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verse, discovers at last a wide gap in it, poem. The same observation might be which led into the creation, and is described applied to that beautiful digression upon as the opening through which the angels hypocrisy in the same book.

L. pass to and fro into the lower world, upon their errands to mankind. His sitting upon the brink of this passage, and taking a No. 316.] Monday, March 3, 1711-12. survey of the whole face of nature, that appeared to him new and fresh in all its Libertas; quæ sera, tamen respexit inertem. beauties, with the simile illustrating this

Virg. Ecl. i. 28. circumstance, fills the mind of the reader Freedom, which came at length, though slow to come with as surprising and glorious an idea as

Dryden. any that arises in the whole poem. He *MR. SPECTATOR,- If you ever read a looks down into that vast hollow of the uni- letter which is sent with the more pleasure verse with the eye, or (as Milton calls it in for the reality of its complaints, this may his first book) with the ken of an angel. have reason to hope for a favourable acHe surveys all the wonders in this immense ceptance; and if time be the most irretrievamphitheatre that lie between both the able loss, the regrets which follow will be poles of heaven, and takes in at one view thought, I hope, the most justifiable. The the whole round of the creation.

regaining of my liberty from a long state of His fight between the several worlds indolence and inactivity, and the desire of that shined on every side of him, with the resisting the farther encroachments of idle. particular description of the sun, are set ness, make me apply to you; and the unforth in all the wantonness of a luxuriant easiness with which I recollect the past imagination. His shape, speech, and be- years, and the apprehensions with which I haviour, upon his transforming himself into expect the future, soon determined me to an angel of light, are touched with exquisite it. Idleness is so general a distemper, that beauty. The poet's thought of directing I cannot but imagine a speculation on this Satan to the sun, which, in the vulgar subject will be of universal use. There is opinion of mankind, is the most conspicuous hardly any one person without some allay part of the creation, and the placing in it of it; and thousands besides myself spend an angel, is a circumstance very finely con- more time in an idle uncertainty which to trived, and the more adjusted to a poetical begin first of two affairs, than would have probability, as it was a received doctrine been sufficient to have ended them both. among the most famous philosophers, that The occasion of this seems to be the want every orb had its intelligence; and as an of some necessary employment, to put the apostle in sacred writ is said to have seen spirits in motion, and awaken them out of such an angel in the sun. In the answer their lethargy. If I had less leisure, I which the angel returns to the disguised should have more; for I should then find evil spirit, there is such a becoming ma- my time distinguished into portions, some jesty as is altogether suitable to a superior for business, and others for the indulging of being. The part of it in which he repre- pleasures; but now one face of indolence sents himself as present at the creation, is overspreads the whole, and I have no landvery noble in itself, and not only proper mark to direct myself by. Were one's time where it is introduced, but requisite to pre- a little straitened by business, like water pare the reader for what follows in the enclosed in its banks, it would have some seventh book:

determined course; but unless it be put into I saw when at his word the formless mass,

some channel it has no current, but becomes This world's material mould, came to a heap:

a deluge without either use or motion. Confusion heard his voice, and wild Uproar

•When Scanderbeg, Prince of Epirus, Stood rul'd, stood vast infinitude confin'd; Till at his second bidding Darkness fled,

was dead, the Turks, who had but too often Light shone, &c.

felt the force of his arm in the battles he

had won from them, imagined that by wearIn the following part of the speech he ing a piece of his bones near their heart, points out the earth with such circum- they should be animated with a vigour and stances, that the reader can scarce forbear force like to that which inspired him when fancying himself employed on the same living. As I am like to be but of little use distant view of it.

whilst I live, I am resolved to do what good Look downward on that globe, whose hither side

I can after my decease; and have accordWith light from hence, though but reflected, shines; ingly ordered 'my bones to be disposed of That place is earth, the seat of man, that light in this manner for the good of my counHis day, &c.

