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the clause in question, and could only which the prisoners were tried. BENJArefer the honourable Member for farther MIN CONSTANT seems to have been partiinformation to the noble Lord above, who cularly aimed at, but he has defied and, had taken part iu framing it.
as yet, repelled the malice of his persecuMr. BUTTERWORTH was obliged by the tors. One act of the French government answer of the honourable and learned has excited great attention in England : gentleman (Dr. Phillimore) : he had we feel so strongly upon the subject, tha: merely asked the question in order to set we are constrained in prudence to conthe public mind at rest upon the point. tent ourselves with recording the fact Many persons had been seriously uneasy without a comment. Our friend and as to the effect of the clause.
correspondent, Mr. JOHN BOWRING, has
been arrested by order of the governinent, FOREIGN.
and thrown into prison. He was on the
poiut of embarking at Calais for England, The news from the continent of Eu- when a telegraphic dispatch ordered his rope has been of late various and contra- detention and the seizure of his papers, dictory. The Greeks are still struggling He was the bearer of dispatches from the with their oppressors, and have obtained Portuguese Ambassador al Paris to the some decided advantages in the Morea Portuguese Ambassador at London; and and at sea. Spain has been agitated it is conjectured that his arrest was comwith insurrections of the party who are manded for the sake of procuring these for restoring Absolute Monarcliy and the documents. He had about him, likewise, Inquisition : strange delusion! to be ex
as we suppose every Englishman has who plained only by the yet remaining influ- returns from France, certain private letence of the Priesthood in that land of the ters, of the contents of which he knew Faithful. These mad attempts to plunge nothing. For having these in his posthe country back into superstition and session, he has been accused of being the despotism have generally failed, and the bearer of “ a treasonable correspon. failures will, it is to be hoped, strengthen dence.” At first, his confinement was the hands of the Cortes and of the friends
au secret, but we rejoice to hear that the of the new Constitution. There is exter- severity of his prosecutors has been renal quiet, but deep dissatisfaction in cently relaxed. 'It remains to be seen France. The press is shackled beyond whether he will be brought to trial : if all recent example, and the prisons are he be, we anticipate, even under French crowded with persons convicted or, which law, his honourable acquittal. Our own we fear is much the same thing in France, Government seem to have done every suspected of seditious desigus. The scaf- thing in their power to vindicate the folds too have streamed with blood. In rights of an English subject, and to rethe trials of the persons who have pe- lieve the distress of Mr. Bowring's family rished, the unrighteous character of the aud friends; and of friends no man living French tribunals was most glaringly and has a wider circle, or in the circle more disgustingly exhibited; undisguised at
that from qualities of both head and heart tempts being made by the servants of the make their friendship valuable. crown to implicate some of the distin. guished friends of liberty in the plots for
Communications have been received from Messrs. Kentish ; Bransby; Bateman; James ; T. C. Holland; Acton ; H. Mace; and J. Cornish : from Captain Ross: and from Ben David; au Unitarian (Maidstone) ; Euelpis ; F. B.; a Barrister (Harrowgate); and Edinburgensis.
The “ Account respecting Coventry” is not yet received.
Had R. C. (whose communication was acknowledged last month) written as an inquirer, we should probably have inserted his letter; but he could not surely espect that we should publish common-place objections to Christianity which are completely refuted in the works of West, Ditton, Sherlock, and a hundred other writers, and which are repeated in as dogmatic a manner as if they were discoveries.
We have extended the present number beyond the usual length, in order to introduce some articles of Intelligence, which, though they are no longer novelties, appear to us suitable and necessary to our work, which professes the peculiar object of registering all documents and proceedings relating to and affecting the great question of ecclesiastical reforma and religious liberty.
paradox.” Such is the state- discourses, with a fluency and a force ment with which a Catholic writer of eloquence which charmed and capcommences his memoir of this cele- tivated his hearers. Early in life he brated person ; † and certainly, if we became a monk of the order of St. are to receive as credible all that Francis, and took the habit of the has been related of him by friends and Cordeliers. In 1534 he exchanged his enemies, among Catholics and Protes- habit for that of the Capuchins. This tants, his character will appear to be was a reformed branch of the same made up of the most discordant quali- order, who pretended to observe the ties that ever were found united in rule of St. Francis with greater strictthe same individual; for he is alter- ness, and derived their name from the nately represented as the greatest and long and pointed form of their hoods, the weakest of men, the most exem- which, they maintained, bore the nearplary saint, and the most profligate est resemblance to that which had sinner, a zealous and devoted confes- been worn by St. Francis himself. sor in the cause of truth, and the most Beza and others, with unaccountable shuffling prevaricator and hypocrite; inaccuracy, have represented Ochin an angel of light and a fiend of darkó as the founder of the Capuchins ; but ness ; novus Satan et filius tenebra- this honour, whatever it may be, be.'
