Design of Speech-based Devices: A Practical Guide

Portada
Springer Science & Business Media, 2002 M10 30 - 179 páginas

Developments in technology have made it possible for speech output to be used in place of the more usual visual interface in both domestic and commercial devices. Speech can be used in situations where visual attention is occupied, such as when driving a car, or where a task is complex and traditional visual interfaces are not effective, such as programming a video recorder. Speech can also be employed in specialist adaptations for visually impaired people.

However, the use of speech has not been universally successful, possibly because the speech interaction is poorly designed. Speech is fundamentally different from text, and a lot of the problems may arise due to simplified text-to-speech conversion. Design of Speech-based Devices considers the problems associated with speech interaction, and offers practical solutions.

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Contenido

Introduction
5
11 Evolution of Speech Synthesis
6
13 Copy Synthesis
9
14 Applications
10
15 Applications for Blind People
13
16 Limitations of Current Design Methods
16
Background and Previous Research
17
21 Pausing and Rhythm
19
53 Questions
87
531 YesNo Questions
88
532 Alternative Questions
90
533 Wh Questions
91
55 Summary
93
Presenting Lists and Menus
95
62 Organizing Lists and Menus to Aid Memorization
96
63 List Size and Memorability
98

22 Intonation
23
23 New versus Given Information
26
24 Length of Utterance
27
242 The Modality Effect
29
243 The Auditory Suffix Effect
30
244 Summary
31
26 Effects of Speech Quality
33
27 Summary and Conclusions
35
Interaction Design
37
32 User Selection versus Designer Direction
38
33 Determining Relevance
39
34 The Role of Expectation
43
35 Giving the Listener Control
47
351 Mute Key
48
352 Repeat Key
49
36 Conclusions
52
Dialogue Design
55
42 Designing Nonspeech Responses
56
43 Designing Speech Segments
58
44 Major and Minor Sentences
60
45 Example of Designing Utterances for an Interactive System
62
46 Choice of Phrasing
63
47 Avoiding Ambiguity
64
Words which Sound Alike
66
473 Words with More than One Pronunciation
67
474 Abbreviations
68
48 Personality
69
49 Presenting Numbers
71
410 Summary
74
Presenting Individual Speech Dialogues
77
52 Statements
81
521 Intonation Patterns
82
522 Rhythm and Stress
85
64 A Speechbased Listsearching Tool
101
65 Using Prosody to Convey Structure and Context
103
66 Using Priming Information
108
68 Summary
112
Case Studies
115
721 Operation
116
722 Requirements
117
723 Analysis
118
724 Nonspeech Sounds
119
725 Recommendations
120
726 Summary
121
73 The SpeakEasy NT Voicemail System
122
732 Sending Voicemails
125
733 Leaving Messages
126
734 Summary
127
741 Considerations
130
742 Design
133
744 Implementation
138
745 Summary
139
Future Trends
141
83 Speech as an Alternative Channel of Communication
142
84 Applications for Users with Special Needs
144
85 Speech and Mobile Devices
146
86 Avatars
148
87 Unsolved Problems and Issues
151
88 Conclusions
153
List of Homophones
155
Words with More than One Meaning
165
Words with More than One Pronunciation
168
References
171
Index
179
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