trymen, who are troubled with too exorbiI must not conclude my reflections upon tant degree of fire. All fox-hunters, this third book of Paradise Lost, without upon wearing me, would in a short time be taking notice of that celebrated complaint brought to endure their beds in a morning, of Milton with which it opens, and which and perhaps even quit them with regret at certainly deserves all the praises that have ten. "Instead of hurrying away to tease a been given it; though, as I have before poor animal, and run away from their own hinted, it may rather be looked upon as an thoughts, a chair or a chariot would be excrescence than as an essential part of the thought the most desirable means of performing a remove from one place to an-, acquired his eloquence. Seneca in his let. other. I should be a cure for the unnatural / ters to Lucilius assures him there was not desire of John Trot for dancing, and a spe- a day in which he did not either write cific to lessen the inclination Mrs. Fidget something, or read and epitomize some good has to motion, and cause her always to give author; and I remember Pliny in one of his her approbation to the present place she letters, where he gives an account of the is in. In fine, no Egyptian mummy was various methods he used to fill up every ever half so useful in physic, as I should be vacancy of time, after several employments to these feverish constitutions, to repress which he enumerates; “Sometimes,” says the violent sallies of youth, and give each he, “I hunt : but even then I carry with action its proper weight and repose. me a pocket-book, that whilst my servants

'I can stifle any violent inclination, and are busied in disposing of the nets and other oppose a torrent of anger, or the solicita- matters, I may be employed in something tions of revenge, with success. Indolence that may be useful to me in my studies; is a stream which flows slowly on, but yet and that if I miss of my game, I may at the undermines the foundation of every virtue. least bring home some of my own thoughts A vice of a more lively nature were a more with me, and not have the mortification of desirable tyrant than this rust of the mind, having caught nothing all day.” which gives a tincture of its nature to every •Thus, sir, you see how many examples action of one's life. It were as little hazard I recall to mind, and what arguments I use to be lost in a storm, as to lie thus perpe- with myself to regain my liberty: but as I tually becalmed: and it is to no purpose to am afraid it is no ordinary persuasion that have within one the seeds of a thousand good will be of service, I shall expect your qualities, if we want the vigour and resolu- thoughts on this subject with the greatest tion necessary for the exerting them. Death impatience, especially since the good will brings all persons back to an equality; and not be confined to me alone, but will be of this image of it, this slumber of the mind, universal use. For there is no hope of leaves no difference between the grcatest amendment where men are pleased with genius, and the meanest understanding. A their ruin, and whilst they think laziness faculty of doing things remarkably praise-is a desirable character; whether it be that worthy, thus concealed, is of no more use they like the state itself, or that they think to the owner than a heap of gold to the man it gives them a new lustre when they do who dares not use it.

exert themselves, seemingly to be able to • To-morrow is still the fatal time when do that without labour and application, all is to be rectified. To-morrow comes, it which others attain to but with the greatest goes, and still I please myself with the diligence. I am, sir, your most obliged humshadow, whilst I lose the reality: unmind- ble servant, SAMUEL SLACK.' ful that the present time alone is ours, the future is yet unborn, and the past is dead,

Clytander to Cleone. and can only live (as parents in their chil- •Madam,-Permission to love you is all dren,) in the actions it has produced. that I desire, to conquer all the difficulties,

• The time we live ought not to be com- those about you place in my way, to surputed by the number of years, but by the mount and acquire all those qualifications use that has been made of it; thus, it is you expect in him who pretends to the not the extent of ground, but the yearly honour of being, madam, your most devoted rent, which gives the value to the estate. humble servant, Wretched and thoughtless creatures, in the Z.

•CLYTANDER.' only place where covetousness were a virtue, we turn prodigals! Nothing lies upon our hands with such uneasiness, nor have No. 317.] Tuesday, March 4, 1711-12. there been so many devices for any one thing, as to make it slide away impercepti- -Fruges consumere nati. Hor. Ep. ii. Lib. 1. 27. bly and to no purpose. A shilling shall be -Born to drink and eat. Creech. hoarded up with care, whilst that which is above the price of an estate is flung away death, asked his friends who stood about

AUGUSTUS, a few minutes before his with disregard and contempt. There is him, if they thought he had acted his part nothing now-a-days, so much avoided, as a solicitous improvement of every part of well; and upon receiving such an answer time; it is a report must be shunned as one

as was due to his extraordinary merit, 'Let tenders the name of a wit

and a fine genius me, then,' says he, 'go off the stage with and as one fears the dreadful character of your applause;' using the expression with a laborious plodder: but notwithstanding at the conclusion of a dramatic piece. I

which the Roman actors made their exit this, the greatest wits any age has pro- could wish that men, while they are in duced thought far otherwise; for who can health, would consider well the nature of think either Socrates or Demosthenes lost any reputation by their continual pains both the part they are engaged in, and what in overcoming the defects and improving figure it will make in the minds of those the gifts of natureAll are acquainted with they leave behind them, whether it was the labour and assiduity with which Tully

* Vos valete et plaudite.

