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the combined force of earth and hell nister ;” and it will no doubt surprise rise against them.

him to learn that this very mode is To this cause I have sacrificed much objected to on two grounds; first, beof my own personal happiness, by giv- cause it is contended that the chapel ing up to the councils of America may be virtually wrested from the one of my nearest connexions, and trustees by the election of a minister living for more than three years in a not to their taste, either in consestate of widowhood. I hope before quence of dissension in the congregalong you will be able to return to tion, or of stratagem among rival your native land with a heart truly sects, who, it is imagined, may insidiAmerican; as such, no one will rejoice ously cause such a number of their more to see you than your affectionate own people to subscribe, in order to friend and former correspondent, obtain the right of voting, as would

A. A. outnumber the congregation : and, If you can write to me with safety, secondly, because it is thought expea letter would be very acceptable.

dient to prevent the minister from having that permanent occupation of

the pulpit which has seemed in some Liverpool, cases to place him out of the reach of SIR,

October 14, 1822. responsibility or removal.
Y attempt to introduce to the To what extent the founders of

consideration of your readers other chapels, to whose Trust Deeds the nature and operation of the Deeds I have referred, have been influenced of Trust by which our several places by these considerations, it is not in of worship are held, (pp. 410, 411,) my power to say. I understand that seems to be thought a work of supe. in one case they have been brought rerogation by your Bristol correspon- into full operation, and that it has dent, G. P. H. (pp. 527, 528). I been the work of much study and hope, however, I shall not offend that correspondence so to frame a Trust gentleman, when I state that his re- Deed as to guard the property in the marks have tended strongly to confirin building against every possible conmy previous conviction of the neces- tingency of this nature. sity of an ample inquiry into the sub- Chapels have been erected in many ject; for, notwithstanding the com- places at the cost of one or more placency and confidence with which individuals, who, “taking no thought he has written, it is evident that his for the morrow,” have assigned them information is extremely circumscri- to Trustees in the usual form which bed.

G. P. H. describes ; but in other G. P. H. seems to imagine that all places the parties subscribing have Chapel Trust Deeds are of the same been either unable or unwilling to give tenor ; and that some one which he their money; and have therefore rehas happened to meet with is the iden- ceived in exchange a certain proportical model of the rest. Hence it is tion of the building. G. P. H. can that he «

really cannot understand surely understand why such persons what I aim at, or mean to express;" do not choose to play the part of what and hence the “ confusion” of which he terms legal mutes ;" why it he complains. It shall be my present would not answer their purpose to business, as far as I am able to dispel convey the chapel in trust for the this confusion, and to enter into a officiating minister ; and why the rebrief detail, with a view to elucidate straints have been ordained on the submy former letter, which I hoped was cribing congregation, against which I already sufficiently intelligible. think it right to protest.

G. P. H. may be very correct in Let me not be supposed to comrepresenting that, “ by the usual mode plain that persons who contribute to of settling trust property of this de- the building of places of worship do scription, the premises are conveyed not give their money; or that they to Trustees, so as to vest the legal are careful to secure to themselves estate in them, upon trust for such that share of the property which they person for the time being, as the consent to receive as an equivalent. major part of the subscribing congre- On the contrary, I am anxious to acgation shall elect to the office of min knowledge (in order to prevent future

I am

misapprehension) that I see in this Trustees to do their duty, of to keep nothing to censure, or 'which may within it." not be commendable. But I do com- But I must set G. P. H. right as to plain that any body of Dissenters, the form in which the Trust Deeds of and more especially of Unitarian Dis- Dissenting Chapels have been drawn senters, should arrogate a power which up. In some places Trustees have is justly odious : 1° do complain that the sole right of appointment, as to in guarding their own pecuniary rights, the Minister, without the congrega. they seek to violate the personal rights tion. In others, they are compelled of others--to exact in the name of to induct him-him who has a majo. security the forfeiture of that indepen- rity of subscribers, or renters of pews dence of mind which money cannot (in most cases the amount is fixed, a purchase, and which must cease to lower sum not giving the right to exist in those who cease to withstand vote). In other places, the constitusuch unreasonable pretensions. tion is, - that the election shall be

I.* B. determined by the majority of the

communicants; and in others, in the Harrougate,

way which your correspondent has

stated. Thus the forms are varied; Sir, October 14, 1822.

