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restraint, or deliver him over to his therefore to be received with caution. enemies; and his fears seem not to She is stated to have been of a very have been wholly groundless, for humble or mean condition of life, and Charles, on his arrival, commanded without property. Some represent the city to give him up. Ochin bad, her as having gained her livelihood by however, anticipated the order, and washing, and as having, on this acmade good his retreat to Basle. From count, been designated Madame d’Ochi. Basle he removed to Strasburg, to Peter no la lingière, “ Madame Ochin the Martyr, with whom he shortly after laundress.” * The date of Ochin's went to England at the invitation of marriage is a circumstance of some Cranmer, who wished to engage their consequence, as furnishing a sufficient services to aid the Reformation, under refutation of the calumnious charge Edward VI. Martyr was appointed already noticed, of his having on his Public Professor of Divinity at Oxford, first arrival at Geneva married a conwhilst Ochin remained in London, cubine whom he had brought from and preached to the Italian Protestants Italy. who had there obtained an asylum. After a residence of two years at In England he wrote a work against Basle, he removed to Zurich, upon an the Pope's supremacy, which was invitation to take the charge of a translated into English by Dr. John Church of Italian Protestants who Ponet, and published under the follow. had retired to that city. They coning title- A Tragedy, or Dialogue sisted of some of the inhabitants of of the unjust usurped Primacy of the Locarno, one of the cantons possessBishop of Rome, and of all the justed by the Swiss in Italy, who being abolishing of the same.” It was print- prevented the public exercise of their ed in quarto, and dedicated to the religion, by the Catholic cantons, had King : it was reprinted in octavo in obtained leave to settle at Zurich. 1724.
They adopted the articles of faith The stop put to the Reformation by and the discipline of the Church of the premature death of Edward and Zurich, to which Ochin at this time the accession of Mary, rendered it un- did not seruple to conform. He dissafe for Ochin to remain longer in charged the duties of his office here England, where he had purposed to with great acceptance till the year terminate his days. The Queen, who 1563, when the publication of his ceconsidered him as the inveterate enemy lebrated Dialogues raised against him of the Papists, threatened hiin with a host of enemies, and at length the severest penalties, and compelled caused his expulsion from Switzer. him, for security, to quit the kingdom land. The Dialogues were originally in 1553. He first went to Strasburg, written in Italian, and afterwards from whence, after a short stay, he translated, from the manuscript, into proceeded to Geneva, where he arrived Latin, by Castalio, and printed at Basle on the 28th of October, the day after in 1563. The first offence charged the inhuman murder of Servetus. upon Ochin was the printing of these Here, whilst flying from the fires of Dialogues without the approbation Catholic persecution, he learnt that and consent of the magistrates of Protestants had not discarded the spi- Zurich ; and the second, that they rit of Popery, and could, when it suit- contained tenets, especially on the ed their purpose to silence those whom subjects of Polygamy and the Trinity, they failed to convince, enforce their which were at variance with the orarguments by the faggot and the torch. thodox faith. After the work had It is to Ochin's credit, that when, on been examined by Bullinger and his arrival at Geneva, he was informed others, by order of the Senate, the of the fate of Servetus, he openly expressed his disapprobation of the proceeding, and thus exposed himself
* According to the writer who favours to the displeasure of the actors. This
us with this among other ridiculous facircuinstance hastened his departure
bles, Raemundus, Ochin was himself so
great a lover of poverty, that he profor Basle. During his stay at Geneva nounced riches to be a part of the Devil, at this time, he inarried. The only and maintained that a Christian should accounts we have of his wife are those bave no other property besides his wife. of his enemies and slanderers, and are Bock, ut supra, Il. 500.
author was sentenced to be expelled letter, not as a report merely, but as from the State of Zurich.
