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If these are just conclusions, Mr. the strict unity of God than our Lord's Hume's reasonings carry with them answer to the Seribe, respecting the more weight than has been hitherto first commandment of all, Mark xii. attributed to them. But, in spite of 29, Kupios o Deos fuar Koplos és est, yet Mr. Hume's subtleties, mankind will the opinions of learned men by no continue to reason with confidence means agree as to the just translation from the relation of cause and effect. of these important words, and I must They will also assume to themselves confess myself not quite satisfied with the privilege of generalizing their ideas, any comments I have been able to and from similarity in different effects consult. I am, therefore, induced to will infer similarity in their causes. offer, with diffidence, to your readers And unless it shall be shewn by some the observations which have occurred solid argument, that an organized uni- to me upon it. The rendering of our verse is not an effect, they will think authorized Version is, " The Lord our that they cannot err in ascribing it to God is one Lord.”' The Improved an intelligent though invisible Cause. Version, after Vitringa, Dr. Campbell

But it may, perhaps, be said, that we and others, translates thus : “The may as well rest in a self-existent uni- Lord is our God : the Lord is one.” verse as ascend beyond it to a self-exis- A difference, the discussion of which tent God. Were the universe a mass has chiefly occupied commentators on of matter, without any indication of de- the passage, yet it may, perhaps, be a sign, it might, for any thing that I am question of still greater interest, and able to allege, be self-existent. But the which involves in it the other, what marks of design, which it every where is the most suitable translation of the exhibits, stamps upon it the character word éis in this connexion. Our Lord of an effect which could be produced answers the Scribe in a quotation from only by a designing cause. Between a Deut. vi. 4, and in relating the disharmonized universe and the idea of course, the Evangelist Mark,

according self-existence there is a repugnance, to the general custom of the New-Tesa repugiance founded on the experi- tament writers, employs the exact ence which we have had of the con- words of the Alexandrian Greek Vernexion between contrivance and a con- sion, which may be considered as havtriver, between effects which indicate ing been, from its universal use, in a an adaptation of means to ends, and manner, an authorized version of their an intelligent agent by whoin this Scriptures, among all the Jews who adaptation was devised. But between spoke the Greek language at that pethe notion of intelligence and self- riod. The precise words spoken by existence there is no repugnance, and, Jesus himself, we cannot know: it is for any thing that either experience or not unlikely they were taken from a reason suggests to the contrary, intel- Targum, somewhat resembling the lect may exist uncreated. Something later Chaldee one, which we now posuncreated there must be ; but as ana- sess ; but however this may be, Mark logy forbids us to suppose that this has done what is commonly done something is an organized system, amongst us in translating religious which seems to testify the operation books, he has copied the texts of Scripof an intelligent contriver; it conse- ture in the translation generally known quently leads us to conclude that this and valued by his readers. something is that incomprehensible As our best chance for obtaining Being whom we call God. I will con- satisfaction respecting the real meaning chude with the sentiment of the poet, of the words under our consideration, in which even an Atheist will not re- we will revert to the original Hebrew of fuse to join,

Deuteronomy, of which they are the And if a God there is, that God how translation-08 MIN' 717'; great!

where the substantive verb being E. COGAN. omitted, it must be determined by the

sense whether the words make one

Exeter, clause or two, which seems to me SIR,

January 8, 1822. to depend entirely on the question, WERE is no text more commonly whether TNÁ, one, is immediately


both the Common Translation and that is an evil, an only evil,” Ons. In of the Improved Version equally con- Zech. xiv. 9, our Common Version is, nect it with Jehovak, of which name

The Lord shall be king over all the the Greek Kupios, is the representative, earth, they are both almost equally objec, In that day there shall be one Lord, tionable. Jehovah, the proper and and his name one. peculiar name of the God of Israel, But as the intention plainly is to being an appellative, and from its na- prophesy of the authority of Jehovah ture denoting one object, would not being acknowledged, and his name have the attribute of singleness ascrib- adored, to the exclusion of other gods, ed to it, which supposes the possibility it will certainly be a great improveof its inclading more than one. It ment to render 908 as in the above would be just as rational to say, examples : “George our king is one George,” as And Jehovah shall be king over all the if any one could need to be informed

earth ; of his unity. The only supposition on In that day shall Jehovah be alone : which the language of the Common i. e. as king or God. Translation or Improved Version could

And his name shall be the only one: be justified is, that it was intended directly to contradict the doctrine of the sc. which shall be reverenced and how

noured. Trinity, which will be embraced neither by its advocates nor by those who that the translation I have adopted is

