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as an end, is a malevolent being. But tional intention of a sentence, to the evil that only cures itself, is simple power of the words of which it conevil. Here, then, again we perceive, sists, language will be deprived of its that to support the doctrine of a bene- faculty to convey any determinate volent causation of evil, it must be proposition ; it is resolved into an believed that sin will produce, to the enigmatical mass, in which all meansubject of it, a positive additional ad- ings may float, indifferently and at vantage beyond what could result large. Now, this is the very treatfrom an uninterrupted course of virtue. ment to which the language of the A little reflection will convince any Bible is every day subjected by theoone, that if evil does not produce a rists.”—“ God, in speaking to men higher good, it is pure evil; and to by man, as his instrument, must unchoose pure evil, we are told, is the questionably be understood as subproperty of a malevolent being. But mitting his message to the established if it be said that evil produces a higher usages of human communication. On good, it must do so either to the sub- this principle it is affirmed, that the ject of it, (that is, the sinner will be Divine veracity and our correlative the better for his sin,) or it must responsibility, are involved in the rule, procure this higher good to other that the opinion or intention which creatures ; but this is a supposition we should not fail to attribute to a which, we imagine, the favourers of profane writer, using such or such this final restitution could by no means expressions, are, without reference to allow, for there would then inevitably the nature of the doctrine therein follow the ideas of partiality, of the implied, to be received as the opinion subordination of individual interests or intention of the inspired writer who and of the Divine sovereignty. Indeed, does employ them. În proportion to it would be impossible, after such an the infinite moment of revealed truth, admission, to resist even Calvinism is the importance of adhering to the itself.” In pages 553 and 554 of the principle, that inspired persons spoke Review, there is some reasoning (on and wrote under the presumption that the acknowledged principles of human they should be heard and read as other nature) that might seem almost unan- men are heard and read; so that when swerable. I hope you will authorize they employ those uncompounded me to present it to the serious consi- forms of speech, which are ordinarily deration of your readers. Towards understood to convey an absolute the close of the article the Reviewer sense, they also shall be allowed to observes :-“We must briefly remark intend an absolute sense,' &c. &c. upon that part of Dr. Smith's volume, I fear trespassing on your pages, in which he adduces and discusses the Mr. Editor, and, therefore, cannot do evidence of Scripture upon the subject justice to the Reviewer's reasoning. I in hand. He employs many pages to should be happy to have your permisvery little purpose, as we think, in a sion to present to your readers more critical examination of the terms aion, of what appears to myself a very foraionios, apollumi, olethros, thanatos, midable argument on the interpretaand kolasis. No peculiar obscurity ap- tion of Scripture phraseology. pears to attach to any one of these · Bearing in mind the almost unqueswords. The power of language is by tionable conventional meaning of the no means solely or chiefly derived from terms used by our Lord, and his knowthe individual signification of words. ledge of the circumstances of his The intention of a writer or speaker is hearers, can we make the supposiprimarily ascertained on the ground tion that Jesus would use the lanof the CONVENTIONAL sense of words guage he did use in speaking of the taken in combination. The conven- future destinies of men, knowing the tional sense of certain phrases and truth of the doctrine of Universal Remodes of expression, is, of course, storation ?. The Reviewer justly remore determinate than that of indivi- marks, p. 558, “The passages of the dual words: if it were not so, as all gospel, whose apparent sense it is words have more or less extent of attempted to invalidate, should be meaning, thought could never be perused under the supposition that communicated. If we rust ever be our Lord, who is surely free from the retrograding from the obvious conven- imputation of a sinister design, uttered the threatenings recorded by the state ; namely, objects of faith and Evangelists, with the intention to sug- hope ; motives to vigilance and exergest or to favour the doctrine of tion; clear precepts and positive comUniversal Restoration; at least, if that mands; promises, for present comfort, doctrine be true, it could never be his of future rest and recompence. design to generate in the minds of his

QUERO. hearers an idea, not only absolutely false, but, as is pretended, highly in

ITALIAN REFORMATION. jurious to the Divine character, and

The Noneonformist. quite destructive of all the sanctions

No. XXIII. of morality,' &c.

