in the main Church, the learned Prelate ought not to agree with those set forth in Edward have been surprised at finding some he. VI.'s time, but those who drew them up sitation in those who were called upon wished to allow more liberty to dissentto submit to it. He would not contend ing judgments. He says, “ These holy that under the 48th canon such an exa- men did prudently pre-discover that dif. mination was not within the reach of the ferences in judgments would unavoidably Reverend Prelate's power. But when arise in the Church, and were loth to spiritual persons removing from one unchurch any, and drive them off from charge to another produced proper testi. our ecclesiastical communion for such monials, such a course as that pursued petty differences, which made them pen in the diocese of Peterborough was alto- the Articles in comprehensive words, to gether unknown, because it was naturally take in all who, differing in the branches, to be presumed that such persons had meet in the root of the same religion." already been sufficiently examined. If The noble Lord then quoted the Bishop their Lordships referred to the Act of of Bangor, Bishop Horsley, and several 13th of Elizabeth, they would find that other eminent authorities for a wide inthe Bishop could only examine the candi. terpretation of the Thirty-niue Articles. date in order to ascertain whether he To these authorities he might add the could explain in Latin an account of his intention of the persons who established belief in the Articles of the Church. The the Articles, which appeared from the canon, in the same manner, requires the King's declaration prefixed to them. As candidate to give an account of his faith it thus appeared that the Articles of the in Latin according to the Articles. Thus, Church of England admitted of more than though the Bishop was at liberty to exa- one mode of arriving at belief in them, mine on his discretion with respect to he must contend that the learned Prelate the mode, yet he was limited, both by the was bound to receive every answer by canon and the statute law, as to the which a candidate could explain his belief object, which was merely to make the according to the Articles. The candidate, candidate give an account of his faith it appeared, was not admitted to examiaccording to the Articles. Here he wished nation until the questions were answered. their Lordships to consider what was But if the candidate was ready to account meant by giving an account of faith ac- for his faith according to the Articles, cording to the Articles. If a particular the Reverend Prelate was, according to acknowledgment of the candidate's belief the statute of Elizabeth, bound to exain the Articles was required, it would be mine him. Disregarding the statute of easy by a single question. But if the Elizabeth, the canon law, and royal deArticles were framed so as to embrace claration which precedes the articles, the different opinions, then it would be com- Reverend Prelate persisted in submitting petent for persons to give an account of questions and demanding answers previtheir faith in inore ways than one. The ous to examination. These questions, questions of the learned Prelate were, too, were not of the plain and simple nahowever, of a leading nature, and often ture described by the Bishop; but were, admitted but of one answer. Indeed, he on the contrary, of a most metaphysical called upon the candidate to answer them description, and calculated to produce with Yes, or No. They were a series of great anxiety as to the answers. He tests, framed for the sec of Peterborough, should quote one of the interrogatories
as an example of the rest. It was in the House by this test ; but before he did so, following terms:-“ Is pot the power of he must beg leave to make some prelimiGod equally manifested, whether he ope- nary observations on the speech of the rates on man im inediately, as in a mere noble Lord by whom the petition was passive object, or whether he acts medi introduced. In the first place, it rather ately through the agency of man himself, made against the petitioner that the noble and by means which, as creator of all Lord was not instructed by him to state things, he must have previously impart- to the House the circumstances in which ed ?" The Reverend Prelate's questions his complaint originated. These circumwere either identical with the Thirty-nine stances the petitioner must bave designed Articles, or they were not. If they were to conceal, and this wish for concealment identical, they were unnecessary; and was not consistent with a desire for a just if they differed, and imposed another test and impartial decision. The person whom previons to examination, they were un. he (the Bishop of Peterborough) refused jawful. Their Lordships had been una to ordain was nominated by the petitioner nimous in their condemnation of the last autumn. Conceiving that it was not learned Prelate, when this subject was only his right but his duty, as Bishop of agitated last Session : aud vet he had the diocese in which the cure was to be still persisted in putting those questions, served, to examine the qualifications and and denied their Lordships' jurisdiction. doctrines of the candidate for orders, he Their Lordships, however, must perceive (the Bishop of Peterborough) required that if this course was permitted in one an answer to certain questions which he diocese, it might be generalized. Every put to him. Now, if the Xht to examine Bishop might have his particular set of existed, the examiner must be permitted questions, and their clergymen would be to proceed in that mode of examination driven to study these papers, in order to by which his mind could best be satisfied discover to what diocese it would be most of the doctrines held by the person whoun convenient for them to go. To act on he subjected to examination. The quessuch a system was nothing else than re- tions which he put were not tests or articruiting for Dissenters. There would cles of faith, they were merely designed soon be an Episcopacy, with questions to draw forth answers as to the candiand articles, on one hand, and a Dissent. date's faith, which might afterwards be ing population on the other. It was the tried by the Liturgy and the Thirty-nine boast of this country, that there was no Articles. Their conformity or non-conwrong for which the law had not a re- formity with the doctrines of the Church medy. Was this system of clerical inter- could then be decided. The Liturgy and rogation to forin an excepcion? If there Articles were therefore the test, and not was no remedy in the hands of their the list of questions which he propounded. Lordships, they might at least be the And had not he (the Bishop of Petermeans of procuring redress. The Crown borough) a right to follow the dictates of might refer the case to the Convocation, his own judgment in framing such questions or some other mode of settling the ques. as in his opinion would best accomplish tion might be found. Their Lordships the object of an examination which his ought, therefore, to agree to the address duty commanded him to institute? If he intended to move after the petition the mode of examiuation was objected to, was laid on the table. The purport of and if the House of Peers was to be called the address would be to request that his upon to interfere in every particular case Majesty would be pleased to order an in which a candidate for a license, or inquiry to be made to ascertain whether for orders, objected to the set questions any innovatious had taken place in Church put by Bishops, the applications to their discipline. He hoped that nothing he Lordships would be codless, and the allhad stated would be considered as arising thority of the Episcopal order would cease from any personal objection on his part to exist. Such an interference with the to the Right Reverend Prelate, whose rights and duties of Bishops had not taken learning and character he respected. He place since the Church was established; attributed the conduct of the Reverend nor would the Establishment long conPrelate solely to zeal in the adoption of tinue if motions like the present were one view of the subject. The noble Lord agreed to. If their Lordships attended concluded by moving that the petition do to the prayer of this peririoper, they lie on the table.