longs to a fanatical monk of the name Bernard Ochin was a native of Sie of Matthew de Bassi, who was shortly enna, in Tuscany, where he was born joined by a man of greater talent, about the year 1487. Of his parents Louis de Fossombrone, who chiefly nothing certain is known : it is pro- contributed to the final establishment bable that they were of a humble con- of the order. The Capuchins made dition in life, as the son appears to their first appearance in 1525; the have enjoyed few advantages of early order was confirmed by a Bull of Cleeducation, and evidently owed his ad- ment the Seventh in 1528 ; and they vancement and celebrity to his per- are reckoned to have been three hunsonal conduct, and the native force of dred in number by the year 1534, his extraordinary genius. He seems when Ochin took their habit.* to have known but little of Latin. Ochin observed the rules of his or. Of his native tongue he was an accom- der with exemplary strictness, and by plished master, wrote it with great the austerity of his manners, and the
sanctity of his life, secured universal
This name is variously spelt, In Latin writers it is commonly written Ochinus, * See a curions little work intituled, sometimes Occhinus, and occasionally “ La Guerre Séraphique, ou Histoire Ocellum. In the title-pages of his Italian des Perils qu'a courus La Barbe des Caworks it is printed uniformly Ochino. puchips par les violentes Attaques des The name is abbreviated from Occhiolino, Cordeliers. La Haye, 1740." Under which is a diminutive of Occhio, an eye, this quaint title the author has published and has the same meaning as the Latin an account of the rise and establishment Ocellum, “a little eye.” By French of the Capuchins, with the view of corwriters it is written Okin.
recting the mistakes and exposing the + Lamy, Histoire du Socinianisme, p. extravagances of Boverius, the professed 229.
annalist of the order.
esteem and veneration. As a preach- and discretion as to raise it very coner his fame spread throughout all siderably in the public estimation, and Italy, and his popularity was to obtain for himself the title of its bounded. “He was held in such high second founder. After having held estimation," says a Catholic writer, the office with distinguished reputa" that he was considered the best tion for three years, he was again, in preacher in all Italy, who, by a won- 1541, at a chapter held at Naples, derful delivery and fluency of speech, elected to the generalship. On this turned the minds of his hearers as he occasion he evinced great reluctance pleased, and this the more particularly to re-accept the honour. His reasons because his life harmonized with his for wishing to decline it have been doctrine." * Some have affirmed that variously represented. Some have he was preacher and father confessor thought that his reluctance was merely to the Pope, but the assertion seems assumed; but others have conjectured, to rest on insufficient evidence. that it was occasioned by conscientious
In 1538, at a chapter held at Flo- scruples respecting the faith of the rence, he was chosen, by an unani. Roman Church, which he would be mous vote, the general of his order, thus pledging himself to defend. It which he ruled with so much ability is certain that during his residence
at Naples at this period he formed
an intimacy with Valdesso and Peter Boverius, as quoted by Bayle, Art. Martyr, who had embraced some of Ochinus. Bayle gives the following ac. the leading tenets of the Reformers, count of Ochin from the Bishop of Ame- and were actively engaged in making lia's Life of Cardinal Commendon :-"His proselytes. That from his conversaold age, his austere way of living, the tions with them, or by the perusal of rough garment of a Capuchin, his long the writings of the Reformers which beard, which reached below his breast, they put into his hands, his confidence his grey hairs, his pale and lean face, a in the truth of his own system was certain appearance of a weak constitution very artfully affected, the opinion of shaken, is highly probable. He did his holiness, which was spread all around, evidence of a change in his opinions,
not then, however, give any public made him be looked upon as a very extraordinary man. Not the common peo
but after some hesitation and resistple only, but even the greatest lords and ance, suffered himself to be reinstated sovereign princes revered him for a saint. in his office as general of the CapuWhen he visited them, they used to go chins. and meet him with the greatest demon. In the year following (1542) Le strations of love and esteem imaginable; was, at the earnest solicitation of the and waited upon him after the same inhabitants, appointed to preach at manner,