(Continued from p. 6.) Dr. Smith and others speak in un Although some progress was made qualified terms of the impartiality of in the work of Reformation in the God's providence to the children of South of Italy, yet the success of the men : permit me, Mr. Editor, in con- causé, if it be measured by the numcluding this paper, to ask Dr. S., how ber and celebrity of the converts, was the frightful disparity of men in the much greater in the northern states. most important point, moral character The territories of Venice, in particular, and the means of its improvement, is became, at an early period, honourreconciled with any definite sense of ably distinguished by the attention the term impartial Dr. Smith has that was excited in them to the relialso, in his delightful views of Provi.

gious inquiries and controversies of dence, and his illustrations of its wis

the age. It appears, from a letter dom and benevolence, boldly asserted, written to Luther by Frobenius, a that, with respect to the moral world, printer at Basle, which is dated in every man is placed in circumstances, February, 1519, that, even previously adjusted with infinite nicety to his na- to this period, the writings of that tural powers and propensities. Where Reformer had been conveyed in conis the proof of this in fact? And if siderable numbers to Italy, where true, in fact, why does the moral they had been extensively dispersed, world exhibit its present motley as- and read with avidity and approbapect; why all its discordancy, its folly, tion. In the following year was its madness, its vices, its crimes ? issued the first Bull of Leo the Tenth Whence all the unfortunate results of against Luther and his writings, which birth, parentage and education? Why was sent to the Senate of Venice, with thousands and tens of thousands un- instructions to have it proclaimed in happy consequences of concomitant that city. The Senate were, however, circumstances, if the Deity has always in no haste to render themselves a good in view, and his providence with party in the quarrel. They thought it unerring wisdom has adapted every prudent, nevertheless, to make a show circumstance in the moral world to of compliance, and immediately a strict produce good? This may be true in search was instituted by the ecclesiasthe final issue of things, and our pre- tical authorities, after the publications sent ignorance and limited views pre- of Luther in the houses of the bookvent us knowing it ; but I submit to sellers : but, with the exception of a Dr. S., do present facts and appear- single imperfect copy of one of his ances bear out a proposition so per- works, which was seized, they found fectly satisfactory ? Much would that all that had been imported had many minds, besides my own, be re--lieved, Sir, by a clear proof of it. It * Gerdes, Speciinen Italiæ Reformatæ, appears to myself, Sir, that when we pp. 4, 5. Calvus bibliopola Papiensis, travel an inch out of the record, that vir eruditissimus, et musis sacer, bonam is, when we stir a step from Scrip libellorum partem in Italiam deportavit, ture tuition and guidance in our rea per omnes civitates sparsurus. Neque

enim tam sectatur lucrum, quam cupit soning on the ways of God, we are at once in a labyrinth, with endless error

renascenti pietati suppetias ferre, et qua

tenus potest, prodesse. Is promisit ab and perplexity before us: and it might omnibus eruditis in Italia viris Epigramseem a beautiful character of the wis- mata se missurum in tui laudem scripta, dom and excellence of Scripture, that usque adeo tibi favet, Christique negotio, it comprises precisely what human quod tanta constantia, tam viriliter tamnature appears to want in the present que dextrè geris.

been disposed of.* This proceeding but apparently served rather to extend did not, however, suppress the spirit and strengthen it. In 1524, Cardinal of inquiry which had been excited, Campejus, who attended the Diet of

