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ration, “ the Lord” is the representa- following fact,” for which he thus tive of the proper name Jehovah, quotes “Smollett's History of En. which was never used but of the true gland, Vol. XIII, p. 319 :" God, and which is as much an appel

"The Scottish Commissioners who lative as Moses, Isaiah or Jesus; the

came up to make a tender of their crown unity of the Lord is still more obvi.

(anno 1689) to King William, (and who ously a self-evident proposition, and were, the Earl of Argyle for the Lords, the design must have been to assert Sir James Montgomery for the knights, that he is the only God, in opposition and Sir Johu Dalrymple for the Borougbs.) to the claims of all other pretended being introduced to their Majesties at deities, and is, therefore, entitled to Whitehall, presented first a preparatory the whole of the religious affections of Letter from the Estates, then the Instruall his creatures—to express which ment of Government, with a paper consense we must render the words. “The taining a recital of the grievances of the Lord our God, the Lord is the only

nation, and an Address desiring his MaGod;" or, if we please, in two clauses: Parliament. The King having graciously

Y jesty to convert the Convention into a “ The Lord is our God; the Lord is from

promised to concur with them in all just the only God.

measures for the interest of the kingdom, W. HINCKS.

the coronation-oath was tendered to their

Majesties by the Earl Argyle. As it con

Clapton, tained a dause, importing, that they Sir,

Jan. 19, 1822. should root out heresy, the King declared, I OBSERVED. very lately, that Mr. that he did not mean by these words, I Lindsey, in one of his valuable pub- that he should be under an obligation to lications, had adopted, from a modern

act as a persecutor. The Commissioners historian. what appears to me to have replying, that such was not the meaning been an erroneous, though common

or import of the oath, he desired them,

and others present, to bear witness to the opinion, respecting William III. Un

: exception he had made." der this impression he represents that prince as favourable to religious liber- Mr. Lindsey is confirmed in the ty, more justly described as the civil opinion of King William's liberality right of all, publicly to profess their by Burnet's remark, (0. T. 1689, Fol. religious opinions, however differing II. 24,) that “when the King and from the conclusions of the learned Queen took the oaths, the King exand the inquiring, or from the creeds plained one word in the oath, by taught by the “ priest and the nurse" which he was bound to repress hereto that unreflecting multitude, the sies, that he did not by this bind himgreat and small vulgar.

self to persecute any for their conI refer to Mr. Lindsey's “Historical science." There remains, however, a View of the State of the Unitarian higher authority on this subject, pubDoctrine," published in 1783. At lished in 1697, eight years before Burp. 303, my eminently candid friend, net wrote, and in a work compiled * still pleased to praise" whenever he expressly in honour of the king. could praise conscientiously, repeats. The small volume to which I refer, Mr. Emlyn's sentiment, that “King is called in the head lines, “ The Royal William was not willing to be made Almanack," and thus entitled, “Fasti a persecutor," though “this great Gulielmi Tertii; or, an Account of prince suffered himself to be prevailed the most memorable Actions transactupon to pass an act” against Unita- ed during his Majesty's Life, both berians. This was the Act of 1698, fore and since his Accession to the professing “ the effectual suppression Crown: with the Days, Months and of blasphemy and profaneness,” but Years wherein the same hapned.” really designing to forbid the publica. Under the date of May 11, 1689, there tion of their opinions, to all who should is an account of the introduction of impugn, however seriously, the Divine the Commissioners from the Scottish authority of the Scriptures, or deny that Convention to the King and Queen, they contained the doctrine of a Tri- at the Banqueting-house, Whitehall. nity. Mr. Lindsey sustains his opi- The King informs the Commissioners, nion “that the king yielded to pass that when he projected the expedition this Act with reluctance, and through into England, he “had a particular the necessity of the times, from the regard and consideration for Scotland."

Probably, according to a recent in- hypocrisy, the heads or the hearts, of stance of royal abundance, he had a our State-Christians. Yet, according Dutch, an English, a Scottish, if not to King William's definition of perse az Irish heart. Then, after detailing cution, which forms a fine illustration, the ceremony of tendering the corona- by contrast, of an Apostle's “royal law, tion oath, as described by Smollett, according to the Scripture," though he the Almanack thus proceeds :: engaged, by the solemnity of an oath,