might soon expect similar applicatious The Bishop of PETERBOROUGH began from every diocese of the kingdom. Every by remarking, that the value of a petition, curate who was refused a license, and and the propriety of granting or refusing every candidate for orders whose claims its prayer, must depend on the truth of were rejected, would declare themselves the allegations on which it proceeded. aggrieved-would complain of hard treat. He would examine the petition before the ment, and petition the House for redress. All the other Bishops of ihc Church of explanation, would place him in an invi. England examined as well as he, (the dious light with respect to his brethrenBishop of Peterborough,) and his questions he meant that in which it was said that could no more be called tests than theirs. he paid no attention to testimonials froin In doiug what in this instance was the another diocese. This was not correct : subject of complaiut, he had only per- he paid all the attention to testimonials formed a very important part of his duty, which could be required of him. These in the best manner he could. This testimonials merely purported that he brought him to state simply the facts of who signed them believed the person to the case, on which a charge of harshuess whom they referred to possess a good and serority had been founded. Last character, and to entertain orthodox opiautumn the petitioner applied to him the nions. But there were so many different Reverend Prelate) to liceuse a curate' for ideas about orthodoxy, (hear, bear,) that a parish of which he is Rector. He re- a bishop would not do his duty if he did quired that, before license, the proposed not satisty himself of the doctrines of curate should be examined as to the Ar- those who applied to him for license. He ticles; and as he resided in the bishopric therefore had resolved to judge for him. of Norwich, hc (the Bishop of Peter. self in this inatter, through a direct exaborongh) transmitied him a list of ques- nination by question and answer. He tions to which he requested answers. If (tlie Bishop of Peterborough) came now a bishop was not allowed to proceed thus to consider the allegations in the petition, far on his own discretion, it would be on the truth or falsehood of which the better to aholish Episcopacy at once, and, application must stand or fall. The first instead of the Episcopal order appointed, allegation was, that he (the Bishop of to establish another Assembly of Divines Peterborough) had introduced new tests at Westininster. What did this curate into the Church, and refused licenses or do in consequence of his receiving these ordinations till he was satisfied that they questions? He returned answers not were complied with. Now this he had plaiu, short, and direct as he ought, but no hesitation to say was false. He exaintricate, controversial and unintelligible, mined by question and answer. He had When he was expected to be most ex- a right to do so, and when he put an plicit, he was most obscure, and one of intelligible question, he was entitled to his dissertations occupied ten folio pages an intelligible answer. If he examined closely written, where a few words would with undue severity-if he made his own hare best suited the purpose. Such a opinion the standard of truth-and alpaper was no answer to his questions lowed no difference even in matters on it was an attempt rather to evade their which the Articles did not decide, then object, and to insult their author, than he might justly incur the charge brought to state the opinions of the writer, or to against him in the petitiou. But he de. satisfy the mind of the examiner. If he nied that he had examined with screrity: (thc Bishop of Peterborough) had a right he only put questions and required intelto put any questions at all, he had a right ligible answers, and he nerer rejected any to see that their purpose was not defeated application where the answers were intelby the use of evasive terins, or by wrap. ligible, and the doctrine stated in them ping the answers in a mass of coutrover- conformable to the Articles. The peti. sial matter, which rendered them unin. tioner had said that he had added thirtytelligible. Finding that the object of this six new articles to the former eightyperson was to conccal and disguise his seven. The fact was, that the thirty-six opinions rather than to express them, he questions were a substitute for the eighty(the Bishop of Peterborough) sent him seven, instead of being an addition to another set of questions. (A laugh.) To them. The Reverend and learned Prelate these he sent no distinct answer, but re- said, that the best answer he could give ferred to his former dissertations, saying, to the charge of severity was, that in the that he had already answered them. In course of five years, in an extensive diothese circumstances he could not do cese, only three applications had been otherwise than refuse to license him. He rejected. He then went over all the could not certify the soundness of his other allegations of the petition, either doctrines without knowing what they denying their truth or explaining away were; and he could not know what they their force. The point at issue was simwere when he would not give intelligible ply this-whether a bishop had a right answers to the onestions which were in to examine on the Articles