Nuremburg that year as the Pope's

Nuncio, bitterly complained, not only • The circumstance is thus related by in respect

ted by in respect to Germany, that it had Bernardus Shenkius, a German monk, residing at the time at Venice, in a letter

embraced the doctrine of Luther, but to George Spalatinus, the Secretary of all

also of Italy, because, even at that Frederick. Elector of Saxóny, dated the period, the writings of Luther were 19th September. 1520 : Légi quæ de generally read at Venice. And he seems domino Martino Luther petiisti, et certè to have considered the case of the bona fama viri diù apud nos fuit ; dicunt Italians as even more hopeless than autem: Caveat sibi d Pontifice. Ante that of the Germans: for such, he duos menses decem libri de suis appor- remarks, was the genius of the Gertati, et statim venditi fuerant, antequam mans, that whilst they readily received novissem. In principio verò hujus mensis

novel opinions, they as readily abánsupervenit mandatum Papæ, et domini Patriarchæ Veneti, inhibens libros, quos

doned them ; but that what the Ita

lians had once embraced they steadily dominus Patriarcha apud librarios inves. tigando unicum imperfectum invenit, et

retained. * That the Cardinal's laabstulit. Ego habere desideravi, sed præ

mentations were not without good timore librarius non vult adducere.- grounds, may be collected from some Gerdes, ubi supra, p. 7.

documents relating to this period; Notwithstanding this show of vigour, from which it appears that numerous the publication of the Bull was posto converts had been gained over to the poned ; and, indeed, it seems doubtful cause of the Reformation in the Venewhether the first Bull was ever published tian States. Luther was apprised so at Venice. In the year following (1521) the early as the year 1528 of the existence publication of a Bull took place, but this of these Italian Reformers; and, in was probably the second Bull, which was

1542, he received a communication issued on the 6th January, in that year.

from them, in a letter which was writThe reluctance of the Senate to give their

ten by Balthasar Alterius, at that time sanction to this instrument, which excommunicated Luther, and all who pos

Secretary to the English legation at sessed his books, or favoured his opi- Venice, “in the name of the brethren,” nions, is evident from the manner in as they are styled, “ of Venice, Vinwhich they caused it to be made public cenza and Trevigio.” + Melancthon, in their city ; for they would not suffer it to be read until after the people had been confessed, and nearly the whole of in 1522. The date of the Pontificate is the congregation had quitted the church. right, being the eighth year, anno The circumstance is thus related by Shen- octavo." Leo was made Pope in 1513. kius, in a letter to Spalatinus, dated the #Bock, Hist. Antitrin. II. p. 396 ; Ger5th April, 1521 : Unum dolens dico, des, ubi supra, p. 8. Germanos eo esse quoniam Patriarcha Venetiarum secunda ingenio, ut nova cupide accipiant, sed et feria Paschæ, jussu Papæ, ab omnibus facile deponaut; Italos pertinaciter inprædicatoribus, fecit excommunicari Ma. hærere semel acceptis. gistrum Martinum Luther, et omnes ha + Seckendorf, L. iii. $ xcvii. pp. 401, bentes libros suos, quoscunque et fau- et seqq. ; Gerdes, pp. 61, et seqq. From tores ipsius cujuscunque gradus et status, this letter it appears that the friends of cum magna totius Germaniæ divisione, the Reformation in the Venetian States tanquam consentientis. In hoc tamen were at this time very narrowly watched, Domini Veneti prudenter egerunt, quod and that some of them had already been noluerunt hoc publicari, nisi postquam driven into exile.-Proscribuntur, the populus fuerat confessus, dimisso nempe writer states, multi, quorum aliqui in cotu, aut maxima ejus parte.-Gerdes, Cenobates (forte Genabates) secessisse ubi supra, p. 7; Seckendorf, Hist. Lu- dicuntur, quidam Basileam, et in Helvether, Lib. i. pp. 115, 116. A copy of tias, alii in finitimas regiones, plurimi the second Bull against Luther, printed capiuntur, ut perpetuo tandem carcere by the authority of the Papal Government contabescant : nullus tameri est qui eriat Rome, in 1546, is now before me. piat innocentem, qui judicium faciat pauThere is a singular error of the press in peri et orphano, qui patrocinetur gloriæ the date of this instrument, vigesimo Christi. Omnes in unum conspirarunt, TERTIO being inserted for vigesimo PRIMO. ut opprimant Dominnn et Unctum ejus, Leo the Tenth was succeeded by Adrian, nullibi autem magis sævit aut prævalet in 1538, addressed a letter to the Se. ficient reason, that the members of nate of Venice, from which it has been that venerable body were not unfriendly inferred, though probably without suf- to the cause of the Reformation. In

this epistle, the writer gives a brief

exposition of the principal doctrines hæc calamitas, quam hic, ubi totus viget which were professed by himself. and Antichristus.