when he went away. For his Venice, during the season of Lent. part, he made use of all the artifices that in the sermons which, on this occacould support the good opinion men had of him. He always walked on foot in sion, he delivered to crowded audihis journeys, and though he was old, and tories, composed not merely of the of a weak constitution, he was never
common people, but including many seen on horseback. When princes obliged of the nobility; it is stated that he him to lodge at their palaces, neither the introduced many things which appear. stateliness of the buildings,nor the magnifi. ed to some of his hearers to be at cent dresses, nor all the pomp of this world, variance with the doctrine of the Rocould make him abate any thing of his man Church. Fortunately for the usual poverty, nor omit the least mortifica- preacher, the Inquisition was not yet tion required by the statutes of his order. established at Venice, where it was At entertainments he would never eat not admitted till after the Council of but of one sort of meat, and even of the Trent. But the Pope's Nuncio laving coarsest and
most common, and he drank received intimation of the obnoxious hardly any wine. He was desired to lie on very good beds, richly adorned, to words, summoned him to appear to refresh"himself a little of the fatigues of render an explanation of his conduct
, his journeys; but he would only spread As Ochin had spoken in vague and his cloak upon the ground and lie on it. general terms, no specific accusation The reputation he gained and the ho- could be proved against hiun, and he nours he received throughout all Italy easily succeeded in making his peace. are incredible.”
A few days subsequently to this inter
view, the Nuncio committed to prison went to Florence. Here he found a professor of theology of the name Peter Martyr, whom he immediately of Julius, called, from the place of his consulted on the state of his affairs. nativity, Julius of Milan, who had de- Their deliberations terminated in a clared in favour of the Reformation. resolution that they should both, with Ochin was highly incensed at this as little delay as possible, quit Italy treatment of his friend, and expressed for some Protestant state. Ochin ac his indignation in strong terms in his cordingly took his departure instantly public discourse. “What course,” for Geneva, and in a few days afterhe exclaimed, “is left to us, Sirs ? wards Martyr went to Zurich. Ochin's To what purpose, oh most excellent sudden resolution not to proceed to of cities, queen of the Adriatic! do Rome appears to have been occasioned we undergo so many labours and af- by a report which reached him on the fictions, if they who preach the truth road, that his death had been deterto thee are placed under restraint, mined upon, and that the management immured in prisons, and confined in of his case had been entrusted to six chains and fetters? What other place, Cardinals, who had instructions to what freer field remains for truth? proceed against him to the last extreWould that the truth could be openly mity. This rumour derived great proand freely proclaimed! How many bability from a fact which he afterblind, now excluded from the light, wards ascertained,
that an armed force and trembling in darkness, would then had been sent to Sienna and Florence be illuininated !” These offensive to apprehend him, but that he had words were soon reported to the Nun- providentially escaped it by his sudden cio, who immediately suspended Ochin departure. * from his office. The Senate, however, The circumstances attending Ochin's with whom Ochin was a great favouré flight from Italy have been somewhat ite, interposed their powerful media- differently related. It has been stated tion, and prevailed upon the Nuncio that while preaching before the Pope to withdraw his interdict, which re- he openly accused him of pride, conmained in force only three days. Dur- trasting his pomp and state with the ing the remainder of his term, Ochin, humble condition of Jesus when he who was aware that the Nuncio kept entered Jerusalem ; that after the tera strict watch over his conduct, spoke mination of his discourse the Pope's with more caution, and escaped fur- high displeasure was intimated to him ther animadversion.