« But when the Earl came to this part to denounce, as rebels, all whom the of the said oath. And we shall be careful Kirk should declare to be heretics : to to root out all heretics and enemies of the expatriate them by an outlawry, and true worship of God, that shall be con- to beggar them, with their families, victed by the true Kirk of God, of the by a confiscation; yet, after inflicting aforesaid crimes, out of our lands and these sufferings, he was not to “be. empire of Scotland,' the King declared come a persecutor" unless he had that he did not mean by these words that persecuted a man “ for his private he was under any obligation to become a opinion.” Such a folly, whatever a persecutor. To which the Commissioners,

crowned head might expect to accombeing authorized by the States of Scotland, made answer, that neither the meaning

plish, an Inquisitor, I am persuaded, of the oath, or the law of Scotland, did

never attempted ; convinced, however import it, since by the said law no man

reluctantly, that the wary possessor of was to be persecuted for his private opi- a private opinion might fearlessly defy nion, and that even obstinate and con- him to “take vengeance on the mind." victed beretics were only to be denounced Beheld on the homely page of the rebels or out-lawed, whereby their move- mere annalist, and not as adorned by an able estates were confiscated. Whereupon historian's flattering pencil, William the King declared again, that he took III. was little more than a soldier of the oath in that sense, and called for fortune, till he received, from a grateWitnesses, the Commissioners and others ful nation, the crown of England. a present.


munificent reward for having driven In a "Preface to the third edition” away his justly despised and deserted of his Pastoral Care, written (1713) in father-in-law. A passage of an earlier his 70th year, Burnet remarks that date in “the Royal Almanack,” disco"the breaches on a inan's liberty or vers, that, like other soldiers, he could goods, are as really persecution, as employ the argument of force in other that which strikes at his person. They places besides the field of battle, and may be, in some instances, more un- that he had landed in England suffiBass; as a single death is not so for- ciently prepared to “become a persemidable, as to be forced to live undercutor.” At the same time it is morgreat necessities, perhaps with a nu- tifying to see, in the author of the merous family.” He adds, that, “if Pastoral Care, a political priest, or We judge of this matter by our Savi- rather an uvant-courier of military our's rule, of doing to others what we outrage; while the extraordinary scene, trould have others do to us, our con- as I had occasion to remark in anosciences would soon decide the ques. ther place, exhibits the distressing dition; if we will but honestly ask our- lemma of an established clergy placed selves how we would have those of between a royal authority, to which another religion deal with us, if we they had vowed obedience, and the were living in countries where we must law of the sword which answered their depart from the legal establishment, just plea of conscience with the old if we do truly follow the dictates of conclusive argument væ victis. “The our conscience.” katana Litt: Royal Almanack,” after relating,

I beg leave to recommend these last “Nov. 8, 1688,” that “the Prince of thoughts of one who had witnessed so Orange made a very splendid entry much pretended liberality and real in- into Exeter with his arniy,” thus disjustice, to any of your readers, if one plays (p. 254) the “ little triumphs" can yet be found among them, who which immediately succeeded : would leave to the magistrate a cure “ Nov. 9, 1688, Dr. Burnet was sent of souls, or who can contemplate such to the Cathedral of Exeter to order the wrongs as those legally and judicially priest' and vicars not to pray for the inflicted on the Carlile family, without pretended Prince of Wales; and the same blushing for the ignorance or the day his Highness went to the said Cathe

dral, and was present at the singing T Such then was my excellent friendly Deum, after which his declaration was “great prince," and Dr. Watts's “man publicly read to the people ; but I must of wondrous soul ;" or, rather, the observe that the ministers rushed out of grateful Nonconformist poet's auspi the Church by a very surprising piece of cious aumen; or, at least, “the Mopolicy."

narch" that could "be shewn . Thus “ the hero William” opened Under no shape but angels' or his the campaign of 1688, by routing own, “the priest and vicars” of the cathe Gabriel, or William, on the British dral of Exeter, “white, black and grey,

. throne;" with all their trumpery," the Bishop a bathos, which reminds me of and the Dean having fled, as “the hire

Dalhousie, the great God of ling fleeth,” the day before. Yet what

War, ever might be the judgment of a priest, Lieutenant-Colonel to the Earl of Marr." a prince and a soldier, here was surely a gross instance of persecution, ac

It might almost be suspected, that

our orthodox Protestant grandsires cording to the common opinions and o feelings of inankind, and such a man

were disposed to restore the hero-woras Burnet appears poorly employed

i ship of Paganism, in honour of any on such a mission. He well knew king who would persecute only Pa.

pists and heretical Nonconformists. that James, though now trembling on a precarious throne, was still as legally .