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worth coming into the world for; whether Hours ten, eleven, and twelve. Smoked it be suitable to a reasonable being; in short, three pipes of Virginia. Read the Supplewhether it appears graceful in this life, or ment and Daily Courant. Things go 'isi in will turn to an advantage in the next. Let the north. Mr. Nisby's opinion thereupon. the sycophant, or the buffoon, the satirist, One o'clock in the afternoon. Chid Ralph or the good companion, consider with him- for mislaying my tobacco-box. self, when his body shall be laid in the Two o'clock. 'Sat down to dinner. Mem. grave, and his soul pass into another state Too many plumbs, and no suet. of existence, how much it will redound to From three to four. Took my afternoon's his praise to have it said of him that no nap. man in England ate better, that he had an From four to six, Walked in the fields, admirable talent at turning his friends into Wind S. S. E. ridicule, that nobody out-did him at an ill

From six to ten. At the Club, Mr. natured jest, or that he never went to bed Nisby's opinion about the peace. before he had despatched his third bottle. Ten o'clock. Went to bed, slept sound. These are, however, very common funeral orations and eulogiums on deceased per

TUESDAY, being holiday, eight o'clock, sons who have acted among mankind with

rose as usual. some figure and reputation.

Nine o'clock. Washed hands and face, But if we look into the bulk of our spe

shaved, put on my double-soled shoes. cies, they are such as are not likely to be

Ten, eleven, twelve. Took a walk to remembered a moment after their disap

Islington. pearance. They leave behind them no

One. Took a pot of Mother Cob's mild. traces of their existence, but are forgotten

Between two and three. Returned, dined

on a knuckle of veal and bacon, Mem. as though they had never been. They are neither wanted by the poor, regretted by Sprouts wanting. the rich, nor celebrated by the learned.

Three. Nap as usual.
They are neither missed in the common the news. A dish of twist. Grand vizier

From four to six. Coffee-house, Read wealth, nor lamented by private persons. Their actions are of no significancy to man

strangled. kind, and might have been performed by

From six to ten. At the club. Mr. Niscreatures of much less dignity than those by's account of the Great Turk. who are distinguished by the faculty of rea

Ten. Dream of the grand vizier. Broken son. An eminent French author speaks

. somewhere to the following purpose: I WEDNESDAY, eight o'clock. Tongue have often seen from my chamber win- of my shoe-buckle broke. Hands but not dow two noble creatures, both of them of face. an erect countenance and endowed with Nine. Paid off the butcher's bill. Mem. reason. These two intellectual beings are To be allowed for the last leg of mutton. employed from morning to night in rubbing Ten, eleven. At the Coffee-house. More two smooth stones one upon another; that work in the north. Stranger in a black wig is, as the vulgar phrase is, in polishing asked me how stocks went. marble.

From twelve to one. Walked in the My friend, Sir Andrew Freeport, as we fields. Wind to the south. were sitting in the club last night, gave us From one to two. Smoked a pipe and a an account of a sober citizen, who died a half. few days since. This honest man being of Two. Dined as usual. Stomach good. greater consequence in his own thoughts Three. Nap broke by the falling of a than in the eye of the world, had for some pewter dish. Mem. Cook-maid in love, years past kept a journal of his life. Sir An- and grown careless. drew showed us one week of it. Since the From four to six. At the coffee-house. occurrences set down in it mark out such a Advice from Smyrna that the grand vizier road of action as that I have been speaking was first of all strangled, and afterwards of, I shall present my reader with a faith- beheaded. ful copy of it; after having first informed Six o'clock in the evening. Was half him, that the deceased person had in his an hour in the club before any body else youth been bred to trade, but finding him- came. Mr. Nisby of opinion that the self not so well turned for busincss, he had grand vizier was not strangled the sixth for several years last past lived altogether instant. upon a moderate annuity.*

Ten at night. Went to bed. Slept withMonday, eight o'clock. I put on my out waking until nine the next morning. clothes and walked into the parlour. THURSDAY, nine o'clock. Staid within

Nine o'clock ditto. Tied my knee-strings, until two o'clock for Sir 'Timothy; who did and washed my hands.

not bring me my annuity according to his It has been conjectured that this journal was in. prcmise. tended to ridicule a gentleman who was a member of Two in the afternoon. Sat down to dinthe congregation named Independents, where a Mr. Nes. bit officiated

as minister. See John Dunton's account ner. Loss of appetite. Small-beer sour. of his Life, Errors and Opinions.