If it be allowed, as I think it must, believe it to have been first devised in a later age. There is no other passage

justifiable from the original words, of Scripture in which unity is predi: difficulty with the ancient versions. I

we shall not, I apprehend, find much cated of the name Jehovah, except believe they all meant to convey the Zech. xiv. 9, in which I conceive the translation to be incorrect.

same sense. The Targum of Onkelos Dr. Geddes has, I think, translated and the Samaritan Version are liable the words of Moses more successfully to exactly the same remarks as the than his predecessors. * The Lord, original. "The other translations insert the Lord only is our God ;" where,

the substantive verb at the end, from though for the sake of clearness and which it has been inferred, that they conciseness, the one is changed into Latin unus, the Greek dus, (ride

took the whole to be one clause. The the adverb' only, the quality of unity belongs to the word "God, which is Schleusner in verb.) and the Syr. equally applicable to false as to the may all signify “only" or "one alone. true God. The meaning is, “ Jehovah “The Lord our God, the Lord is the is our God, Jehovah is the only God.” one, or the only,” sc. God, is a just The Hebrew Lexicons, to which I have translation of the Greek words, and access, do not indeed give to the word that this was our Lord's meaning may ITIN, the sense of only or alone; but appear, probable, from the echoing there can be little doubt of its allowa- reply of the Scribe, “ Well, Master, bleness, as it is but a different appli- thou hast said the truth; for there is cation of the same idea, which is often one God; and there is no other but expressed by the same word, not only he.” The argument also drawn from in the kindred languages but in many the words, for the exclusive love of others, besides which therè occur to Jehovah, is plainly directed against the me some instances in justification of worship of many gods. it. Job xxiñ. 13: 783 4171, “ But On the whole, there is a material he is the only one," i.e. the Supreme difference between the propositions, God (vide Dathe in loc.); or, perhaps, “ There is one God,” and “God is " though he be alone, who can hinder one." The former is opposed to the himn ?" Song of Solomon vi. 9: "This opinions and praetices of Pagans, and my dove, my most excellent is alone,” is a simple and important truth-the nns, unrivalled in beauty, above all latter must appear a mere truism, the queen's concubines and virgins unless in reference to the doctrine of spoken of in the preceding verse. "She the Trinity, which all who disbelieve it is the only one (nn) of her mother, hold to have arisen much too late to the most beloved of her parent.” be directly contradicted in Scripture ; (Datte in loc.) Ezech. vü.5: "There but, as the text under our conside

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ration, “ the Lord” is the representa- following fact,” for which he thus tive of the proper naine Jehovah, quotes “Smollett's History of En. which was never used but of the true gland, Vol. XIII. p. 319 :" God, and which is as much an appel

“The Scottish Commissioners who lative as Moses, Isaiah or Jesus ; the came up to make a tender of their crown unity of the Lord is still more obvi (anno 1689) to Knig William, (and who ously a self-evident proposition, and were, the Earl of Argyle for the Lords, the design must have been to assert Sir James Montgomery for the Knights, that he is the only God, in opposition and Sir Johu Dalrymple for the Boroughs,) to the claims of all other pretended being introduced to their Majesties at deities, and is, therefore, entitled to Whitehall, presented first a preparatory the whole of the religious affections of Letter from the Estates, then the Instruall his creatures—to express which ment of Government, with a paper consense we must render the words, “The taining a recital of the grievances of the Lord our God, the Lord is the only jesty to convert the Convention into a

nation, and an Address desiring his MaGod;" or, if we please, in two clauses : Parliament. The King having graciously “ The Lord is our God; the Lord is promised to concur with them in all just the only God.

measures for the interest of the kingdom, W. HINCKS. the coronation-oath was tendered to their

Majesties by the Earl Argyle. As it con

Clapton, tained a dause, importing, that they SIR,

Jan. 19, 1822. should root out heresy, the King declared, Lindsey, in one of his valuable pub- that he should be under an obligation to lications, had adopted, from a modern act as a persecutor. The Commissioners historian, what appears to me to have replying, that such was not the meaning been an erroneous, though common and others present, to bear witness to the

or import of the oath, he desired them, opinion, respecting William III. Un

exception he had made." der this impression he represents that prince as favourable to religious liber- Mr. Lindsey is confirmed in the ty, more justly described as the civil opinion of King William's liberality right of all, publicly to profess their by Burnet's remark, (0. T. 1689, Fol. religious opinions, however differing II. 24,) that “when the King and from the conclusions of the learned Queen took the oaths, the King exand the inquiring, or from the creeds plained one word in the oath, by taught by the “priest and the nurse” which he was bound to repress hereto that unreflecting multitude, the sies, that he did not by this bind himgreat and small vulgar.