Thus they appear to have been " lost king as any of his predecessors; and

in wonder, love and praise," whenever that all “priests and vicars," including

they contemplated the condescension himself, yet owed him, according to

of a Dutch Stadtholder, in accepting their most solemn engagements, an

a British crown. Their descendants, unreserved obedience, as Supreme

under the tuition of passing events, Head of the Church of England; and

i and the advantages of a more liberal were bound “to pray, according to

political education, have learned to the Liturgy, that God would be the

è distinguish between the real merits of defender and keeper of King James,

the man, and the national advantages and give him victory over all his ene acquired, though by no means cheaply, mies." He knew too, that these

from the successful enterprise of the “ priests and vicars" were under pe-P

petty prince and valiant soldier, in remptory orders to pray for the Prince whom the ambition would be easily of Wales, without being allowed to excited, to possess the splendid rega

lities and to wield the military enerinterpose a question as to his legiti

gies of a powerful kingdom.' And, macy. The legitimacy of James III. has,

indeed, whatever constitutional policy indeed, long ceased to be a question may

may dictate towards the living, it is with any impartial inquirer ; yet it

* no part of historical justice to the

110 should be allowed to "Burnet, that

dead, to incur the charge of folly, he implicitly believed the revolution

brought even

by a courtly poet, tales which he has collected in his against those who History. I observe, also, in a “Me- - "drop the man in their account, morial to the Princess Sophia," print. And vote the mantle into Majesty." ed in 1815, from his Ms. in 1703,

703, Mr. Lindsey, in the passage which that he expresses the same confidence,

ence produced these observations, has rein the now exploded political fable.

able. ferred to Mr. Emlyn's Works (IL. Thus having related the imprisonment 32

nen 374). There, in Remarks on “The of the seven Bishops, he adds, (p. 57, four London Ministers," authors of "The Queen in the mean time was, "The Doctrine of the blessed Trinity as was pretended, delivered of a son stated and defended,” they are reat St. James's, the Princess Ann being minded that “King William was not sent industriously out of the way, to willing to be made a persecutor, bathe. We had, I remember, a song thongh the Dissenters lay hard at upon it at the time, that

him, in their address by Dr. Bates, to The Bishops were sent to the Tow'r, stop the press, anno 1697.It is

The Princess went down to the bath, probably to this attempt, which Ca. And the Queen she cried out in an hour." Lamy, I perceive, in his additions to Bazter, has not ventured to notice, that upon," but could, on other occasions, Mr. Elwall refers in his “ Declaration freely exercise his prerogative, by obagainst all the Kings and temporal jecting to comply with addresses, .or Powers under Heaven." I quote his to pass bills presented by the Parliathird edition, 1734, pp. 16, 17. He is inent, sufficiently appears from vathere addressing Geo. II., whom he had rious transactions of his reign. In challenged “out into James's Park,” 1692, he refused the royal assent to a to settle the question of Christian free- “Bill for frequent Parliaments ;” in dom from civil controul, not bringing 1693, to “a Place-Bill ;” and in 1694, his “ugly carnal sword” but “pure to " a Bill for free and impartial Prospiritual weapons.” To his "royal ceedings in Parliament;" facts which friend,” his “Lord and King in all justify Mrs. Macaulay's remark, in temporal things,” Elwall says: her Letters, on “the History of En

gland,” (1779, p. 144,) “ that the en“ Thy great predecessor King William,

larging civil liberty was not the errand the glorious William, when the priests here, joined by some Dissenters too, soli

for which William undertook so hacited him to persecute the Socinians, a

zardous and expensive an enterprise people that began to see a few of those

few of those as the invasion of England.” moustrous doctrines of trinity, transub

Nor, among the royal refusals, can stantiation, absolute election and repro. it be easily forgotten that King Wil. hation, infinite satisfaction, imputed righ- liam, “not willing to be made a perteousness, making the Most High God, the secutor," determined to suppress the holy One of Israel, to be a plurality of inquiries urged by the justly indignant persous, and making God to have a cou Scottish Parliament, respecting the ple of equals (and some more such jar

barbarous massacre of Glencoe. Bur. gou as above); but his generous soul, that

net acknowledges, (0. T. II. 156,) had breathed in a freer air, gave them

that “the King seemed too remiss in this truly Christian and courageous answer, That he would not do the priests'

inquiring into it;" and, (ibid. 162,)

that “the libellers” (as the exposers drudgery."

of “wickedness in high places” are Unfortunately for these fine speeches, generally described by courtiers of attributed to King William with “sim various moral temperament, from Burplicity and godly sincerity," by a tri net down to Londonderry) were “furumvirate of exemplary Christian con nished with some colours in aspersing fessors, before whom too many “names the King, as if he must have been of awe and distance here” will, at least, willing to suffer it to be executed, hereafter “rank with common men;" since he seemed so unwilling to let it a plain tate is sufficient to put them be punished.” down. We read, “Feb. 11, 1698," Some of your readers can look back, of “ an address of the Commons" to not without pensively-pleasing recol. the King“ for suppressing all perni- lections, to a period, when “the glocious books and pamphlets containing rious and immortal memory of King doctrines against the Holy Trinity, William” was annually celebrated by and other fundamental articles of faith, the most enlightened friends of liberty and for punishing the authors and and of human kind. Should those publishers.” We next learn the con- readers, or any others be prepared and duet of this prince who “ was not wil inclined to shew that I have ill-appreling to be made a persecutor,” or to ciated the King's character, and espedo the priests' drudgery." After cially that he deserved the commendaa week's consideration, “Feb. 24, a tion of such men as Emlyn, Elwall proclamation was issued accordingly ; and Lindsey, I shall thank them for then follows, “An Act for the more an opportunity of correcting my judg. effectually suppressing Blasphemy and ment, on a question of some importProfaneness," inflicting on all Unita- ance in the British History. rians, as well as Unbelievers, who