but whatever be the forms according Yo OUR

in your Repository for Septem- drawn up, the pastor has all the rights ber last, p. 527, is perfectly correct whieh follow in G. P. H.'s statement ; in what he asserts

respecting Trustees and whenever those rights have been of Chapels and Estates, or endow- invaded and the tyranny resisted, the ments connected with them.

minister has obtained redress in law, pretty well acquainted with the Trust as in the cases of Godwin, Meanler Deeds of many Dissenting Chapels, and others, as well as those referred and I have seen none which give to to in the Reports ; and should similar Trustees or others the power of removing, as well as appointing the Society

for protecting the Civil Rights

cases again occur, the support of the minister, or any controlling, power of Dissenters would not be wanting, over the Meeting-House or its pro- or that of ceeds, or the pulpit and congregation, or the minister, as if they were (ac

A BARRISTER. cording to J. B., pp. 410, 411) the real do and ostensible occupants.


SIR, They are no such thing. Their office

October 11, 1822


TH is, as G. P. H. says, if strongly, yet

WHERE are so many places of justly, " that of legal mutes, passively projected or in actual progress,


Unitarian worship at present to subserve and support the equitable the manner in which they are, or are purposes of the Trust, and which they are bound to do; and have no

to be, invested, appears to one to be a discretion to exercise therein."

subject deserving of discussion in The minister is the real and legal your pages. The contributors to such

erections cannot, I conceive, be too (as many of the old establishments to a matter, the right arrangement of

particular in informing themselves as are,) the minister is the freeholder, which is essential to render their be änd is entitled to all the rights apper- Wevolent intentions

available for the taining to freehold property the same objects which they contemplate. With as the clergy of the Church. This has been proved and admitted

a view to satisfy the contributors to on a variety of occasions in our courts. and to excite a little attention to the

the proposed Unitarian Chapel here, In point of fact he is the sole nature of such Trusts, as a subject of landlord for the time being—the renters of pews, are tenants; and,

as G. frouble you with the following te

general interest and importance, I P. H. has said, any time be obtained to compel the

In making such investinents it is a

principle of the greatest importance, This initial was incorrectly printed that the Trustees and the body for J., p. 411. ED.

whose benefit the trust is held, should

a mandamus may at marks.

be completely identified, - that the Attempt to illustrate Jude, ver. 9. former should have no separate inte

LETTER II. rests from the latter, but should at all Sir,

NOW proceed, as I proposed, to wishes . But here a difficulty occurs at the outset, ninth verse of the Epistle of Jude, for in Scotland, and I believe in En- “ Yet Michael the Archangel, when gland also, an unchartered society can- contending with the Devil he disputed not legally hold such property in the about the body of Moses, durst not name of its office-bearers, who are an bring against him a railing accusation, elected body, and liable to perpetual but said, The Lord rebuke thee.” changes, but must have its property The main object of Jude in this Episinvested in persons permanently ap- tle was to warn the Christians to pointed. It is proposed that our cha- whom it was written, against certain pel shall be invested in eleven such evil men and seducers who had privily persons, and in the survivor or survi- crept in among them, whom he styles vors of their number ; and in order to ungodly men, who turned the grace connect them with the society at large, of God into lasciviousness, denying and so to avoid the difficulty above the only sovereign God and our Lord stated, these eleven persons have sign- Jesus Christ. He then goes on, in a ed a declaration, that they accept their variety of instances, to draw a compaoffice solely for the benefit of the rison between their crimes and those rest, that they will give effect at all of some of the most notorious sinners times to the decisions of their fellow- who, under the former dispensation, members, regarding the trust which were the objects of the Divine displeathey have received from them, and sure and the subjects of the severest that they will be ready, when required judgments, and predicts that the like by them, to convey the property by a judgments and condemnation awaited future Trust Deed to any persons them, and would speedily be executed whom the congregation may choose upon them. Both Peter and Jude to appoint.

describe the characters of these men Having heard of many unpleasant very much at large. We shall only disputes, and even litigations, which refer to that part of the description have occurred both in England and in which is immediately connected with Scotland between the trustees of cha- and introduces our present subject. pels and the congregations assembling Jude, referring to the crimes of the in them, we are very desirous that no people of Sodom and Gomorrah, such unpleasant and ruinous disputes (which he had just mentioned,) says, should occur among us, and we hope ver. 8, “ These filthy dreamers defile that the above arrangement will effec. the flesh, despise dominion, and speak tually prevent them.