Beef over-corned.

speaks sleep

Three. Could not take my nap. No. 318.] Wednesday, March 5, 1711-12.

Four and five. Gave Ralph a box on the ear. Turned off my cook-maid. Sent a

-non omnia possumus omnes.

Virg. Ecl. viii. 63. messenger to Sir Timothy. Mem. I did not go to the club to night. Went to bed at

With different talents form'd, we variously excel. nine o'clock.

•MR. SPECTATOR, -A certain vice, Friday. Passed the morning in medita- yet been considered by you as growing so

which you have lately attacked, has not tion upon Sir Timothy, who was with me a deep in the heart of man, that the affectaquarter before twelve. Twelve o'clock. Bought a new head to have observed, that men who have been

tion outlives the practice of it. You must my cane, and a tongue to my buckle. Drank bred in arms preserve to the most extreme a glass of purl to recover appetite.

and feeble old age, a certain daring in their Two and three. Dined and slept well. From four to six. Went to the coffee, passed their time in gallantry and adven

aspect. In like manner, they who have house. Met Mr. Nisby there. Smoked ture, keep up, as well as they can, the apseveral pipes. Mr. Nisby of opinion that pearance of it, and carry a petulant inclilaced coffee is bad for the head.

nation to their last moments. Let this Six o'clock. At the club as steward. serve for a preface to a relation I am going Sat late. Twelveo'clock. Went to bed, dreamt that not only been amorous, and a follower of

to give you of an old beau in town, that has I drank small beer with the grand vizier, women in general, but also, in spite of the SATURDAY. Waked at eleven, walked sixty-third year to his present seventieth,

admonition of grey hairs, been from his in the fields, wind N. E, Twelve. Caught in a shower.

in an actual pursuit of a young lady, the One in the afternoon. Returned home

wife of his friend, and a man of merit. The and dried myself.

gay old Escalus has wit, good health, and Two. Mr. Nisby dined with me. First is perfectly well-bred; but from the fashion course, marrow-bones; second, ox-cheek, his bloom, has such a natural tendency to

and manners of the court when he was in with a bottle of Brooks and Hellier, Three. Overslept myself.

amorous adventure, that he thought it Six. Went to the club. Like to have make no use of a familiarity he was allowed

would be an endless reproach to him to fallen into a gutter, Grand vizier certainly dead, &c.

at a gentleman's house, whose good hu

mour and confidence exposed his wife to I question not but the reader will be sur- the addresses of any who should take it in prised to find the above-mentioned journal- their head to do him the good office. It is ist taking so much care of a life that was not impossible that Escalus might also refilled with such inconsiderable actions, and sent that the husband was particularly nereceived so very small improvements; and gligent of him; and though he gave many yet, if we look into the behaviour of many intiinations of a passion towards the wife, whom we daily converse with, we shall find the husband either did not see them, or put that most of their hours are taken up in him to the contempt of overlooking them. those three important articles of eating, In the mean time Isabella, for so we shall drinking, and sleeping. I do not suppose

call our heroine, saw his passion, and rethat a man loses his time, who is not en-joiced in it, as a foundation for much divergaged in public affairs, or in an illustrious sion, and an opportunity of indulging hercourse of action. On the contrary, I believe self in the dear delight of being admired, our hours may very often be more profit- addressed to, and Aattered, with no ilí ably laid out in such transactions as make consequence to her reputation. This lady no figure in the world, than in such as are is of a free and disengaged behaviour, apt to draw upon them the attention of ever in good-humour, such as is the image mankind. One may become wiser and bet- of innocence with those who are innocent, ter by several methods of employing one's and an encouragement to vice with those self in secrecy and silence, and do what is who are abandoned. From this kind of laudable without noise or ostentation. I carriage, and an apparent approbation of would, however, recommend to every one his gallantry, Escalus had frequent opporof my readers, the keeping a journal of tunities of laying amorous epistles in her their lives for one week, and setting down way, of fixing his eyes attentively upon her punctually their whole series of employ- actions, of performing a thousand little ofments during that space of time. This fices which are neglected by the unconcernkind of self-examination would give them ed, but are so many approaches towards a true state of themselves, and incline them happiness with the enamoured. It was to consider seriously what they are about. now, as is above hinted, almost the end of One day would rectify the omissions of the seventh year of his passion, when Esanother, and make a man weigh all those calus, from general terms, and the ambiguo indifferent actions, which though they are easily forgotten, must certainly be account

• The motto to this paper in folio was, ed for.