self to persecute any for their conI refer to Mr. Lindsey's “Historical science." There remains, however, a View of the State of the Unitarian higher authority on this subject, pubDoctrine," published in 1783. At lished in 1697, eight years before Bur. p. 303, my eminently candid friend, net wrote, and in a work compiled “still pleased to praise” whenever he expressly in honour of the king. could praise conscientiously, repeats

The small volume to which I refer, Mr. Emlyn's sentiment, that “King is called in the head lines, “ The Royal William was not willing to be made Almanack," and thus entitled, “ Fasti a persecutor,” though “this great Gulielmi Tertii; or, an Account of prince suffered himself to be prevailed the most memorable Actions transactupon to pass an act” against Unita- ed during his Majesty's Life, both berians. This was the Act of 1698, fore and since his Accession to the professing “the effectual suppression Crown: with the Days, Months and of blasphemy and profaneness,” but Years wherein the same hapned.” really designing to forbid the publica. Under the date of May 11, 1689, there tion of their opinions, to all who should is an account of the introduction of impugn, however seriously, the Divine the Commissioners from the Scottish authority of the Scriptures, or deny that Convention to the King and Queen, they contained the doctrine of a Tri- at the Banqueting-house, Whitehall. nity. Mr. Lindsey sustains his opi- The King informs the Commissioners, pion “that the king yielded to pass that when he projected the expedition this Act with reluctance, and through into England, he “had a particular the necessity of the times, from the regard and consideration for Scotland."

Probably, according to a recent in- hypocrisy, the heads or the hearts, of stance of royal abundance, he had à our State-Christians. Yet, according Dutch, an English, a Scottish, if not to King William's definition of perse an Irish heart. Then, after detailing cution, which forms a fine illustration, the ceremony of tendering the corona- by contrast, of an Apostle's “royal law, tion oath, as described by Smollett, according to the Scripture,” though he the Almanack thụs proceeds : - engaged, by the solemnity of an oath,

“But when the Earl came to this part to denounce, as rebels, all whom the of the said oath, ' And we shall be careful Kirk should declare to be heretics ; to to root out all heretics and enemies of the expatriate them by an outlawry, and true worship of God, that shall be con- to beggar them, with their families, victed by the true Kirk of God, of the by a confiscation ; yet, after inflicting aforesaid crimes, out of our lands and these sufferings, he was not to "be. empire of Scotland,' the King declared come a persecutor” unless he had that he did not mean by these words that persecuted a man

“ for his private he was under any obligation to become a opinion.” Such a folly, whatever a persecutor. To which the Commissioners, crowned head might expect to accombeing authorized by the States of Scotland, 'made answer, that neither the meaning plish, an Inquisitor, I am persuaded, of the oath, or the law of Scotland, dirà never attempted; convinced, however import it, since by the said law no 'man reluctantly, that the wary possessor of was to be persecuted for his private opi- a private opinion might fearlessly defy nion, and that even obstinate and con- him to “take vengeance on the mind.” victed heretics were only to be denounced Beheld on the homely page of the rebels or out-lawed, whereby their more- inere annalist, and not as adorned by an able estates were confiscated. Whereupon historian's flattering pencil, William the King declared again, that he took III. was little more than a soldier of the oath in that sense, and called for fortune, till he received, from a gratewitnesses, the Commissioners and others ful nation, the crown of England, a present."

munificent reward for having driven In a "Preface to the third edition” away his justly despised and deserted of his Pastoral Care, written (1713) in father-in-law. A passage of an earlier his 70th year, Burnet remarks that date in “the Royal Almanack,” disco“the breaches on a man's liberty or vers, that, like other soldiers, he could goods, are as really persecution, as employ the argument of force in other that which strikes at his person. They places besides the field of battle, and may be, in some instances, more un- that he had landed in England suffieasy; as a single death is not so for- ciently prepared to “become a persemidable, as to be forced to live undercutor.” At the same time it is morgreat necessities, perhaps with a nu- tifying to see, in the author of the merous family:" He adds, that, “if Pastoral Care, a political priest, or we judge of this matter by our Savi- rather an uvunt-courier of military our's rule, of doing to others what we outrage ; while the extraordinary scene, would have others do to us, our con- as I had occasion to remark in anosciences would soon decide the ques- ther place, exhibits the distressing dition; if we will but honestly ask our- lemma of an established clergy placed selves how we would have those of between a royal authority, to which another religion deal with us, if we they had vowed obedience, and the were living in countries where we must law of the sword which answered their depart from the legal establishment, just plea of conscience with the old if we do truly follow the dictates of conclusive argument væ victis. The our conscience.”