by a cardinal, who persuaded him inAs soon as Lent was concluded he stantly to depart. But this account went to Verona, where, as the head of is extremely improbable, and is supthe order, he assembled some yonng ported by no good evidence. It has men who were destined for the office also been asserted, that in preaching of preachers among the Capuchins, on the subject of the Trinity, he stated for the purpose of giving them some at length the arguments against the instructions to qualify them for their doctrine, and then, under pretence charge. With this view he delivered that the time was elapsed, postponed to them a course of Lectures on the the arguments on the other side to a Epistles of Paul, in which he took future opportunity; but that immeoccasion to inculcate many things that diately after quitting the church he were adverse to the doctrines of the left Italy, and escaped the Inquisition. Church. The Pope being apprised of But this account seems equally unthis circumstance, and also of his pro- founded with the preceding, for there ceedings at Venice, became highly is not the slightest proof that Ochin exasperated against him, and ordered entertained any scruples on the dochim to appear forthwith at Rome. trine of the Trinity till long after he His displeasure, however, was disguised, that Ochin might not be alarmed, and think it necessary to take precau- of the year 1542. Whence it appears
* Ochin quitted Italy in the autumn tionary measures to secure his safety. that he could not have been a member He immediately obeyed the summons, of the College of Vincenza at the time of and proceeded as far as Bologna on its dispersion in 1546, as stated by Luhis way to Rome. At Bologna hebieniecius and others. The probability changed the direction of his route and is, that he never belonged to it.
had quitted Italy. A Catholic histo- his anger resolved upon the suppresrian ascribes Ochin's desertion of the sion of the order; from which purpose Church of Rome to disappointed am- he is said to have been diverted by the bition. He affirms, that on the eleva- representation of Cardinal Severinus, tion of Paul the Third to the ponti- that such a step would be doing too fical chair, when hats, mitres and much honour to Ochin, and would crosses were distributed in great pro- only serve to raise him in the estimafusion, Ochin expected to have been tion of his new friends.* made a Cardinal, or at least a Bishop; Soon after his settlement at Gebut that failing in this object, he turn- neva, Ochin published three small ed against his Church and joined her picces, containing his reasons, and enemies. There is, however, nothing pleading his justification, for quitting but the assertion of the writer to sup- the Church of Rome. These were in port this statement, and it is satisfac- the form of Letters,—the first addresstorily confuted by what is known of ed to the magistrates of his native Ochin's habits and character.
city, Sienna ; t the second to his friend Ochin, in quitting Italy, seems to Claudio Tolomeo; and the third to have been determined in his choice of Hieron. Mutio of Capo d'Istia.Geneva for the place of his retreat, About the ne time he printed some by its already containing many Italian sermons in the Italian language, for exiles, who had formed themselves the use of his exiled countrymen. into a separate church, but were as They made their appearance in five yet destitute of a minister. He thought portions, which were published at sehe inight be able to officiate to them veral periods in the years 1543 and in this capacity; for at this time he 1544. During his residence at Geobserves that he had no objection to neva he secured the friendship of Cal. the discipline and laws of that state. vin, who on more than one occasion Among the many gross calumnies by speaks of him in terms of high comwhich it has been attempted to blacken mendation and eulogy. the character of Ochin, it has been In 1545 Ochin went to Basle, where confidently asserted, that when he left Castalio then resided, and after a Italy he took with him a young female short stay proceeded to Augsburg. whóm for some time he kept as his Here he remained two years, preachconcubine, and then married. The ing in Italian, with his accustomed pofact upon which this story is grounded pularity. His discourses were chiefly is simply this, that he was accompa- directed to the explication of Paul's nied into Switzerland by a male rela- Epistles, and formed the ground-work tion and his sister, who had relin- of two of his publications, which were quished Popery, and who afterwards printed in this city. The first was attended him to Augsburg. +
his Exposition of the Epistle to the The desertion of Ochin to the Re- Romans, which he drew up in Italian, formers excited very general astonish- and was afterwards translated into ment among the Catholics. Some of Latin for publication : the other was his former companions addressed to his Commentary on the Epistle to the him letters of expostulation, warning Galatians, which was printed in Gerhim of his danger and entreating him man. to return. But of all his ancient In 1547, the approach of the Emfriends, the Capuchins seem to have peror and his army obliged him to most deeply felt the stroke, and to quit Augsburg, where he had been have had most occasion to bewail his very hospitably entertained. He was secession. The apostacy of the ge- apprehensive that the Emperor would neral drew upon the whole fraternity use his authority to obtain possession a suspicion of heresy, and caused a of his person, and place him under inost rigid scrutiny to be instituted into their religious opinions. The Pope was in the highest degree in
• La Guerre Séraphique, p. 204. censed, and in the first ebullition of which is extremely scarce, is now before
+ The first edition of this little piece, me. It is intituled, Epistola di Bernar
dino Ochino, alli molto Magnifici Signori, * Lamy, ut supra, p. 232.
li Signori di Balia della Citta di Siena. + Bock, Hist. Antitrin. II. 497. Geneva, 1543.