L

Rideat, et pulset lasciva decentius ætas'-Ho

ous respect which criminal lovers retain in ness has not destroyed the esteem I had for their addresses, began to bewail that his you, which was confirmed by so many years passion grew too violent for him to answer of obstinate virtue. You have reason to reany longer for his behaviour towards her, joice that this did not happen within the and that he hoped she would have consi- observation of one of the young fellows, who deration for his long and patient respect, would have exposed your weakness, and to excuse the emotions of a heart now no gloried in his own brutish inclinations. longer under the direction of the unhappy “I am, Madam, your most devoted humowner of it. Such, for some months, had ble servant,” been the language of Escalus, both in his talk and his letters to Isabella, who re- returned the following answer;

'Isabella, with the help of her husband, turned all the profusion of kind things which had been the collection of fifty years, “SIR, I cannot but account myself a with “I must not hear you; you will make very happy woman, in having a man for a me forget that you are a gentleman; I would lover that can write so well, and give so not willingly lose you as a friend;" and the good a turn to a disappointment. Another like expressions, which the skilful inter- excellence you have above all other prepret to their own advantage, as well know- tenders I ever heard of; on occasions where ing that a feeble denial is a modest assent. the most reasonable men lose all their reaI should have told you, that Isabella, during son, you have yours most powerful. We the whole progress of this amour, commu- have each of us to thank our genius that nicated it to her husband; and that an ac- the passion of one abated in proportion count of Escalus's love was their usual en-as that of the other grew violent. Does it tertainment after half a day's absence. not yet come into your head to imagine, Isabella therefore, upon her lover's late that I knew my compliance was the greatmore open assaults, with a smile told her est cruelty I could be guilty of towards husband she could hold out no longer, but you? In return for your long and faithful that his fate was now come to a crisis. After passion, I must let you know that you are she had explained herself a little farther, old enough to become a little more gravity; with her husband's approbation, she pro- but if you will leave me, and coquet it any ceeded in the following manner. The next where else, may your mistress yield. time that Escalus was alone with her, and T.

“ISABELLA.” repeated his importunity, the crafty Isabella looked on her fan with an air of great attention, as considering of what impor. No. 319.] Thursday, March 6, 1711-12. tance such a secret was to her; and upon the repetition of a warm expression, she looked at him with an eye of fondness, and told

Hor. Ep. i. Lib. 1. 90. him he was past that time of life which

Say while they change on thus, what chains can bind could make her fear he would boast of a These varying forms, this Proteus of the mind ? lady's favour; then turned away her head, with a very well acted confusion, which I HAVE endeavoured in the course of my favoured the escape of the aged Escalus. papers to do justice to the age, and have This adventure was matter of great plea- taken care, as much as possible, to keep santry to Isabella and her spouse; and they myself a neuter between both sexes. I have had enjoyed it two days before Escalus neither spared the ladies out of complaicould recollect himself enough to form the sance, nor the men out of partiality, but following letter:

notwithstanding the great integrity with

which I have acted in this particular, I “MADAM, What happened the other find myself taxed with an inclination to faday gives me a lively image of the incon- vour my own half of the species. Whether sistency of human passions and inclinations. it be that the women afford a more fruitful We pursue what we are denied, and place field for speculation, or whether they run our affections on what is absent, though we more in my head than the men, I cannot neglected it when present. As long as you tell; but I shall set down the charge as it refused my love, your refusal did so strongly is laid against me in the following letter. excite my passion, that I had not once the leisure to think of recalling my reason to aid • MR. SPECTATOR, -I always make one me against the design upon your virtue. among a company of young females, who But when that virtue began to comply in peruse your speculations every morning. I my favour, my reason made an effort over am at present commissioned by our whole my love, and let me see the baseness of my assembly to let you know, that we fear you behaviour in attempting a woman of honour. are a little inclined to be partial towards I own to you, it was not without the 'most your own sex. We must, however, acviolent struggle that I gained this victory knowledge, with all due gratitude, that in over myself; nay, I will confess my shame, some cases you have given us our revenge and acknowledge, I could not have pre on the men, and done us justice. We could yailed but by flight. However, madam, 1 not easily have forgiven you several strokes beg that you will believe a moment's weak- I in the dissection of the coquette's heart, if II.

2

Quo teneam vultus mutantem Protea nodo?

Francis.

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