matter of authentic history, that when Being thus driven from Zurich, he Ochin was at Schaffhausen, on his way went to Basle, and applied to the minis. from Basle into Germany, he met Carters and professors to intercede for dinal Lotharingus, and proposed to him with the magistrates to allow hiin him to leave the Reformers and return to remain in that city. But no in to the Church of Rome, but that the treaties could prevail, not even to ob- Cardinal treated the offer with contain for himself and his children an tempt. But notwithstanding Beza's asylum through the winter. The ma- attestation of the truth of this acgistrates having taken the opinion of count, the internal evidence against it the doctors respecting his work, order- will, with every reasonable mind, outed him instantly to quit their terri- weigh all his protestations. Ochin tory. He yielded to the mandate, and was a man whose great talents and cewent with his children to Mulhausen, lebrity rendered it little likely that the though he was then seventy-six years Church of Rome, in the existing state of age, and the roads were every where of her contest with the Reformers, covered with snow and ice. The cele- would spurn him from her threshhold brated Dudithius, in a letter to Beza, when he applied to be received back animadverts with just severity upon into her communion. It cannot be this transaction, as highly disgraceful doubted that such a proposal would to the Protestants. To this letter instantly and gladly have been acceded Beza replied, but with a levity and a to, and the return of such a penitent forced attempt at wit, which reflected held out with great ostentation as an no credit upon himself, and were little example for others of her apostate likely to satisfy his amiable corre- children to follow. But it is idle to spondent. * Beza relates in the same
Ochin's wife to the judgments of God * Beza thus writes to Dudithius : upon her husband's house is admirable, “ Ochinum preterea narras indicta causa, and may be recommended to the perusal hyeme acri, decursa jam ætate, senem of some priestly divines of our age, who cum uxore et liberis, Tiguro ejectum. deem themselves authorized to direct the Deus bone! quæ est ejusmodi calumnia- aveuging thunderbolts of Heaven. "Cum torum audacia, qui hæc tibi insusurrarunt? Ochini larva luctaris," he writes, “pænas Sceleratus hypocrita, Arianorum clandesti- etiam ab uxore sumtas divinitus affirmas, nus fautor, Polygamiæ defensor, omnium quasi ex Cælo, atque ex Dei senatu de Christianae religionis dogmatum irrisor, lapsus hunc nobis nuntium adfers. Vobis quum eo tandem audaciæ erupisset, ut sua hoc in more positum est video, ut simalac portenta in publicum ederei (justo sanè aliquis paulò miserabiliore morte obeat, Dei judicio ne latere diutiùs tantum malum statim hoc justo Dei judicio factum esse posset) delatus ad magistratum, pro eo
clametis. Non est humanum mortuis inquod severam pænam pro tantis sceleri- sultare, neque à mortis genere de pietate bus merebatur, non sanè indicta causa judicium ferri debet : alioqui quid Jo(quod qui dicunt, magnam justo et pio siani et alios fuisse dicetis? Quid de magistratui injuriam faciunt) sed non ad Christo et Apostolis, atque infinitis Marvivum resectis omnibus, ut cum illo quàm tyribus, qui omnes ignominiosa et borclementissime ageretur, jussus est è Tirenda morte extincti sunt, sentietis ? gurinorum agro facessere. Magnam certè Quid denique de vestro Zuinglio respoucrudelitatem! At senex erat : tanto no- debitis ? Præclarus ille verbi Dei præco, centior veterator. At hyems erat : nem- Christi scilicet discipulus, magistri nimipe longa fuit non unius integri diei via. rum et Apostolorum exemplo, in prima At uxorem et liberos habebat : de uxore acie cæsus esse dicitur; quod genus mortis falsum est, quod ex bono Alciato, sive neque Christiano doctore dignum, ueque quovis alio cognovisti. Fregerat enim non miserabile tamen fuit. Quare desine collum horrendo Dei judicio domi impium ita cum vulgo sentire, ut statim impius senem persequente, priusquam foras pro. esse censeas, si quis non leni ac placida ductum esset ipsius scelus. Basileam igi- morte moriatur." tur venit, ubi quum itidem suos errores The copies of the Epistles of Beza and damnatos videret, tandem ad suos sive Dudithius, from which I have transcribed Tritheitas, sive Arianos, sive Samosate- these extracts, are appended to the senianos contulit."
cond edition of the work of Minus Celsus, Dudithius's reply to this unfeeling De Hæreticis Capitali Supplicio non afias criptiou of the accidental death of ciendis.
