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He was succeeded by his brother Kamehameha V., who gave liberal aid to the Roman Catholic mission and its schools. He died in 1872.
Thus ended the grandest and noblest savage dynasty that ever lived; and their descendants, the princesses, Ruth Keelikolani, Queen Emma, and Mrs. C. R. Bishop, were women which history may be proud to chronicle.
I hear a voice at my side saying, “ A lot of ignorant Kanakas.” Kanaka, translated, means "man”-a lot of ignorant men, forsooth! Many of the rising generation are well-educated. A few of them speak French well enough to be understood by a courtier; can translate Horace, s'il vous plait, know something of Euclid, and are good musicians, her Majesty the Queen being no mean composer.
Now, as the English say to an -over-forward child, “Retenir votre langue!” It is wiser employment, my friend, than detracting from “ your neighbors.”
Lunalilo was elected in 1873, Kalakaua in 1874.
On the death of her brother, January 20, 1891, Princess Liliuokalani became queen of Hawaii. The heirapparent is Princess Kaiulani, now being educated in England, daughter of the late Princess Likelike, younger sister of Kalakaua and wife of Hon. Archibald S. Cleghorn, a Scotchman, Port Collector-General of Hawaii, and Governor of Oahu.
The first missionaries came in 1820, and found a nation without a religion, and the work was begun at once. In forty years the entire Hawaiian nation was taught Christianity, besides learning to read and write, to cipher and to sew. But there was good material to work with-never the like in any known heathen land, —and the finest climate the sun ever shone upon! A guileless, happy, laughter-loving, flower-loving, songloving, willing-to-be-taught race, with hands and feet and heart eager to help on the work! No dearth of fruit in the valleys and on the hill-sides—no scarcity of fish-no lack of water.
This chain of islands runs from southeast to northwest, and lies in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. While the largest of the group, Hawaii, has an area of nearly 5,000 square miles, the next largest, Kauai, has but 780, Maui 750, Oahu 600, Niihau, the smallest of the seven, 110. There are a few islets. The entire population is about 90,000. Cook found a race numbering upwards of 400,000, but at the close of the reign of Kamehameha the Great (1819), it was depleted by wars to half that number. The race, no one can deny, is dying out, not more than 40,000 full natives and half-castes now existing
These islands are of volcanic origin, and contain the largest volcanoes, both active and quiescent, in the world. The most prominent physical features of the group are the two lofty mountain peaks of Hawaii, Mauna Kea (white mountain), and Mauna Loa (long mountain), each of which is 14,000 feet in height. There is always snow on the tops of these mountains.
Kilauea, on the Mauna Loa mountain, the largest active volcano in the world, has a crater nine miles in circumference, and is 6,000 feet above sea-level. On Maui, the crater of Hale-a-ka-la (House of the Sun), by far the largest extinct crater known, is nearly thirty miles in circumference, and stands 10,000 feet above sea-level. The channels between the islands are very rough, and there are few good harbors, Honolulu being the chief one.
The climate is never too hot nor too cold, never much below 70° nor above 90°, the year round. They are not close to the Equator, but just inside the tropical belt, between the 19th and 23d parallels of latitude, and extend from longitude 155° to 161o. They are about 2,000 miles from Tahiti, and twice that from the Colonies; 2,100 miles from San Francisco -one week's sail by steamer, and two by sailingvessel. They are alone in mid-ocean, with a climate all their own, and none exactly like it on the face of the earth!
To be overcome by the heat-sun-struck—is a thing unknown. It is not perfectly dry all summer, nor perfectly wet all winter! It is simply “Fairyland”“Rainbowland”-a land of perfect rest and reposea land of color—a land of magnificent hills, cloudtopped, of a thousand valleys and ravines, of streams and waterfalls, of glorious sea and sky, “Where the new-comer, in deathless summer, dreams away troubles.”
It will rain in summer-time if it choose-gentle, filmy, sunshiny showers, light enough for a new baby's uncovered head to bear! Or it will storm, perchance, (but never cold)—a beating, tearing, threshing, wild storm of wind, with torrents, floods of water, when all the clouds, from mountain and horizon will meet, and form in solid ranks, to pour their contents down! In a few hours streams will become rivers and swell to the level of bridges ; cataracts will go 'dashing down into the valleys, and native huts will spin and whirl, with trees and branches for their companions,“adown the brimming river"! Thunder and lightning will be heard all night, from every point of the heavens, and all nature will be in an uproar. But“ presto, change!” and lo! the clouds are parted, and swift the war-ships of the sky retreat to the hills again, and back down to the horizon. The cannonading has ceased; and they are silent and satisfied, looking down approvingly at their world, whose face they have washed so clean! The sun marches grandly on, smiling to see how soon all is dry once more! And when the moon steps softly up at night, with all the smaller star-shaped moons and twinkling children in her train, they, too, delight in this wonderful work of the storm-and think it is the fairest, freshest, daintiest world their eyes ever beheld in all their wanderings!
“The rain is o'er-how dense and bright
Yon pearly clouds reposing lie!
Contrasting with the dark blue sky!
In grateful silence earth receives
The general blessing; fresh and fair,
As glad the common joy to share.
The softened sunbeams pour around
A fairy light, uncertain, pale ;
Is breathing odors on the gale.
Mid yon rich clouds' voluptuous pile,
Methinks some spirit of the air,
Then turn to bathe and revel there.
The sun breaks forth--from off the scene,
Its floating veil of mist is flung;
With trembling drops of light is hung."
And how does it rain in winter? Well, it rains for matins, and for evensong, great splashing drops, with masses of white, fluffy clouds-sunshine and magnificent rainbows. They span the sky, morning and night, day by day! It rains all night, and never a drop by day; and it rains all day, and never a drop by night; and "King Kona” comes a few times before and after Christmas, and may be there will be a “spell of weather” when, for days and days, not a drop can be squeezed or wrung from the sky, and "the oldest inhabitant” never recollected anything like it!
Never was there a better sugar-producing country120,000 tons shipped to San Francisco in the four months from December to April, 1891! Yes, sugar is king at these islands, and everything else must give way to its sway. The plantations are confined to the four larger islandsHawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu. These absorb all the great business interests of the