in his own tended to ascertain them. He (the Re diocese. If. this was admitted, then the verend Prelate) came now to another mode of examination must be left to the point of the noble Lord's speech, in which examiner himself. That such a right he stated a circumstance that, without existed was plain from the forty-eighth canon, which required every candidate He (Lord Holland) would broadly assert, for orders to give an account of his faith. that it was ambiguous and doubtful, Such an account could pot be obtained whether by law he had a right to do so; by an examination of proficiency alone; and whether he did or did not possess therefore the bishop was authorized by it, it had always been thought most imthis canon to examine in the Articles. prudent and improper in the Right ReveThe petition concluded by praying their rend Prelate to assert it. With regard Lordships to address the Crown to en- to the canons, when he heard the Right force the Royal declaration. That Royal Reverend Prelate speak of them in a tone declaration he (the Bishop of Peterbo- of such authority, he (Lord Holland) rough) had been endeavouring to support could not help at least hinting a doubt in the conduct which was the subject of whether those canons were, in truth, any complaint. If, therefore, they were to part of the law of the land, for they had address the Crown, it should be, not in a never received the sanction of Parliament, prayer to enforce the Royal declaration, like the Liturgy, the Articles or the Ho. but in a recommendation to issue the milies. The 48th canon was the only Royal mandate to prevent the Bishop of one on which the claim now set up could Peterborough from examining by question be rested: but even this (and his Lord. and answer. If such a mandate were ship read the words of it to illustrate his issued, he should obey it; but the previ. position) was liable to two interpretapus question was, should the Crown be tions. It was not to be disputed that · petitioned to suspend the laws of the the petitioner had subscribed the ThirtyState ? He (the Reverend Prelate) now nine Articles, and that act hitherto had examined in obedience to, and in con- been considered a sufficient test. Lookformity with, these laws, and a law could ing at the history of these Thirty-nine not be abrogated by one branch of the Articles, he found that they had been put legislature only. He used no authority into their present shape at the commerceto which he was not fairly entitled; he ment of the reign of Elizabeth, in the was not conscious of having abused any year 1562 ; and with reference to their of his rights, though, like other men, he doctrines, he must say, that from the pewas liable to errors. He had proved that riod of the Reformation down to the time the petition was founded on false alle- of that good man Hooker, and even of gations, and he called upon the House that bad man Laud, the principles of Arto pause before they acquiesced in an mivianism were unknown to the Church application supported on sophistry and of England. Before he sat down, he fallacy. He left the matter entirely in would undertake to prove that one of the hands of their Lordships ; he had no the greatest ornaments of the Bishops' personal interest to serve ; he should Bench had said that those Thirty-nine suffer no personal loss by being debarred Articles contained opinions on which a from a mode of examination of the pro- clergymnan of the Church of England priety and utility of which an experience ought not to be examined. Was the of five years had convinced him. (Hear, Right Reverend Prelate quite sure that hear.)
such men as Parker and Sanderson could · Lord HOLLAND began by stating, that have satisfactorily answered his queshe disapproved of the language which tions? Was he quite sure, even that all the Right Reverend and Learned Pre- of those by whom he was now surroundlate had employed in speaking of the ed, scrupulous and conscientious men, if petitioner : such language was harsh in they chose to embody their opinions, and itself, and not becoming the quarter reply to his eighty-seven questions, therewhence it proceeded. With regard to by giving some four thousand odd hun. the defence of the Right Reverend Pre- dred answers, could do so without offendlate to the charge of the petition, it was ing against some doctrinal point, which the most complete instance of ignorantia the Right Reverend Prelatè held so neelenchi which he had ever heard. The cessary to true religion and virtue? Was question to be ultimately considered and he quite sure that not one of the four decided was this whether the Learned thousand answers would be such as to and Reverend Prelate was justified in have induced him, if any member of the putting his questions. If he had that Bench of Bishops had been a candidate right, no man could doubt that he had for holy orders in his diocese, to have realso the right to choose his own mode of jected his claim ? It was not to be deexamination ; but it was first necessary nied that the Thirty-nine Articles were to determine whether the matter, sub drawn up by persons whose opinions stance, object and principle of the exami. tended more to Calvinism than to Armination were warranted by the law of the nianism; but, as Bishop Horsley had corland, and by expediency and prudence, rectly said, they were intended to admit