argue the case, for the whole account The accusation rests chiefly or wholly has been proved to be fabulous. * upon the Dialogue on Polygamy, and
From Mulhausen, Ochin soon passéd is sufficiently refuted by the perusal into Poland, where he hoped to settle of the piece. It is by no means a dehimself. But the agents of the Pope fence of the practice, designed, as has had taken measures to disappoint his been represented, to prove that "it expectations, and availing themselves is not only permitted but even comof a law which had been recently pass. inanded that Christians should marry ed to exclude all foreigners who held as many wives as they please.” At doctrines at variance with the esta- the commencement a person is deblished creed, they procured an order scribed as consulting the author on a for his banishment. Some of the no- case of conscience, who states that he bility who respected his character and is desirous of having children ; that commiserated' his sufferings, offered he has a barren and sickly wife, whose to procure for him permission to re- temper is unsuited to his own, and side in Poland. But he declined the whom he is therefore unable to love ; proposal, alleging that he thought it and he asks whether he may lawfully right to obey the ruling powers, marry another wife without divorcing though he should die upon the road, the first? In the course of the Diaor perish among the wolves in the logue the applicant adduces numerous forests. On quitting Poland, he took reasons in favour of Polygamy, but the road to Moravia, but before he Ochin in every instance opposes them, reached Pinczow he was seized with and supports the negative of the questhe plague. Notwithstanding the na- tion. But if it be admitted that the ture of his malady, he was here most arguments adduced in favour of Polykindly received by Philippovius, one gamy are occasionally but feebly met of the Unitarian brethren, whose hu- by the objections; and it should appear mane attentions he gratefully acknow. that Ochin thought Polygamy in such ledged. He lost from this fatal disease a case might be allowed, this would his two sons and a daughter, but re- not expose him to a charge of licencovered sufficiently himself to prose- tiousness, for the whole subject is cute his journey as far as Slacovia; treated with great gravity and serioushere, at the end of three weeks, in the ness. It seems probable that the year 1564, he terminated his suffer. Dialogue was occasioned by a cirings and his life. Other accounts cumstance which at the time forin. have been given of the place and man- ed a subject of general conversaner of Ochinus's death, but they are tion. The Landgrave of Hesse had undeserving of credit. This may be recently consulted some celebrated asserted particularly of the statement German divines upon a parallel case, of Boverius, the annalist of the Capu- and they had declared their judgchins, who affirms that he died at Ge- ment that he might marry a second neva, after having quitted the Pro- wife in the life-time of the first : testants, and been re-admitted to the Ochin's object might possibly have communion of the Church of Rome. been to shew the grounds upon which
With respect to the opinions of such an opinion might be supported. Ochin, there are but two points that
That Ochin disbelieved the commonly seem entitled to notice in this sketch: received doctrine of the Trinity tothe first is, whether he is justly charg- wards the close of his life, seems able with libertinism, as his enemies placed beyond all question by his two allege, in his treatise upon Polygamy; Dialogues on the subject. The topics and the second, whether his observas of them are thus stated by himself: + tions on the Doctrine of the Trinity Dialogue xix. : Ostenditur tres esse atford sufficient ground for ranking divinas personas, Patrem et Filium, et him among Antitrinitarians ?
Spiritum Sanctum, reipsa distinctas Nothing certainly but the most tametsi consubstantiales, et coæternas, perverse and inveterate disposition et ad eos literarum locos et argumento calumniate could ever have construed any part of Ochin's writ- * Dialogues, II. 186. ings as favouring licentiousness. + Idem, pp. 1, &c. By an error of
the press they are numbered in the Vo. * Bock, II. p. 507.
lume, xviii. xix.
ta, quæ contra adduci solent, respon- chapter to be an isolated document detur. Dialogus xx.: Ostenditur in no ways connected with the first, nobis necessarium esse credere Trini- and the whole a patch-work from diftatem. In the Colloquy, Ochin as. ferent unknown authors, rather than signs to himself the task of stating one entire, consistent narrative of the and defending the doctrine of the Tri- same writer. In judging of an ancient nity, but he puts into the mouth of composition there are two methods of the Spirit with whom he is disputing, pronouncing on its character and mesome of the strongest arguments that rit. The one is to detach it from the can be urged against it, and which he antiquity of the author, and, bringing very ineffectually combats. The tone it down to the eye of the inquirer
, to also of the reasoning against the doc- judge of it by the standard of modern trine, the irony and ridicule with which productions. This method is easy some orthodox statements of it are but fallacious : for the work examined repeatedly treated, very clearly shew in this point of light will not appear that the writer could not have been in its genuine colours. The features a believer. It may not perhaps be which were called forth by the circumequally
apparent what his own opinion stances peculiar to the writer, will be was. But from the manner in which deemed inconsistencies and imperfeche defends a statement of the Arian tions; and if the critic be a man of doctrine concerning the person of talents, and in the habit of substituting Christ, * which the Spirit is made to fancy for solid sense, he will form give, it may be conjectured that he some hypothesis to account for them had adopted that hypothesis. as anomalies in a work of acknow
Some of Ochin's publications have ledged credit. The other is for the been already mentioned. Besides inquirer in imagination to convey himthose enumerated, the principal are, self through the channels of ancient 1. His Discourses on the Lord's Sup- literature to the age and country of per. 2. His Labyrinths, wherein he the author, and to examine the work treats of Free-will and Necessity, &c.; in connexion with the characteristic and 3, a Dialogue on Purgatory. Ochin features of the times. This way, inwrote all his pieces in Italian, and deed, is sure, yet difficult and laborithose of them which were published ous; but the piece, like the painting in the Latin and other languages, were of an ancient master, will then be translated from his manuscripts. His viewed in its true though sombre works are all scarce, and sell at high light. The anomalies which had beprices.