the other German Reformers : but he In consequence of the danger and the

subjoins to this statement an admosufferings to which they were thus ex

nition to the Senators against the posed, these Reformers supplicate Luther to intercede for them with the German

tenets of Servetus, warning them not Protestant princes, in order to ipduce to permit such heresies to be promulthem to take up their cause and prevail gated in their territories. * on the Senate to allow them the free There is extant a curious document exercise of their religion, while they ab- which, if it be, as it purports, the stained from political offences :

genuine production of a sincere CaNam, cum tanta passi fueritis, ob eam tholic, may serve to shew, on the duntaxat causam, ut nomen Christi ad authority of its adversaries, the extent dos usque perveniret, non est credendum, and strength of the feeling which exquod cum agnoverimus illum, et sequa- isted in the North of Italy in favour mur, in medio pene cursu deseramur à

of the Reformation. This professes to vobis, quorum voce ad id vehementer incitati sumus, et ad huuc usque diem

be a letter addressed by Gerardus Busmirificè impellimur. Id autem est, quan

dragius, a suffragan Bishop in the diotum huc usque è Spiritu Christi colligere

cese of Padua, to Cardinal Pisano. potuimus, et fortasse vobis quoque non

The writer expresses his serious apdisplicebit, ut, quamprimum fieri poterit prehensions that the whole of Italy at Serenissimos Germaniæ Principes, qui would be shortly infested with what he ex nostra sunt parte, et eorum bonus est calls “the plague of Lutheranism;" numerus, auspice Christo, sicut à multis the inquisitors finding themselves, it accepimus, hanc rem totam deferatis, seems, unequal to the task of staying eosque per Christum rogetis, ut litteras

the ravages of the maliguant disease commendatitias ad Senatum Venetiarum

which was threatening the very existpro nobis conscribant, rogando monendoque ut sese temperent ab ea decernendi

ence of the Papal authority. This letlicentia, atque judicandi libidine, quam ministris Papæ tam inconsulto concessere ac quotidie sævius impertiuntur in pusillos Satan, were knowingly fighting against Christi sub prætextu fidei et religionis the truth. This language was afterwards impiè cruciandos, sed, permittant quem. sererely censured by Melancthon. Besides libet ritu suo vivere, dum tamen seditio, the references above noted, see De Porta, et publice quietis perturbatio caveatur, Hist. Reform. Eccles. Ræticarum, Tom. eamque rem ad generale concilium, quod I. Pt. ii. p. 10. ajunt, in promptu esse, licet nunquam * It has been doubted whether Mefuturum esse arbitremur, omnino referant, lancthon did actually address such a letinterim neminem cogi aut trahi ad fidem ter to the Venetian Senate, it appearing sinant.

unlikely that he should write in such In the course of this letter, the learned terms and upon such a subject to a body and pions writer took occasion, in the known to be attached to the interests of spirit of charity, to lament the disunion the See of Rome; and it has been conand the angry disputes which had been jectured that the report might have arisen excited among the Protestant Reformers from his having addressed a letter “ to in Germany and other places on the sub- some Venetians devoted to the study of ject of the Lord's Supper, and to recom- the gospel." Ad Venetos quosdam Eranmend to his correspondent to put an end gelii studiosos. But Bock saw the origito such dissensions. He learnt, however, nal edition of the letter referred to in the from Luther's answer, that his berevolent library of the University of Konigsberg. wish, on this head, was not likely to be It was printed at Nuremburg, in 1539, soon accomplished. The notice of the by Jerom Formschneider, and is intituled subject seems to have roused all the angry Epistola Philippi Melancthonis ad Senatum feelings of the Saxon Reformer against Venetum. Oratio publice habita Wittenhis opponents in this controversy ; for he bergæ in promotione Doctoris Juris. De particularly cautions the Italians against scripto Jure et Dignitate Veterum Interthe “ pestilent errors" of Bullenger, Bu- pretum Juris. Bock, ut supra, 11. pp. 397, cer and others, whom he stigmatizes as 398. De Porta, Hist. Reform. Eccles. false prophets, who, at the instigation of Ræticarum, Tom, I. Lib. ii. p. 63.