J. 'T. RUTT. were not content to enjoy their “private opinion,” the penalties of impri

February 2. sonment and confiscation. (Chron. P.S. Since I concluded this letter I Hist. I. 291, 292.)

have observed, in “ The History of That William III. had not always King William III.," 1702, (p. 240,) S suffered - himself to be prevailed the following confirmation of Burnet's


outrage on the consciences of his cle- whom he quotes, says their executions rical brethren at Exeter: “ 1688, Nov. “ resembled the slaughter of calves 9. The first thing his Highness did, and sheep.” was to go and pay his grateful ac- P. 3, col. 2. “ John Valdesius or knowledgment to Almighty God, and Valdesso,” of whom, I think, there is to cause Te Deum to be sung in the some account in one of your early Cathedral Church for his safe arrival. volumes. Walton, in his “Life of After the Collects were ended, Dr. Herbert," on the authority of Mr. Burnet began to read his Highness's Farrer, who translated the “ One declaration, at which the ministers of Hundred and Ten Considerations,” the church, there present, were so sur- describes “ John Valdesso" as “a prised that they immediately left their Spaniard," who “had followed Charles seats and went out; however, the V., as a cavalier, all the time of his Doctor continued reading, and the long and dangerous wars.” At length declaration being ended, he said, God he resigned his appointments to the save the Prince of Orange, to which Emperor, saying, “there ought to be the major part of the congregation an- a vacancy of time between fighting swered, Amen."

and dying.” If this account, which I P. I. “ The Nonconformist” has have also seen in some writer quite as well chosen, in the Italian Refor- early as Walton, be correct, he was mation, a subject unacountably over. not merely “a civilian” and “ prilooked, so far as I have observed, by vate secretary” to the Emperor. Yet our ecclesiastical historians. I had Sandius, I observe, who claims Valoccasion to make this remark in Vol. desso as an Anti-trinitarian, gives no X. of Priestley's Works, where, at hint of his military character. Young, p. 290, some of your readers may find I see, in his Centaur, (Letter II., on à note on the subject.

Pleasure,) refers to the story, with I there quoted the complaint of some variations, thus addressing a gay Cornaro, “ on a sober life," in 1549, assembly: “Ye fine men of rank and that l'opinion Lutherana was one of parts, a common soldier, (your contre mali costumi which then prevailed tempt no doubt,) shall reproach you.' in Italy. The other two were l' adu. One of them, requesting dismission lazione, et la ceremonia, and la crapula from Charles V., gave this reason for (intemperance). This, Cornaro at- it: Inter vite negotia, extremumque tacked, in his Discorsi della Vita diem oportet aliquod temporis interSobria, the English translation of cedere. Much more inter vitæ volupwhich is a very common book. As to tates, and our last hour;" as if fightthe other two, the noble Venetian ing, were much more rational and fondly predicted, (for he says, son praiseworthy than dancing, into certo,) that some great genius, qualche death.” gentile spirito, would soon appear, to P. 6. Dr. Morell's valuable remarks oppose and drive them from society, on a highly important subject, remind levarle dal mondo.

me of an anonymous publication, so Alas, for the credit of Italian pro- early as 1648, wbich has been long phecy, a third century is wearing aivay known as the production of Sir Wil while we wait the advent of qualche liam Petty. It is a pamphlet of four gentile spirito. Still l'opinion Luthe- sheets in small quarto, entitled, “The rana proceeds ; nor (judging from the Advice of W. P. to Mr. Samuel HartStyles very lately displayed at Brigh- lib, for the advancement of some parton, according to the Morning Chro. ticular Parts of Learning.” I had nicle,) does l'adulazione retrograde. once the curiosity to examine it at

In the note to which I have referred, the British Museum. I also mentioned an Italian Testament, After proposing “ that proper perprinted in 155), at Lyons, as trans- sons be employed to collect from books lated from the Greek; a mode then, all real and experimental learning I apprehend, peculiar to the Reform- contained in them, in order to faciliers, for whose use, in Italy, it was tate the way to farther improveno doubt designed. I also referred to ments,” the author recommends" that Clarke's Persecutions, 1651, (pp. 231 there be instituted Ergastula Literaria, -241,) for an account of martyrs in (literary workhouses, where children Italy, from 1546 to 1560. A Papist, may be taught as well to do somew

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