R. S. fore perplexed the critic will disap
pear, and while they add simplicity, Ben David's Remarks on Eichhorn's beauty and harmony to the work, they Account of Genesis.
will furnish additional evidence of its No. I.
authenticity. The researches of the THE reputation of Eichhorn for critic in this respect resemble those
learning and talents might well of the astronomer, who, if he observes lead his readers to expect much valu. the heavenly bodies from the spot to able information from his biblical re
which he is actually confined, must searches. But if the extracts in the witness much inequality and disorder Repository be fair specimens of his in their motions and arrangement
. literary labours, they
hold him forth, But if the observer will imagine himnot as an enlightened critic of the self in the centre of motion, and take nineteenth century, but as an immured his observations from thence, all irre monk, equally remote from the light gularities will entirely vanish : every of truth and the light of heaven, in position will then present itself in just the darkest period of the dark ages.
proportion; į every movement appear He thinks the book of Genesis, in regular and harmonious, and the plastead of being the genuine production
nei which before seemed retrograde of Moses, is but a compilation ex
or stationary, will benceforth be unitracted by him from different docu: formly progressive in its course. Eichments. Thus he supposes the second
horn exemplifies the first of these methods of examining ancient records.
I, in answering him, will endeavour to * Dialogues, II, 43.
illustrate the second : and if my abi
lity be equal to the subject, I shall kind is actually ordained by God himassuredly shew his conjectures to be self. With this view Moses repreno other than cobwebs that ought to sents the Creator as saying, that it is be brushed to the dust, or Aung on not good for man to be alone. Adam the wind.
is then directed to look for a mate It has been the fashion of late to among the inferior animals; and he is consider marriage as an institution made to say that no proper mate could purely human, without any sanction be found in the number of these; thus from revelation. But this, I am bold with great delicacy holding forth the to say, is contrary both to reason and important lesson, that all commerce to the fact. The union of one man with beasts was degrading and foreign with one woman comprehends so large to the nature of man. The attention a portion of human happiness, that, of Adam was then directed to the one if it be true that God at first made that was alone suitable for him; but and still continues to exercise paternal this is done through the medium of a providence over mankind, lie could vision, a deep sleep having been not but recommend and enforce such brought upon Adam, in which he saw, an union as essential to their well-be- as in a dream, one of his ribs taken ing. In the commencement of society, away and built into a woman. The some time must have elapsed before man is made to understand the purexperience could evince the manifold port of the vision, and he immediately benefits resulting from the observance recognizes the woman as his intended of this site, or the evils occasioned by wife, saying, “This is bone of my its neglect or violation ; and this was bones and Hesh of my flesh; and bean additional circumstance which ren- cause she owes her being to my being, dered the expression of the Divine and is made on my account, she will to Adam and his immediate de- shall assume my name." This lesson scendants the more necessary. Nor was too important to be taught by does this ordinance rest on a solid mere implication ; Moses therefore apfoundation when resting solely on the plies it himself in unequivocal terms : sanction of human laws: for human * Therefore shall a man leave his falaws, whatever penalties they may an- ther and his mother, and shall cleave nex to the infringement of the marri- unto his wife, and they shall be one age institution, are incompetent to flesh.” It is worthy of remark, that preserve it in its purity, a regard to the Christian lawgiver on one occathe authority of God being alone ade- sion refers to this part of the Mosaic quate to produce this effect in either history, and appears to have underparty. Moreover, marriage is a con- stood it in the way it is here exsiderable restraint on the passions of plained, adding his own sanction to the mankind; and it may be fairly doubted, opinion that marriage is an ordinance whether it would have been generally of Divine appointment : “ Whom adopted, even in civilized countries, therefore God hath joined together, unless it had been at first imposed by let not man put asunder.” Now since the Creator himself; and this doubt Moses represents the creation of the is warranted by the whole history of woman as having taken place in a our species, by the licentiousness of deep sleep, that is, since he represents the antideluvians, by the polygamy it as but a vision, the object of which of the patriarchs, by the frequent di was to inculcate the divine institution vorcements of the rabbies, by the of marriage, it by no means follows seraglios of Eastern monarchs, by the that she was really created on this oclawless lust of novelty in princes and casion. We are therefore left at ligreat men, and finally, by notorious berty to consider her as having been cases of infidelity on the part of bus- actually created before the vision took bands and wives, in every rank of so- place, agreeably to the summary acciety and every age of the world. count given of the creation of both
Now, if we narrowly examine the male and female in the first chapter. history which details the creation of But it may be asked, why the woman Eve, we shall perceive that its sole ob- should be represented as made of the ject is to shew that the union of one rib of the man? The answer to this inan with one woman is desirable and questiou I presume is to be sought in necessary, and that an union of the the practice of communicating instruc