ter is dated the 15th December, 1558, dinand Emperor, and expresses his and the writer asserts, upon informa- wish that his Holiness would not furtion which he had been at considerable ther persecute the Lutherans with his pains to collect, that, antecedently to thunders, but would extend to them that time, nearly eight hundred per- the same toleration as he granted to sons, tainted with this contagious ma- the Greeks, and by this means prolady, had tied from Italy on account mote the peace and augment the treaof their religious opinions ; “among sures of the Church. Bock, who has whom,” he writes, “ are to be reck- given the preceding account of this oned some men of distinguished learn singular epistle, justly observes, that ing and sagacity.”

it wears more of the appearance of He next coinplains that those who a piece of satire, than of grave advice. yet remained in the country pursued It is, indeed, by some, and not without the same measures as their predeces. probability, attributed to Vergerius, sors, in promulgating their sentiments, who was one of the earliest of the by their discourses and the distribution agents sent by the Pope into Germany of books. “These men,” he observes, to oppose the proceedings of Luther, “ sadly harass our inquisitors: for but who afterwards gave up his bishopthey clandestinely penetrate the whole ric, and joined the Reformers.* of Italy, sometimes in person, and Although the states of Venice consometimes by their emissaries, who tained so great a number of persons disperse their books and sermons, and who had become converts to the docinfect more in one day than we are trines of the Reformation, it does not able, with all our inquisitions and appear that here, any more than in pains, to cure in a year." The zealous Naples, separate societies had been bishop, if such he were, then recom- formed for religious worship. The mends that, on account of their proved vigilance of the agents of the Inquisiinefficacy, they should thenceforth ab- tion, notwithstanding the restraints stain from the cruel proceedings of which were imposed upon their prothe Inquisition, by which, he states, ceedings by the Venetian Senate, renthat within a period of forty years, ordered it, no doubt, impossible for the since the beginning of the Reforma- Reformers to take so decisive and pubtion, more than one hundred thousand lic a step. The society which is stated persons had been put to death, without to have met at Vincenza, and to which effecting any thing towards healing the the origin of Socinianism is cominonly disorder which they were designed to ascribed, is probably not to be consiextirpate. He advises that a new ex- dered an exception to this remark. pedient should be tried, in order, if Mosheim, indeed, and with him some possible, to prevent the whole country other writers, doubt whether this from being contaminated. He pro- much-famed society had any real exposes that the Pope should interdict istence; but the reasons they assign all intercourse whatever between Italy for their scepticism are in the extreme and Geripany, so that no person from weak and inconclusive.f Very little one country should be allowed to visit is known of the constitution of this the other; “ in order," he writes, association. From the title of college, " that our Catholics may not know which is so generally applied to it, the what our enemies say, or, if they should presumption is, that it was founded be made acquainted with it, that they merely for conversation, or, for the should not at once adopt their opinions.” As, however, obvious obstacles suggested themselves, which would • Bock, ut supra, II. pp. 399, et seqq., render the execution of this plan im- Gerdes, Lib. cit. p. 9. practicable, he expresses himself ob

† Alterius, in the letter to Luther, liged to conclude that it was extremely

above referred to, expressly intimates difficult, if not wholly impossible, to

that they had no separate churches. His

words are :-Ubi nullas publice babepreserve Italy. He reproves the Ve

mus, sed quilibet sibi ipsi est Ecclesia, netians for crippling the powers of

pro cujusque arbitrio atque libidine, &c. the Inquisition in their states; com

The English reader will find these plains of Poland because it favoured reasons stated and discussed in the HisLutheranism; blames the Pope be- torical Introduction to Rees's Racovian cause he would not acknowledge Fer- Catechismu, pp. xxi. &c. Note.

VOL, XYIS.

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