Royal Almanack,” after relating, I beg leave to recomiend these last Nov. 8, 1688," that “the Prince of thoughts of one who had witnessed so Orange made a very splendid entry much pretended liberality and real in- into Exeter with his arniy," thus disjustice, to any of your readers, if one plays (p. 254) the " little triumphs” can yet be found among them, who which immediately succeeded : would leave to the magistrate a cure

“ Nov. 9, 1688, Dr. Burnet was sent of souls, or who can contemplate such to the Cathedral of Exeter to order the wrongs as those legally and judicially priest and vicars not to pray for the inflicted on the Carlile family, without pretended Prince of Wales ; and the same blushing for the ignorance or the day his Highness went to the said Cathedral, and was present at the singing To Such then was my excellent friend's Deum, after which bis declaration was “great prince," and Dr. Watts's “man publicly read to the people ; but I must of wondrous soul ;" or, rather, the observe that the ministers rushed out of grateful Nonconformist poet's auspithe Church by a very surprising piece of cious numen ; 07, at least, “the Me policy."

Darch” that could “be shewn Thus “the hero William” opened Under no shape but angels' or his the campaign of 1688, by routing own, “the priest and vicars" of the cathe

Gabriel, or William, on the British dral of Exeter, “white, black and grey,

throne;" with all their trumpery," the Bishop a bathos, which reminds me of and the Dean having fled, as "the hire

Dalhousie, the great God of ling fleeth," the day before. Yet what

War, ever might be the judgment of a priest, Lieutenant-Colonel to the Earl of Marr." a prince and a soldier, here was surely a gross instance of persecution, ac

It might almost be suspected, that cording to the common opinions and our orthodox Protestant grandsires feelings of mankind, and such a man

were disposed to restore the hero-xoras Burnet appears poorly employed ship of Paganism, in honour of any on such a mission. He well knew king who would persecute only par that James, though now trembling on pists and heretical Nonconformists

. a precarious throne, was still as legally

Thus they appear to have been “ lost king as any of his predecessors ; and in wonder, love and praise,” whenever that all "priests and vicars,"

including they contemplated the condescension himself, yet owed him, according to

, their most solemn engagements, an

a British crown. Their descendants, unreserved obedience, as Supreme under the tuition of passing events, Head of the Church of England; and and the advantages of a more liberal were bound “to pray, according to political education, have learned to the Liturgy, that God would be the distinguish between the real merits of defender and keeper of King James, the man, and the national advantages and give him victory over all his ene

acquired, though by no means cheaply, mies. He knew too, that these from the successful enterprise of the “ priests and vicars" were under pe- whom the ambition would be easily

petty prince and valiant soldier, in remptory orders to pray for the Prince of Wales, without being allowed to excited, to possess the splendid regainterpose a question as to his legiti- gies of a powerful kingdom,

lities and to wield the military ener

And, macy.

The legitimacy of James III. has, indeed, whatever constitutional policy indeed, long ceased to be a question may dictate towards the living, it is with any impartial inquirer ; yet it no part of historical justice to the should be allowed to Burnet, that dead, to incur the charge of folly, he implicitly believed the revolution brought even by a courtly poet, tales which he has collected in his against those who History. I observe, also, in a “Me

“ drop the man in their account, morial to the Princess Sophia,” print- And vote the mantle into Majesty." ed in 1815, from his Ms. in 1703, that he expresses the same confidence produced these observations, has re

Mr. Lindsey, in the passage which in the now exploded political fable. ferred to Mr. Emlyn's Works (IL Thus having related the imprisonment 374). There, in Remarks on "The of the seven Bishops, he adds, (p. 57,) four London Ministers,” authors of “The Queen in the mean time was,

“The Doctrine of the blessed Trinity as was pretended, delivered of a son

stated and defended,” they are reat St. James's, the Princess Ann being minded that “ King William was not sent industriously out of the way, to willing to be made a persecutor, bathe. We had, I remember, a song though the Dissenters lay hard at upon it at the time, that

him, in their address by Dr. Bates, to The Bishops were sent to the Tow'r, stop the press, anno 1697.It is

The Princess went down to the bath, probably to this attempt, which Ca. And the Queen she cried out in an hour. Lamy, perceive, in his additions to

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