evil of (blaspheme) dignities,” with There is another subject intimately which he contrasts the conduct of connected with the former, viz. the Michael the Archangel, who, when method of acquiring the rights of a contending with the Devil, durst not member in a Christian congregation, bring against him a railing, a blasIt is obvious that to confer these upon pheming accusation. Peter also deall who may be accustomed to assem. scribes them, second Epistle ii. 10, ble for public worship with that con. as those“ who walk after the flesh gregation, would be attended with very in the lust of uncleanness, and despise prejudicial consequences; while, on government, as presumptuous, selfthe other hand, it is necessary to avoid willed, and not afraid to speak evil of all such modes of admission as would (to blaspheme) dignities ;he then involve the well-founded objections contrasts with their conduct that of which have been so often made to the angels, who, though greater in subscriptions to articles of faith. At power and might, he says, ver. 11, some future period I may trouble you bring not railing (blaspheming) aca with a communication on this subject. cusation against them before the EDINBURGENSIS. Lord.

In considering the subject, we have

then to inquire, VOL. XVII.

4 R

1. What is intended by the parties the men of Jabesh Gilead; Joab sent engaged in this contest, -Michael the an angel to inform David of the death Archangel and the Devil.

of Uriah, chap. xi. 19; see also vers. 2. What is meant by the body of 22, 23, 25. The prophet Haggai is Moses, the subject of the contest. called an angel, ch. i. 13; it is applied

1. Then, we are to inquire what is to a priest, Mal. ii. 7. The prophet's intended by the persons engaged in name, Malachi, is my angel. this contest,-Michael the Archangel The term is applied to the elements, and the Devil. One of these is Mi- to storms, to pestilence, and to every chael, but who is Michael, and what agent in nature which God is pleased is he? Is he a celestial of a terres- to make use of to accomplislı his own · trial or a symbolical being? We are purposes. The plagues which God told that he is the Archangel; but seni among the Egyptians are said to this, in itself, furnishes no answer to be evil angels, Ps. lxxviii. 49. The the above questions, because neither winds and the lightning are God's of the terms, angel or archangel, is a angels. And of these angels, mesname of nature but of office. In or- sengers, the Scripture saith, (Ps. civ. der, therefore, to understand the sub- 4,)* “Who maketh the winds his ject, we must inquire into the meaning messengers, and the flames of lightof these terms, and endeavour to trace ning his ministers." *

In these pasout their application.

sages the term angel is a personiThe term angel, atynos, is a Greek fication of that to which it is applied. word, from the verb adyenda, to tell In prophecy, angels are probably or deliver a message, formed into a nothing more than symbolical or tynoun by the masculine termination os. pical characters; for we know that The English translation rejects the none of the prophecies relate to the Greek termination, and retains angel affairs and transactions of celestial only; but still the word is Greek, and and infernal spirits in the upper or requires to be explained. Its literal lower world, but to the affairs of the meaning is, one sent or employed by inhabitants of this world, to the con another, a messenger, a legate, an vulsions of nations, to the rise and ngent, a minister, a servant ; it is a rela- fall of kingdoms and empires, and the tive term, implying one who is sent or various revolutions to which they are commissioned by another. The word subject, and to the accomplishment of angels, therefore, does not necessarily the purposes of God respecting the mean (as it is generally supposed to children of men. Angels, then, who mean) a species of incorporeal celestial are represented in these scenes as beings superior to mankind, of different agents employed for the accomplishdegrees of dignity, power and perfec- ment of those great events which are tion, but simply messengers or agents. the subject of prophecy, are not spiriIn the Scriptures it has a variety of tual but human beings; for the fact applications. It is applied to John is, that the prophecies which have the Baptist, Matt. xi. 10:“ Behold, I been fulfilled have been accomplished send my angel, messenger.” It is by human agency. Thus in the Reveapplied to the two disciples of John, lation of John, angels sounding trunwho were sent by him with a message pets represent those agents or inesto Jesus, Luke vii. 24: " When the sengers who gave the alarins of wars; angels, the messengers of John, were and the first of these is supposed, by departed.” When Jesus steadfastly the best commentators, to predict set his face to go to Jerusalem we are the hostile invasions of Italy by the told, chap. ix. 52, he sent angels, Goths and Huns: the second, by the messengers, before his face: and they emblem of a great mountain cast into went, and entered into a village of the the sea, the naval invasion of Italy by Samaritans, to make ready for him." the Vandals, under the command of It is said of Rahab, the harlot, that Genseric, whom Gibbon calls the ty. she received the angels, the spies, and rant of the sea. I shall only notice sent them out another way, James ii. two other of the trumpets, the fifth 25. We have the same application of the term angel in the Old Testament. 2 Sam. ii. 5, David sent angels unto

