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den, the Commissioners on the part of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands.
“The treaty, it will be observed, does not attempt to deal in detail with questions that grow out of the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands to the United States. The Commissioners representing the Hawaiian Government have consented to leave to the future and to the just and benevolent purpose of the United States the adjustment of all such questions.
"I do not deem it necessary to discuss at any length the conditions which have resulted in this decisive action. It has been the policy of the Administration to not only respect but to encourage the continuance of the independent Government in the Hawaiian Islands so long as it afforded suitable guaranty for the protection of life and property and maintained a stability and strength that gave adequate security against the domination of any other power.
“The moral support of this Government has continually manifested itself in most friendly diplomatic relations and in many acts of courtesy to the Hawaiian rulers. The overthrow of the monarchy was not in any way prompted by this Government, but had its origin in what seems to have been a reactionary and revolutionary policy on the part of Queen Liliuokalani, which put in serious peril not only the large and preponderating interests of the United States in the Islands, but all foreign affairs, and indeed the decent administration of civil affairs and the peace of the Islands. It is quite evident that the monarchy had become effete, and the Queen's Government so weak and inadequate as to be the prey of designing and unscrupulous persons. The restoration of Queen Liliuokalani to the throne is undesirable, if not impossible, and unless actively supported by the United States, would be accompanied by serious disaster and the disorganization of all business interests.
“The influence and interest of the United States in the Islands must be increased, not diminished. Only two courses are now open: one, the establishment of a protectorate by the United States, and the other, annexation, full and complete.
"I think the latter course, which has been adopted in the treaty, will be highly promotive of the best interests of the Hawaiian people, and is the only one that will secure the interests of the United States. These interests are not wholly selfish. It is essential that none of the other great powers secure these islands. Such a possession would not be consistent with our safety and with the peace of the world.
"This view of the situation is so apparent and conclusive that no protest has been heard from any Government, and I think there is a general concurrence in the opinion that the Queen ought not to be restored. Prompt action on this treaty is very desirable if it meets the approval of the Senate. Peace and good order will be secured in the islands under the existing laws until such time as Congress can provide by legislation a permanent form of government for the islands. This legislation should be, and I do not doubt will be, not only just to the natives and all other residents and citizens of the islands, but should be characterized by great liberality and high regard to the rights of the people and all foreigners domiciled there. The correspondence which accompanies the treaty will put the Senate in possession of all the facts kuown to the Executive.
“BENJAMIN HARRISON. "Executive Mansion, Washington, D. C., 1
February 15, 1893.”
The documents laid before the Senate also contain the hitherto unpublished protest addressed by the exQueen to the President, which reads as follows:
“His Excellency Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States—MY GREAT AND GOOD FRIEND: It is with deep regret that I address you on this occasion. Some of my subjects, aided by aliens, have renounced their loyalty and revolted against the Constitutional Government of my kingdom. They have attempted to depose me and establish a Provisional Government in direct conflict with the organic law of this Kingdom. Upon receiving incontestable proof that His Excellency the Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States aided and abetted their unlawful movements, and caused United States troops to be landed for the purpose, I submitted to force, believing that he would
not have acted in that manner unless by the author- ity of the Government which he represents.
“This action on my part was prompted by three reasons: The futility of a conflict with the United States, the desire to avoid violence, bloodshed, and the destruction of life and property, and the certainty which I feel that you and your Government will right whatever wrongs may have been inflicted upon us in the premises. In due time a statement of the true facts relating to this matter will be laid before you, and I live in the hope that you will judge uprightly and justly between myself and my enemies. This appeal is not made for myself personally, but for my people, who have hitherto always enjoyed the friendship and protection of the United States.
“My opponents have taken the only vessel which could be obtained here for that purpose, and hearing of their intention to send a delegation of their number to present their side of this conflict before you, I requested the favor of sending by the same vessel an envoy to you to lay before you my statement as the facts appear to me and my loyal subjects. This request has been refused, and I now ask you that, in justice to myself and to my people, that no steps be taken by the Government of the United States until my cause can be heard by you. I shall be able to dispatch an envoy about the 2d day of February, as that will be the first available opportunity hence, and he will reach you with every possible haste, that there may be no delay in the settlement of this matter.
"I pray you, therefore, my good friend, that you will not allow any conclusions to be reached by you
until my envoy arrives. I beg to assure you of the continuance of my highest consideration.
“LILIUOKALANI, R. “ Honolulu, January 18, 1893."
Paul Neuman and the Prince arrived in Washington on the night of February 17, 1893.
On February 22d, Princess Kaiulani and suite left England for Washington. The Princess arrived in New York March 1st, and on the 11th was tendered a reception by President and Mrs. Cleveland.
On March 9th, Cleveland sent his first executive communication to the Senate. In it he withdrew the treaty with Hawaii sent to the Senate a few weeks before by Mr. Harrison. The message was short, simply requesting the Senate to transmit to the Executive the proposed treaty with Hawaii.
James H. Blount, ex-Congressman from Georgia, Executive Commissioner to Hawaii, left San Francisco in the revenue cutter Rush for Honolulu, March 20th. · The Princess Kaiulani left New York for England March 22d.
On April 1st, shortly after the arrival of Commissioner Blount at the Hawaiian Islands, and by his order, the Hawaiian flag was raised over the Government Building. The United States troops were sent back to the Boston.
May 10th, James H. Blount was appointed United States Minister to Hawaii.