* Imp. Version.


and sixth. The fifth is supposed to apxa lydos, archangel, from apXn, denote the invasion and diminution of head, and afyeros, messenger, a head the Eastern Roman Empire by the messenger, apun, authority, rule, doArabian successors of Mabomed; and minion, power ; hence apxnyos, applied the sixth, the wars of the Turks to Jesus Christ, a leader, author, against the same empire. Upon the prince, captain.* Archangel, then, is sounding of the fifth angel, a star is a ruling messenger, a messenger possaid to fall from heaven unto the earth, sessing authority, dominion and power, and to him was given the key of the a sovereign messenger. Such, then, is bottomless pit. This star is supposed Michael, who is as God, as the name to represent Mahomed, and the smoke signifies; one possessing supreme powof the pit, his falsehood and imposture, er in his own dominions, as God does which obscured, at the saine time that over all : but notwithstanding his soit overspread, the country of Arabia: vereignty, he is the messenger, the out of this sinoke proceeded the lo. agent and servant of God, to execute custs, the rapid and destructive armies his purposes. of the Saracens, who supplanted in The account we have of Michael is every province they conquered, the contained in five passages in the Sareligion established by Constantine, cred Scriptures, three in the prophecy by the propagation of that of the Ko- of Daniel, one in the passage under

Nahomed is said to be the king consideration, and one in the Revelaover these locusts, and the angel of tion of John. In the first of them, the bottomless pit. “The sounding Dan. x. 13, Michael is denominated of the sixth trumpet,” (says a learned one of the chief princes. In the conwriter, to whom I have frequently text, ver. 5, we are told that Daniel referred.) “ is justly interpreted as had a vision, in which he saw a certain prophetic of the wars of the Turkish man, clothed in linen, whose loins Mahomedans against the Eastern Ro- were girded with fine gold of Uphaz, man empire. The four principal tribes &c. That this man was not either a. of the Turks,” he adds, “ had settled real, celestial or human being, but themselves in the countries east of the merely a visionary being, seems pretty Euphrates.” This is represented in clear from what Daniel says, ver. 9, the prophecy, (Rev. ix. 13, and fol- that " when he heard the voice of his lowing verses,) as brought about by words, he was then in a deep sleep on loosing the four ungels which were his face, with his face to the ground." bound" in the great river Euphrates This man, then, was probably nothing (probably the same as the four winds more than the vision itself by which said, chap. vii. 1, to be bound till the the divine communication was made servants of God were sealed): “And to him, personified, and his appearing the four angels were loosed, which in the habit of a priest clothed in linen were prepared for an hour, and a day, and girt with a gold girdle, and the and a month, and a year, for to slay splendour of bis appearance, denoted the third part of men; and the number that the vision was from heaven. In of the army of the horsemen were his address to Daniel, he says, ver. 12, two hundred thousand thousand.” The “ Fear not, Daniel ; for from the first four angels here, then, are the em- day that thou didst set thine heart to blems of this great army of the Sara- understand, and to chasten thyself

before thy God, thy words were beard, But enough has been said to shew and I am come for thy words,rethat the term angels does not neces- ferring to Daniel's prayer, in the presarily mean celestial or infernal spi- ceding chapter, which he put up to rits ; but that it is very generally ap- the Lord his God, in consequence of plied to human agents. I now pro. his understanding by books the nuinceed to consider the other term, arch- ber of the year whereof the word of angel, which is applied to Michael, the Lord came to Jeremiah the proand to inquire who this Michael is, phet, that he would accomplish seand the reason why that appellation is venty years

the desolations of Jeruapplied to him? The term archangel occurs but twice in the Scriptures, in the passage under consideration, and • Acts iii. 15, V. 31; Heb. ii. 10, in 1 Thess. iv. 16. The Greek word xii. 2.


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